TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Your First MySQL Database

Volume Number: 20 (2004)
Issue Number: 1
Column Tag: Programming

Untangling the Web

by Kevin Hemenway

Your First MySQL Database

Creating, administering, and maintaining are pretty easy.

Last month, besides exploring what was different between the Jaguar and Panther web serving configurations, we installed the MySQL database program (specifically, the "value-added" installer from third-party Server Logistics), used the provided System Preference to initialize the database and set the MySQL root password, then confirmed it was running through one of three avenues (log files, the Terminal, or the Activity Monitor).

We've yet to create a MySQL database or insert any data. We betta' rECtififffYYyy!

Exploring The MySQL Helper Programs

Along with the MySQL daemon (where "daemon" is an application that runs all the time, resolutely waiting for something to do), a bunch of other useful helper programs were installed alongside your new database server. Take a look in your /Library/MySQL/bin directory (Figure 1) for the complete list. Some of these programs (like msql2_mysql, make_win_src_distribution, mysql_install, and mysql_install_db) will never be used in normal (or even abnormal) operation. Others (like mysqladmin, mysql_setpermission, mysqlshow and mysqldump) will become regular additions to your MySQL administrating repertoire.

The most negative aspect of these helper utilities is that there's no central place to find information on what they all do. Some, like mysql_config, have no explanations for their purpose (commonly accessible by passing -?, -h, or --help as command line flags), but their source code can be viewed with vi, less, or BBEdit to divine their intent. Others, like mysqlshow, have manual pages that can be accessed with a command like man -M /Library/MySQL/man/ mysqlshow (see "Homework Malignments" for a shortcut), and still others, like mysql_setpermission, are Perl scripts that need an additional module (DBI) not installed by default.


Figure 1: A number of additional MySQL utilities were installed.

Since the DBI Perl module plays an important part (both in the mysql_setpermission script and any future database interaction in Perl), we'll install that onto our machines before we go much further. Prior to starting, however, we'll need to fix a bug that wasn't corrected in time for Panther's public release. Open /System/Library/Perl/5.8.1/darwin-thread-multi-2level/Config.pm in an authenticating text editor (I prefer BBEdit, but you can use something like sudo vi $filename), and look for the following line:

ld='MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET=10.3 cc'

Add the word env, creating the following correction:

ld='env MACOSX_DEPLOYMENT_TARGET=10.3 cc'

After saving the file, we've got one more annoyance to take care of. Remember how we set the MySQL root password so that our database would be reasonably secure? Welp, the Perl module we're about to install requires access to MySQL to run some tests, and there's no simple way to give it what it needs without temporarily blanking out that root password. Using the installed MySQL System Preference doesn't allow us to set a null value, so we'll need to run the following in the shell: /Library/MySQL/bin/mysqladmin -u root -p password "" (no spaces between those quotes). You'll be prompted for your current password... once entered, the root password will be set to nothing.

We're now ready to start the DBI installation process. To do so, we're going to use Perl's CPAN (the "Comprehensive Perl Archive Network") to automatically download the module, check and enable any prerequisites, ensure everything is working properly with a bevy of tests, and finally, install the modules for regular use.

Normally, to start CPAN, we'd simply enter sudo perl -MCPAN -eshell at the command line. However, the module we'll be installing needs to know a bit about our MySQL installation so, just this once, we're going to use the following commands instead. These will, for the duration of our current shell, add the MySQL bin directory to the lookup path (instructions on how to set these permanently are available in "Homework Malignments"):

# if you're using the tcsh shell:
setenv PATH ${PATH}:/Library/MySQL/bin
sudo perl -MCPAN -eshell

# if you're using the bash shell, use the following:
PATH=$PATH:/Library/MySQL/bin sudo perl -MCPAN -eshell

If this is your first time using CPAN, you may be asked oodles and oodles of configuration questions, including whether you're using proxies, what CPAN sites you want to download from, and so on. In most cases, you can just accept the defaults. Eventually, you'll end up at a command prompt that looks something like this:

shell -- CPAN exploration and modules installation (v1.76)
ReadLine support enabled

cpan>

Now, type install Bundle::DBD::mysql. This will install a bunch of modules related to the MySQL DBD ("database definition") of Perl's DBI ("database interface")--you'll see a dozen screens of information fly by before the process is finished. Depending on your CPAN configuration, you may be asked to follow some missing module prerequisite, which you should generally always agree to.

