TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Introduction to Scripting Address Book

Volume Number: 21 (2005)
Issue Number: 10
Column Tag: Programming

AppleScript Essentials

Introduction to Scripting Address Book

by Benjamin S. Waldie

If you have a large number of contacts in your contact management application, then you are probably already aware that maintaining your existing contacts, adding new ones, removing outdated ones, etc., can quickly become a time consuming process. Yet again, AppleScript is ready to come to your rescue. Using AppleScript and Address Book in Mac OS X, you can begin to automate the process of adding and removing contacts, creating groups, and even more.

Throughout this article, we will discuss a number of techniques for automating aspects of Address Book in Mac OS X. Once you have an understanding of these basic techniques, you can begin combining them together, in order to automate your contact management workflow on a larger scale.

Figure 1 shows an example of an Address Book person, which has been created and added to a new group, all with AppleScript. The code that was used to create this entry and group was developed using the example code snippets that are provided throughout this article.

Please note that all code specified in this article was developed using Address Book version 4.0.2 in Mac OS X 10.4.x Tiger. Due to AppleScript terminology changes between versions of Address Book, some code may be slightly different, or may not function properly if you are using an older version of Address Book.

Working with People

Making a New Person

To create a new person in Address Book, use the make command, which can be found in the Standard Suite in Address Book's AppleScript dictionary. While using this command, you may also specify values for various properties of the person. This is demonstrated in the following code, which will create a new person, while assigning values to the first name, last name, organization, and job title properties.


Figure 1. A Person Created by a Script in a Specific Group

tell application "Address Book"		
   set thePerson to make new person with properties 
   {first name:"Ben", last name:"Waldie", organization:"Automated Workflows, 
   LLC", job title:"President"}
end tell
--> person id "778C4D8D-0A22-4918-A5B6-73361FFF8779:ABPerson" of application "Address Book"

The result of the make command is a reference to the newly created class. In the example code above, we have captured this reference in a variable named thePerson. This variable may now be referenced in future code, so that we may add email addresses, phone numbers, and more to the newly created person.

When writing code that interacts with Address Book, you might notice that Address Book's display is not immediately updated. Rather, it may take several seconds for the new person to appear. To force Address Book to update its display immediately, you may use the save addressbook command. For example:

save addressbook

It is good practice to use this command regularly in an Address Book script, in order to ensure that the display always shows the current information, as well as to prevent data loss in the unlikely event of an application crash.

Adding Email Addresses

In Address Book, email addresses, URL's, phone numbers, and addresses are not properties of a person. Rather, they are classes themselves, and are contained as elements of a person. The following example code demonstrates how to add an email address to a specified person.

make new email at end of emails of thePerson with properties 
{label:"Work", value:"applescriptguru@mac.com"}

In the example code above, the label property of the email address indicates the label text that will precede the email address in the person's address card in Address Book's interface. For example, an email address label might read "Work", "Home", "Other", etc. As you will see in some additional examples throughout this article, many other classes in Address Book also possess a label property.

Adding URL's

The method for adding a URL to a person is generally the same as that for adding an email address. The following example code demonstrates how to add a work URL to a specified person in Address Book.

make new url at end of urls of thePerson with properties 
{label:"Work", value:"http://www.automatedworkflows.com"}

Adding Phone Numbers

The following example code demonstrates how to add a work phone number to a specified person in Address Book. Again, as you can see, this code is generally the same as that for adding email addresses or URL's to a person.

make new phone at end of phones of thePerson with properties 
{label:"Work", value:"610.935.0652"}

Adding Addresses

Adding an address to a person is slightly different than the process of adding an email address, a URL, or a phone number. While you can still specify a label property for an address, addresses also possess many other properties. For example, in an address entry, you may specify a street, city, state, zip code, and more. The following example code demonstrates how to add a work address to a specified person in Address Book.

make new address at end of addresses of thePerson with properties 
{label:"Work", street:"123 Anystreet", city:"Anytown", state:"PA", zip:"99999"}

Finding a Person

In some cases, you may not actually want to create a person. Rather, you may want to locate an existing person. One way to access an existing person is by accessing the selection property of the Address Book application. This will return a list of any selected people. The following example code demonstrates how to retrieve the selection.

