TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Your First MySQL Database

Volume Number: 20 (2004)
Issue Number: 1
Column Tag: Programming

Untangling the Web

by Kevin Hemenway

Your First MySQL Database

Creating, administering, and maintaining are pretty easy.

Last month, besides exploring what was different between the Jaguar and Panther web serving configurations, we installed the MySQL database program (specifically, the "value-added" installer from third-party Server Logistics), used the provided System Preference to initialize the database and set the MySQL root password, then confirmed it was running through one of three avenues (log files, the Terminal, or the Activity Monitor).

We've yet to create a MySQL database or insert any data. We betta' rECtififffYYyy!

Exploring The MySQL Helper Programs

Along with the MySQL daemon (where "daemon" is an application that runs all the time, resolutely waiting for something to do), a bunch of other useful helper programs were installed alongside your new database server. Take a look in your /Library/MySQL/bin directory (Figure 1) for the complete list. Some of these programs (like msql2_mysql, make_win_src_distribution, mysql_install, and mysql_install_db) will never be used in normal (or even abnormal) operation. Others (like mysqladmin, mysql_setpermission, mysqlshow and mysqldump) will become regular additions to your MySQL administrating repertoire.

The most negative aspect of these helper utilities is that there's no central place to find information on what they all do. Some, like mysql_config, have no explanations for their purpose (commonly accessible by passing -?, -h, or --help as command line flags), but their source code can be viewed with vi, less, or BBEdit to divine their intent. Others, like mysqlshow, have manual pages that can be accessed with a command like man -M /Library/MySQL/man/ mysqlshow (see "Homework Malignments" for a shortcut), and still others, like mysql_setpermission, are Perl scripts that need an additional module (DBI) not installed by default.


Figure 1: A number of additional MySQL utilities were installed.

Since the DBI Perl module plays an important part (both in the mysql_setpermission script and any future database interaction in Perl), we'll install that onto our machines before we go much further. Prior to starting, however, we'll need to fix a bug that wasn't corrected in time for Panther's public release. Open /System/Library/Perl/5.8.1/darwin-thread-multi-2level/Config.pm in an authenticating text editor (I prefer BBEdit, but you can use something like sudo vi $filename), and look for the following line:

ld='MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET=10.3 cc'

Add the word env, creating the following correction:

ld='env MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET=10.3 cc'

After saving the file, we've got one more annoyance to take care of. Remember how we set the MySQL root password so that our database would be reasonably secure? Welp, the Perl module we're about to install requires access to MySQL to run some tests, and there's no simple way to give it what it needs without temporarily blanking out that root password. Using the installed MySQL System Preference doesn't allow us to set a null value, so we'll need to run the following in the shell: /Library/MySQL/bin/mysqladmin -u root -p password "" (no spaces between those quotes). You'll be prompted for your current password... once entered, the root password will be set to nothing.

We're now ready to start the DBI installation process. To do so, we're going to use Perl's CPAN (the "Comprehensive Perl Archive Network") to automatically download the module, check and enable any prerequisites, ensure everything is working properly with a bevy of tests, and finally, install the modules for regular use.

Normally, to start CPAN, we'd simply enter sudo perl -MCPAN -eshell at the command line. However, the module we'll be installing needs to know a bit about our MySQL installation so, just this once, we're going to use the following commands instead. These will, for the duration of our current shell, add the MySQL bin directory to the lookup path (instructions on how to set these permanently are available in "Homework Malignments"):

# if you're using the tcsh shell:
setenv PATH ${PATH}:/Library/MySQL/bin
sudo perl -MCPAN -eshell

# if you're using the bash shell, use the following:
PATH=$PATH:/Library/MySQL/bin sudo perl -MCPAN -eshell

If this is your first time using CPAN, you may be asked oodles and oodles of configuration questions, including whether you're using proxies, what CPAN sites you want to download from, and so on. In most cases, you can just accept the defaults. Eventually, you'll end up at a command prompt that looks something like this:

shell -- CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.76)
ReadLine support enabled

cpan>

Now, type install Bundle::DBD::mysql. This will install a bunch of modules related to the MySQL DBD ("database definition") of Perl's DBI ("database interface")--you'll see a dozen screens of information fly by before the process is finished. Depending on your CPAN configuration, you may be asked to follow some missing module prerequisite, which you should generally always agree to.

If the CPAN process complains about its inability to download modules from any of the mirror sites you chose during configuration, you probably have Panther's internal firewall enabled. Cancel the CPAN process, execute export FTP_PASSIVE=1 in the shell, and then start the CPAN process again. More information is available in "Homework Malignments".