If the CPAN process complains about its inability to download modules from any of the mirror sites you chose during configuration, you probably have Panther's internal firewall enabled. Cancel the CPAN process, execute export FTP_PASSIVE=1 in the shell, and then start the CPAN process again. More information is available in "Homework Malignments".

If any critical errors occur, the install process will stop... in our case, we should have received a few during the testing phase of DBD::mysql (Figure 2). We could go nuts about actually hunting down and fixing these errors that caused the integrity checks to fail (thus canceling the installation), but honestly, you can "cheat" and force things forward anyways. Some will cluck at me for saying so, but run the following CPAN command to force the installation: force install Bundle::DBD::mysql. For more information about the failing tests, reference http://www.mail-archive.com/macosx@perl.org/msg05834.html.


Figure 2: Failures in the DBD::mysql module can be ignored.

Once the forced installation has finished, you'll be returned to the standard cpan> prompt. Type exit to finish the process, and then be sure to reset the MySQL root password back to what it was before. You can do this either from the command line (using /Library/MySQL/bin/mysqladmin -u root password "password") or by using the MySQL System Preference (Figure 3).


Figure 3: Using the System Preference to set the MySQL root password.

Creating Our First Database

The larger purpose of getting the Perl DBI and DBD modules installed was to use one of the MySQL helper utilities to create a new database, a new MySQL user, and set the proper permissions for access thereafter. There are many different ways and avenues this can be done; I happen to think that mysql_setpermission, a utility that requires DBI, is one of the easiest and friendlier paths to speed down.

We can start the mysql_setpermission script one of two different ways. Without any additional command line flags, it will attempt to connect to the MySQL database as the current user: morbus, in my case. Since that user has yet to be created within MySQL (remember, MySQL users and permissions have nothing to do with Linux users and permissions), I'll receive a disheartening error about lack of access:

~ > /Library/MySQL/bin/mysql_setpermission
Password for user to connect to MySQL: 
Can't make a connection to the mysql server.
 The error: Access denied for user: 'morbus@localhost'  
 (Using password: YES) at /Library/MySQL/bin/mysql_
 setpermission line 70, <STDIN> line 1.

We can solve this one of two ways: temporarily becoming the root user with sudo /Library/MySQL/bin/mysql_setpermission, or by passing the MySQL username as a command line flag with /Library/MySQL/bin/mysql_setpermission --user root. Regardless of the method, we'll reach a menu with numerous possibilities (Figure 4).


Figure 4: The starting menu of mysql_setpermission.

Since we've yet to create a database or MySQL user, we'll want to choose the second option, which allows us to do both. You'll be asked the name of the database to create, the username and password for the new MySQL user (passwords are heartily recommended if you plan on allowing the new user to modify data), and the hosts this user can access the database from. In our example (Figure 5), the new mactech database can be accessed by davemarksman from any host (represented by the % character). The host restriction determines whether other programs on other servers can connect to the mactech database. When a normal web visitor accesses any of our connecting code, it's considered localhost access (the visitor uses our Apache web server, which runs our PHP code, which connects to our MySQL installation.)


Figure 5: Adding a new MySQL database and user.

By default, the user that is created will have very slim access to the specified database (they'll only be able to read data with SELECT, not modify or delete). Since our next article will talk about inserting, modifying, and deleting, we'll want to next choose option 5, which allows us to give davemarksman heightened privileges (Figure 6).