set thePeople to selection
--> {person id "778C4D8D-0A22-4918-A5B6-73361FFF8779:ABPerson" of application "Address Book"}

However, you may not always want to access the selected person or people. There may be times when you need to locate a person by name, or by another criteria. The following example code demonstrates how to search for specific people by retrieving a list of people matching a given last name.

set thePeople to every person whose last name = "Waldie"
--> {person id "778C4D8D-0A22-4918-A5B6-73361FFF8779:ABPerson" of application "Address Book"}

Retrieving Information for a Person

Once you have retrieved a list of people in Address Book, you will more than likely want to retrieve information about those people, such as their names, email addresses, etc. For starters, the following code demonstrates how you can retrieve a list of all properties of a specified person.

properties of (item 1 of thePeople)
--> {first name:"Ben", maiden name:missing value, 
id:"E9A1B78D-AE19-46D1-98A8-76ADB82E4C49:ABPerson", modification date:..

You may also retrieve the properties of specific elements of a person. For example, the following example code will retrieve properties of any email addresses of a specified person.

properties of emails of (item 1 of thePeople) -->
{{id:"9495797E-3942-4CA2-9EB7-A85CC1420A40", 
class:email, label:"work",value:"applescriptguru@mac.com"}}

Similar to the previous example code, the following example code demonstrates how to retrieve the properties of any phone numbers of a specified person.

properties of phones of (item 1 of thePeople) -->
{{id:"5D411959-09F0-4A65-82FA-01449FD50268", class:phone, label:"work", value:"610.935.0652"}}

Working with Groups

In Address Book, groups are also an important part of contact management. Groups allow you to organize your contacts into sets of contacts, all related in some manner of your choosing. Like people, groups in Address Book are also accessible via scripting.

Making a New Group

In a manner similar to that for creating a new person, the make command may be used to create a new group. For example:

set theGroup to make new group with properties {name:"My Group"} --> group id
"D988FC9B-62FC-4ABA-9C70-E5F5821D2724:ABGroup" of application "Address Book"

As mentioned previously, the result of the make command is a reference to the newly created class. In the case above, this reference is placed into a variable named theGroup, which may be accessed later in your code.

Adding a Person to a Group

To add a person to a group in Address Book, you may use the add command. The following example code demonstrates how to add a person to a group that is referenced through the variable theGroup.

add thePerson to theGroup

Alternatively, you may choose to add a person to a group directly, rather than through the use of a variable. For example:

add thePerson to group "My Group"

Removing a Person from a Group

Removing a person from a group is just as straightforward as adding a person to a group. To remove a person from a specified group, you may use the remove command. The following example code demonstrates the proper use of this code.

remove thePerson from group "My Group"

Again, as mentioned in a tech block earlier in this article, be sure to use the save addressbook command regularly throughout your code, in order to ensure that Address Book's display is immediately updated when creating groups, adding people to groups, or removing people from groups.

Retrieving a List of Groups

There may also be times when you need to retrieve a listing of groups in Address Book. The following example code demonstrates how to retrieve a list of references to any existing groups.

groups -->
{group id "D988FC9B-62FC-4ABA-9C70-E5F5821D2724:ABGroup" of application "Address Book"}

If you prefer to retrieve only the names of the groups in Address Book, the following example code may be used.

name of every group 
--> {"My Group"}

Pulling It Together

Using the sample code and techniques that were discussed thus far throughout this article, you should now be able to start building some basic Address Book scripts, which can be expanded and integrated into a larger workflow. For example, you could develop a script that will extract contact information from a database or from an email message, and then use that content to automatically add or update contacts in your Address Book.

The example code below provides a basic demonstration of how code elements and techniques specified in this article can be pulled together to form a single script. The following example will create a new person, complete with a work email address, URL, phone number, and address.

tell application "Address Book"
   set thePerson to make new person with properties 
      {first name:"Ben", last name:"Waldie", organization:"Automated Workflows, LLC", 
      job title:"President"}
   tell thePerson
      make new email at end of emails with properties {label:"Work", 
         value:"applescriptguru@mac.com"}
      make new url at end of urls with properties 
         {label:"Work", value:"http://www.automatedworkflows.com"}
      make new phone at end of phones with properties {label:"Work", value:"610.935.0652"}
      make new address at end of addresses with properties 
         {label:"Work", street:"123 Anystreet", city:"Anytown", state:"PA", zip:"99999"}
   end tell
   make new group with properties {name:"My Group"}
   add thePerson to group "My Group"
   save addressbook
end tell

Address Book Plug-Ins

When browsing the Address Book Script Suite in Address Book's AppleScript dictionary, you may notice the action property, action title, perform action, and should enable action commands. See figure 2.