If any critical errors occur, the install process will stop... in our case, we should have received a few during the testing phase of DBD::mysql (Figure 2). We could go nuts about actually hunting down and fixing these errors that caused the integrity checks to fail (thus canceling the installation), but honestly, you can "cheat" and force things forward anyways. Some will cluck at me for saying so, but run the following CPAN command to force the installation: force install Bundle::DBD::mysql. For more information about the failing tests, reference http://www.mail-archive.com/macosx@perl.org/msg05834.html.


Figure 2: Failures in the DBD::mysql module can be ignored.

Once the forced installation has finished, you'll be returned to the standard cpan> prompt. Type exit to finish the process, and then be sure to reset the MySQL root password back to what it was before. You can do this either from the command line (using /Library/MySQL/bin/mysqladmin -u root password "password") or by using the MySQL System Preference (Figure 3).


Figure 3: Using the System Preference to set the MySQL root password.

Creating Our First Database

The larger purpose of getting the Perl DBI and DBD modules installed was to use one of the MySQL helper utilities to create a new database, a new MySQL user, and set the proper permissions for access thereafter. There are many different ways and avenues this can be done; I happen to think that mysql_setpermission, a utility that requires DBI, is one of the easiest and friendlier paths to speed down.

We can start the mysql_setpermission script one of two different ways. Without any additional command line flags, it will attempt to connect to the MySQL database as the current user: morbus, in my case. Since that user has yet to be created within MySQL (remember, MySQL users and permissions have nothing to do with Linux users and permissions), I'll receive a disheartening error about lack of access:

~ > /Library/MySQL/bin/mysql_setpermission
Password for user to connect to MySQL: 
Can't make a connection to the mysql server.
 The error: Access denied for user: 'morbus@localhost'  
 (Using password: YES) at /Library/MySQL/bin/mysql_
 setpermission line 70, <STDIN> line 1.

We can solve this one of two ways: temporarily becoming the root user with sudo /Library/MySQL/bin/mysql_setpermission, or by passing the MySQL username as a command line flag with /Library/MySQL/bin/mysql_setpermission --user root. Regardless of the method, we'll reach a menu with numerous possibilities (Figure 4).


Figure 4: The starting menu of mysql_setpermission.

Since we've yet to create a database or MySQL user, we'll want to choose the second option, which allows us to do both. You'll be asked the name of the database to create, the username and password for the new MySQL user (passwords are heartily recommended if you plan on allowing the new user to modify data), and the hosts this user can access the database from. In our example (Figure 5), the new mactech database can be accessed by davemarksman from any host (represented by the % character). The host restriction determines whether other programs on other servers can connect to the mactech database. When a normal web visitor accesses any of our connecting code, it's considered localhost access (the visitor uses our Apache web server, which runs our PHP code, which connects to our MySQL installation.)


Figure 5: Adding a new MySQL database and user.

By default, the user that is created will have very slim access to the specified database (they'll only be able to read data with SELECT, not modify or delete). Since our next article will talk about inserting, modifying, and deleting, we'll want to next choose option 5, which allows us to give davemarksman heightened privileges (Figure 6).


Figure 6: Choosing the database to give heightened user privileges to.

Once you've created your database and configured your user permissions, you can exit the program by choosing option 0, which will send you back to the shell prompt. You can confirm your database has been created by running /Library/MySQL/bin/mysqlshow -u root -p, which gives output something like:

~ > /Library/MySQL/bin/mysqlshow --user root -p
Enter password: 
+-----------+
| Databases |
+-----------+
| mactech   |
| mysql     |
| test      |
+-----------+

Homework Malignments

I shall no longer prophesize about what will be in the next article, as I seemingly always overshoot my estimates. Instead, students may contact the teacher at morbus@disobey.com.

When you're in the Terminal, there are two environment variables that help control how much typing you have to do: PATH and MANPATH. The first controls what directories will be looked into when you attempt to run a binary program without a full path (like vi compared to /usr/bin/vi), and the second determines what directories are looked into for manual pages. You can see their current configuration by typing printenv in your Terminal. To make working with the MySQL shell programs easier, you'll want to add /Library/MySQL/bin to your PATH, and /Library/MySQL/man to your MANPATH. In Panther, which uses the bash shell by default, add PATH="$PATH:/Library/MySQL/bin" to your (possibly non-existent) /Users/username/.bash_profile. Then, with an authenticating text editor, add OPTIONAL_MANPATH /Library/MySQL/man and OPTIONAL_MANPATH /man to the /etc/manpath.config file. With that finished, restart your Terminal, and you should be able to type man mysqlshow.