Figure 2. Address Book Plug-In Handlers

These commands are actually handlers, which may be added to a script in order to create an Address Book plug-in script. An Address Book plug-in script is a script that may be triggered from a rollover button. Rollover buttons are popup buttons, which appear when a user drags the mouse pointer over and clicks on certain labels, including phone numbers, email addresses, addresses, and more, on a person's Address Book card.

The following is example code for an Address Book plug-in. This plug-in will add a new menu item, called "Speak Phone Number" to the rollover button popup menu for each phone number of a person in Address Book. See figure 3.


Figure 3. Accessing an Address Book Plug-In Script

Whenever the "Speak Phone Number" menu item is selected, the corresponding phone number's digits will be spoken, using the say command.

The say command may be found in the User Interaction Suite of the Standard Additions scripting addition.

using terms from application "Address Book"
   on action property
      return "phone"
   end action property

   on should enable action for thePerson with theEntry
      if theEntry <> missing value then
         return true
      else
         return false
      end if
   end should enable action

   on action title for thePerson with theEntry
      return "Speak Phone Number"
   end action title

   on perform action for thePerson with theEntry
      set thePhoneNumber to value of theEntry
      repeat with a from 1 to length of thePhoneNumber
         set theCharacter to character a of thePhoneNumber
         if "0123456789" contains theCharacter then say theCharacter
      end repeat
   end perform action
end using terms from

We will now take a few moments to walk through the different handlers in the code above.

action property Handler

This handler is called when the mouse pointer first rolls over a label that serves as a rollover button, after Address Book has been launched. When triggered, the handler should return a string indicating the type of rollover button under which the script should be displayed. Options may include phone, email, address, and more.

should enable action Handler

This handler is invoked when the user actually clicks on the rollover button on a person's card. Once triggered, this handler should return a boolean value indicating whether the plug-in script may be available for the currently selected rollover. The example code above uses this opportunity to verify that the value of the phone number is not a missing value. If it is a missing value, then the menu item will not be enabled in the rollover button popup menu.

action title Handler

This handler is also triggered when the user clicks on the rollover button, but after the should enable action handler is triggered, if present. This handler should return as its result the name of the menu item that should be displayed in the rollover button popup menu.

perform action Handler

This handler is triggered when the user selects the menu item from the rollover popup menu. A reference to the selected person, as well as the selected data on which the rollover button was clicked, are passed to the handler as parameters. Add your processing code to this handler to perform the desired function.

Installing an Address Book Plug-In Script

Once you have written your Address Book plug-in script, save it as a compiled script into the Library > Address Book Plug-Ins folder at the local or user level of your hard drive. Next, re-launch the Address Book application to load the plug-in script and begin using it.

In Closing

As you are probably aware, there are other applications available for the Macintosh that provide contact management capabilities, many of which are AppleScriptable. Microsoft Entourage, Eudora, Now Up-To-Date & Contact are a few of such programs. If you are not an Address Book user, you are encouraged to explore your favorite contact management application, in order to determine whether it is scriptable. If it is scriptable, while the AppleScript terminology will be different, many of the tasks discussed in this article may still be possible to automate.

Regarding Address Book, the examples shown throughout this article should help you to begin automating some basic Address Book functions. You are encouraged to begin integrating these examples into your own custom scripts, and exploring some of the other possibilities for automating Address Book, which may not have been discussed in this article.

Until next time, keep scripting!


Ben Waldie is author of the best selling books "AppleScripting the Finder" and the "Mac OS X Technology Guide to Automator", available from http://www.spiderworks.com. Ben is also president of Automated Workflows, LLC, a firm specializing in AppleScript and workflow automation consulting. For years, Ben has developed professional AppleScript-based solutions for businesses including Adobe, Apple, NASA, PC World, and TV Guide. For more information about Ben, please visit http://www.automatedworkflows.com, or email Ben at applescriptguru@mac.com.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Viber 11.9.1 - Send messages and make fr...
Viber lets you send free messages and make free calls to other Viber users, on any device and network, in any country! Viber syncs your contacts, messages and call history with your mobile device, so... Read more
Vallum 3.3.2 - $15.00
Vallum is a little tool that helps you monitor and block apps connections and throttle apps bandwidth. It is able to intercept connections at the application layer, and hold them while you decide... Read more
Microsoft OneNote 16.31 - Free digital n...
OneNote is your very own digital notebook. With OneNote, you can capture that flash of genius, that moment of inspiration, or that list of errands that's too important to forget. Whether you're at... Read more
Apple Pages 8.2.1 - Apple's word pr...
Apple Pages is a powerful word processor that gives you everything you need to create documents that look beautiful. And read beautifully. It lets you work seamlessly between Mac and iOS devices, and... Read more
Numbers 6.2.1 - Apple's spreadsheet...
With Apple Numbers, sophisticated spreadsheets are just the start. The whole sheet is your canvas. Just add dramatic interactive charts, tables, and images that paint a revealing picture of your data... Read more
f.lux 39.9873 - Adjusts the color of you...
f.lux makes the color of your computer's display adapt to the time of day, warm at night and like sunlight during the day. Ever notice how people texting at night have that eerie blue glow? Or wake... Read more
Deeper 2.5.0 - Enable hidden features in...
Deeper is a personalization utility for macOS which allows you to enable and disable the hidden functions of the Finder, Dock, QuickTime, Safari, iTunes, login window, Spotlight, and many of Apple's... Read more
NTFS 15.5.71 - Provides full read and wr...
NTFS breaks down the barriers between Windows and macOS. Paragon NTFS effectively solves the communication problems between the Mac system and NTFS. Write, edit, copy, move, delete files on NTFS... Read more
MTR 5.3.0.0 - The Mac's oldest and...
MTR (was MacTheRipper)--the Mac's oldest and smartest DVD-backup app. MTR - the complete toolbox, not a one-trick, point-and-click extractor. MTR is intended for making fair-use, backup copies of... Read more
Keynote 9.2.1 - Apple's presentatio...
Easily create gorgeous presentations with the all-new Keynote, featuring powerful yet easy-to-use tools and dazzling effects that will make you a very hard act to follow. The Theme Chooser lets you... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Black Desert Mobile gets an official rel...
Pearl Abyss has just announced that its highly-anticipated MMO, Black Desert Mobile, will launch globally for iOS and Android on December 11th. [Read more] | Read more »
Another Eden receives new a episode, cha...
Another Eden, WFS' popular RPG, has received another update that brings new story content to the game alongside a few new heroes to discover. [Read more] | Read more »
Overdox guide - Tips and tricks for begi...
Overdox is a clever battle royale that changes things up by adding MOBA mechanics and melee combat to the mix. This new hybrid game can be quite a bit to take in at first, so we’ve put together a list of tips to help you get a leg up on the... | Read more »
Roterra Extreme - Great Escape is a pers...
Roterra Extreme – Great Escape has been described by developers Dig-It Games as a mini-sequel to their acclaimed title Roterra: Flip the Fairytale. It continues that game's tradition of messing with which way is up, tasking you with solving... | Read more »
Hearthstone: Battlegrounds open beta lau...
Remember earlier this year when auto battlers were the latest hotness? We had Auto Chess, DOTA Underlords, Chess Rush, and more all gunning for our attention. They all had their own reasons to play, but, at least from where I'm standing, most... | Read more »
The House of Da Vinci 2 gets a new gamep...
The House of Da Vinci launched all the way back in 2017. Now, developer Blue Brain Games is gearing up to deliver a second dose of The Room-inspired puzzling. Some fresh details have now emerged, alongside the game's first official trailer. [Read... | Read more »
Shoot 'em up action awaits in Battl...
BattleBrew Productions has just introduced another entry into its award winning, barrelpunk inspired, BattleSky Brigade series. Whilst its previous title BattleSky Brigade TapTap provided fans with idle town building gameplay, this time the... | Read more »
Arcade classic R-Type Dimensions EX blas...
If you're a long time fan of shmups and have been looking for something to play lately, Tozai Games may have just released an ideal game for you on iOS. R-Type Dimensions EX brings the first R-Type and its sequel to iOS devices. [Read more] | Read more »
Intense VR first-person shooter Colonicl...
Our latest VR obsession is Colonicle, an intense VR FPS, recently released on Oculus and Google Play, courtesy of From Fake Eyes and Goboogie Games. It's a pulse-pounding multiplayer shooter which should appeal to genre fanatics and newcomers alike... | Read more »
PUBG Mobile's incoming update bring...
PUGB Mobile's newest Royale Pass season they're calling Fury of the Wasteland arrives tomorrow and with it comes a fair chunk of new content to the game. We'll be seeing a new map, weapon and even a companion system. [Read more] | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