You can also add export FTP_PASSIVE=1 to the .bash_profile (see previous Malignment). This instructs CPAN (specifically, the Net::FTP Perl module) to use passive file transfer mode which, for some, is required when the Panther firewall is enabled. Thanks to the macosx@perl.org mailing list for that tidbit.


Kevin Hemenway, coauthor of Mac OS X Hacks and Spidering Hacks, is better known as Morbus Iff, the creator of disobey.com, which bills itself as "content for the discontented." Publisher and developer of more home cooking than you could ever imagine (like the popular open-sourced aggregator AmphetaDesk, the best-kept gaming secret Gamegrene.com, the ever ignorable Nonsense Network, etc.), he has started to self-teach indexing and cataloging skills for his . .. . . "media collection". Contact him at morbus@disobey.com.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Firetask Pro 4.2.2 - Innovative task man...
Firetask Pro uniquely combines the advantages of classical priority-and-due-date-based task management with GTD. Stay focused and on top of your commitments - Firetask Pro's "Today" view shows all... Read more
Bookends 13.4.3 - Reference management a...
Bookends is a full-featured bibliography/reference and information-management system for students and professionals. Bookends uses the cloud to sync reference libraries on all the Macs you use.... Read more
LibreOffice 6.4.5.2 - Free, open-source...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
Thunderbird 68.10.0 - Email client from...
As of July 2012, Thunderbird has transitioned to a new governance model, with new features being developed by the broader free software and open source community, and security fixes and improvements... Read more
Firefox 78.0.1 - Fast, safe Web browser.
Firefox offers a fast, safe Web browsing experience. Browse quickly, securely, and effortlessly. With its industry-leading features, Firefox is the choice of Web development professionals and casual... Read more
BetterTouchTool 3.389 - Customize multi-...
BetterTouchTool adds many new, fully customizable gestures to the Magic Mouse, Multi-Touch MacBook trackpad, and Magic Trackpad. These gestures are customizable: Magic Mouse: Pinch in / out (zoom)... Read more
Slack 4.7.0 - Collaborative communicatio...
Slack brings team communication and collaboration into one place so you can get more work done, whether you belong to a large enterprise or a small business. Check off your to-do list and move your... Read more
OsiriX Lite 11.0.3 - 3D medical image pr...
OsiriX Lite is an image processing software dedicated to DICOM images (".dcm" / ".DCM" extension) produced by medical equipment (MRI, CT, PET, PET-CT, ...) and confocal microscopy (LSM and BioRAD-PIC... Read more
Wireshark 3.2.5 - Network protocol analy...
Wireshark is one of the world's foremost network protocol analyzers, and is the standard in many parts of the industry. It is the continuation of a project that started in 1998. Hundreds of... Read more
Dabble 1.6.1 - Organize your manuscript,...
Dabble organizes your manuscript, story notes, and plot. Dabble simplifies the story, leaving more room in your brain to create, which is what being a writer is really about. Organize your story.... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Pokemon Go's July Community Day wil...
Pokemon Go developers have announced the details concerning the upcoming Gastly Community Day. This particular event was selected by the players of the game after the Gas Pokemon came in second place after a poll that decided which Pokemon would... | Read more »
Clash Royale: The Road to Legendary Aren...
Supercell recently celebrated its 10th anniversary and their best title, Clash Royale, is as good as it's ever been. Even for lapsed players, returning to the game is as easy as can be. If you want to join us in picking the game back up, we've put... | Read more »
Detective Di is a point-and-click murder...
Detective Di is a point-and-click murder mystery set in Tang Dynasty-era China. You'll take on the role of China's best-known investigator, Di Renjie, as he solves a series of grisly murders that will ultimately lead him on a collision course with... | Read more »
Dissidia Final Fantasy Opera Omnia is se...
Dissidia Final Fantasy Opera Omnia, one of Square Enix's many popular mobile RPGs, has announced a plethora of in-game events that are set to take place over the summer. This will include several rewards, Free Multi Draws and more. [Read more] | Read more »
Sphaze is a neat-looking puzzler where y...
Sphaze is a neat-looking puzzler where you'll work to guide robots through increasingly elaborate mazes. It's set in a visually distinct world that's equal parts fantasy and sci-fi, and it's finally launched today for iOS and Android devices. [... | Read more »
Apple Arcade is in trouble
Yesterday, Bloomberg reported that Apple is disappointed in the performance of Apple Arcade and will be shifting their approach to the service by focusing on games that can retain subscribers and canceling other upcoming releases that don't fit... | Read more »
Pixel Petz, an inventive platform for de...
Pixel Petz has built up a sizeable player base thanks to its layered, easy-to-understand creative tools and friendly social experience. It revolves around designing, trading, and playing with a unique collection of pixel art pets, and it's out now... | Read more »
The King of Fighters Allstar's late...
The King of Fighters ALLSTAR, Netmarble's popular action RPG, has once again been updated with a plethora of new content. This includes battle cards, events and 21 new fighters, which increases the already sizeable roster even more. [Read more] | Read more »
Romancing SaGa Re;univerSe, the mobile s...
Square Enix latest mobile spin-off Romancing SaGa Re;univerSe is available now globally for both iOS and Android. It initially launched in Japan back in 2018 where it's proven to be incredibly popular, so now folks in the West can finally see what... | Read more »
Away: Journey to the Unexpected is a sto...
Away: Journey to the Unexpected looks really quite lovely. Stylish, cute, and clearly heavily inspired by Japanese animation, it's amongst the best-looking mobile games on the horizon. Developed by a two-person team, this story-driven rogue-lite... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