New 2019 16″ MacBook Pros on sale for $100 of...
Apple Authorized Reseller Adorama has new 2019 16″ MacBook Pros on sale today for $100 off Apple’s MSRP, each including free shipping. In addition, Adorama charges sales tax for NY & NJ residents... Read more
Apple Watch Series 3 GPS models on sale for l...
Amazon has Apple Watch Series 3 GPS models on sale starting at only $179. There prices are the lowest we’ve ever seen for these models from any Apple reseller. Choose Amazon as the seller rather than... Read more
iOS Bug In Facebook News Feed Lets Device Ca...
NEWS: 11.15.19- Users of the Facebook social media platform’s mobile app running on iOS devices won’t, like, this piece of news one bit in where a bug in the News Feed gave access to the camera... Read more
16″ MacBook Pros on sale! Preorder at Amazon...
Apple’s new 16″ MacBook Pros were only introduced yesterday, but Amazon is already offering a $100 discount on preorders. Prices for the base 6-Core 16″ MacBook Pros start at $2299: – 2019 16″ 2.6GHz... Read more
Use our exclusive MacBook Price Trackers to f...
Our Apple award-winning MacBook price trackers are the best place to look for the best sales & lowest prices on new and clearance MacBook Airs and MacBook Pros–including Apple’s new 16″ MacBook... Read more
New November Verizon iPhone deal: Get an iPho...
Verizon has the 64GB iPhone Xr on sale for 50% off for a limited time, plus they will include a free $200 prepaid MasterCard and a free Amazon Echo Dot. That reduces their price for the 64GB iPhone... Read more
Apple cuts prices on clearance, refurbished 2...
Apple has clearance 2018 15″ 6-Core Touch Bar MacBook Pros, Certified Refurbished, now available starting at only $1829. Each model features a new outer case, shipping is free, and an Apple 1-year... Read more
Up to $450 price drop on clearance 15″ MacBoo...
B&H Photo has dropped prices Apple’s 2019 15″ 6-Core and 8-Core MacBook Pros by $400-$450 off original MSRP, starting at $1999, with free overnight shipping available to many addresses in the US... Read more
Here’s how to save $200 on Apple’s new 16″ Ma...
Apple has released details of their Education discount associated with the new 2019 16″ 6-Core and 8-Core MacBook Pros. Take $200 off the price of the new 8-Core model (now $2599) and $200 off the 16... Read more
Price drop! 2019 15″ 2.6GHz 6-Core MacBook Pr...
Focus Camera has dropped their price for clearance 2019 15″ 2.6GHz 6-Core Space Gray MacBook Pros by $400 to $1999 shipped. Apple’s original MSRP for this model was $2399. Focus charges sales tax for... Read more

Jobs Board

Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**746655BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Job Category:** Sales **Store NUmber or Department:** 002518-Atlantic Center-Store **Job Description:** Read more
*Apple* Mobility Pro - Best Buy (United Stat...
**744973BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobility Pro **Job Category:** Store Associates **Store NUmber or Department:** 000949-Rochester Hills-Store **Job Description:** Read more
AV Systems Engineer at *Apple* - Theorem, L...
Job Summary Apple Retail Technology is looking for an Audio Visual Systems Engineer to design and implement scalable, next-generation A/V solutions for Apple ?s Read more
Nurse Practitioner - Field Based (San Bernard...
Nurse Practitioner - Field Based (San Bernardino, CA, Apple Valley, Hesperia) **Location:** **United States** **New** **Requisition #:** PS30312 **Post Date:** 3 Read more
Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**746510BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Job Category:** Store Associates **Store NUmber or Department:** 001407-Milford-Store **Job Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.