July 4th Sale: Woot offers wide range of Macs...
Amazon-owned Woot is blowing out a wide range of Apple Macs and iPads for July 4th staring at $279 and ranging up to just over $1000. Models vary from older iPads and 11″ MacBook Airs to some newer... Read more
Apple Pro Display XDR with Nano-Texture Glass...
Abt Electronics has Apple’s new 32″ Pro Display XDR model with the nano-texture glass in stock and on sale today for up to $144 off MSRP. Shipping is free: – Pro Display XDR (nano-texture glass): $... Read more
New 2020 Mac mini on sale for up to $100 off...
Amazon has Apple’s new 2020 Mac minis on sale today for $40-$100 off MSRP with prices starting at $759. Shipping is free: – 2020 4-Core Mac mini: $759 $40 off MSRP – 2020 6-Core Mac mini: $998.99 $... Read more
July 4th Sale: $100 off every 2020 13″ MacBoo...
Apple resellers have new 2020 13″ MacBook Airs on sale for $100 off Apple’s MSRP as part of their July 4th sales. Starting at $899, these are the cheapest new 2020 MacBooks for sale anywhere: (1) B... Read more
This hidden deal on Apple’s site can save you...
Are you a local, state, or federal government employee? If so, Apple offers special government pricing on their products, including AirPods, for you as well as immediate family members. Here’s how... Read more
Apple Watch Series 3 models on sale for new l...
Amazon has Apple Watch Series 3 GPS models on sale for $30 off MSRP, starting at only $169. Their prices are the lowest available for these models from any Apple reseller. Choose Amazon as the seller... Read more
Deal Alert! Get these refurbished 2018 13″ Ma...
Apple has restocked and lowered prices on select Certified Refurbished 2018 13″ MacBook Airs, starting at only $679. Each MacBook features a new outer case, comes with a standard Apple one-year... Read more
July 4th Sale: 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pros for $2...
B&H Photo has new 2020 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pros on sale for $200 off Apple’s MSRP as part of their July 4th sale. Prices start at $1599. These are the same MacBook Pros sold by Apple in their... Read more
July 1 only: $100 off Apple iPhone 11, 11 Pro...
Boost Mobile is offering Apple iPhone 11, 11 Pro, and iPhone 11 Pro Max models for $100 off MSRP with service. Their discount reduces the cost of an iPhone 11/64GB to $599, iPhone 11 Pro to $899 for... Read more
Apple offers $50-$100 Education discount on i...
Purchase a new 12.9″ or 11″ iPad Pro at Apple using your Education discount, and Apple will take $50-$100 off their MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution with a .edu... Read more

Jobs Board

Operating Room Assistant, *Apple* Hill Surg...
Operating Room Assistant, Apple Hill Surgical Center - Full Time, Day Shift, Monday - Saturday availability required Tracking Code 62363 Job Description Operating Read more
Perioperative RN - ( *Apple* Hill Surgical C...
Perioperative RN - ( Apple Hill Surgical Center) Tracking Code 60593 Job Description Monday - Friday - Full Time Days Possible Saturdays General Summary: Under the Read more
Product Manager, *Apple* Commercial Sales -...
Product Manager, Apple Commercial Sales Austin, TX, US Requisition Number:77652 As an Apple Product Manager for the Commercial Sales team at Insight, you Read more
*Apple* Mac Product Engineer - Barclays (Uni...
Apple Mac EngineerWhippany, NJ Support the development and delivery of solutions, products, and capabilities into the Barclays environment working across technical Read more
Blue *Apple* Cafe Student Worker - Pennsylv...
…enhance your work experience. Student positions are available at the Blue Apple Cafe. Employee meal discount during working hours. Duties include food preparation, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.