Figure 6: Choosing the database to give heightened user privileges to.

Once you've created your database and configured your user permissions, you can exit the program by choosing option 0, which will send you back to the shell prompt. You can confirm your database has been created by running /Library/MySQL/bin/mysqlshow -u root -p, which gives output something like:

~ > /Library/MySQL/bin/mysqlshow --user root -p
Enter password: 
+-----------+
| Databases |
+-----------+
| mactech   |
| mysql     |
| test      |
+-----------+

Homework Malignments

I shall no longer prophesize about what will be in the next article, as I seemingly always overshoot my estimates. Instead, students may contact the teacher at morbus@disobey.com.

When you're in the Terminal, there are two environment variables that help control how much typing you have to do: PATH and MANPATH. The first controls what directories will be looked into when you attempt to run a binary program without a full path (like vi compared to /usr/bin/vi), and the second determines what directories are looked into for manual pages. You can see their current configuration by typing printenv in your Terminal. To make working with the MySQL shell programs easier, you'll want to add /Library/MySQL/bin to your PATH, and /Library/MySQL/man to your MANPATH. In Panther, which uses the bash shell by default, add PATH="$PATH:/Library/MySQL/bin" to your (possibly non-existent) /Users/username/.bash_profile. Then, with an authenticating text editor, add OPTIONAL_MANPATH /Library/MySQL/man and OPTIONAL_MANPATH /man to the /etc/manpath.config file. With that finished, restart your Terminal, and you should be able to type man mysqlshow.

You can also add export FTP_PASSIVE=1 to the .bash_profile (see previous Malignment). This instructs CPAN (specifically, the Net::FTP Perl module) to use passive file transfer mode which, for some, is required when the Panther firewall is enabled. Thanks to the macosx@perl.org mailing list for that tidbit.


Kevin Hemenway, coauthor of Mac OS X Hacks and Spidering Hacks, is better known as Morbus Iff, the creator of disobey.com, which bills itself as "content for the discontented." Publisher and developer of more home cooking than you could ever imagine (like the popular open-sourced aggregator AmphetaDesk, the best-kept gaming secret Gamegrene.com, the ever ignorable Nonsense Network, etc.), he has started to self-teach indexing and cataloging skills for his . .. . . "media collection". Contact him at morbus@disobey.com.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Backup and Sync 3.46 - File backup and s...
Backup and Sync (was Google Drive) is a place where you can create, share, collaborate, and keep all of your stuff. Whether you're working with a friend on a joint research project, planning a... Read more
iClock 5.5 - Customizable menu bar clock...
iClock replaces the old Apple's default menu bar clock with more features, customization and increases your productivity. Features: Have your Apple or Google calendar instantly available from the... Read more
Garmin Express 6.18.0.0 - Manage your Ga...
Garmin Express is your essential tool for managing your Garmin devices. Update maps, golf courses and device software. You can even register your device. Update maps Update software Register your... Read more
MarsEdit 4.3.5 - Quick and convenient bl...
MarsEdit is a blog editor for OS X that makes editing your blog like writing email, with spell-checking, drafts, multiple windows, and even AppleScript support. It works with with most blog services... Read more
Xcode 11.0 - Integrated development envi...
Xcode includes everything developers need to create great applications for Mac, iPhone, iPad, and Apple Watch. Xcode provides developers a unified workflow for user interface design, coding, testing... Read more
DaisyDisk 4.8 - $9.99
DaisyDisk allows you to visualize your disk usage and free up disk space by quickly finding and deleting big unused files. The program scans your disk and displays its content as a sector diagram... Read more
VMware Fusion 11.5.0 - Run Windows apps...
VMware Fusion and Fusion Pro - virtualization software for running Windows, Linux, and other systems on a Mac without rebooting. The latest version includes full support for Windows 10, macOS Mojave... Read more
Apple Configurator 2.10 - Configure and...
Apple Configurator makes it easy to deploy iPad, iPhone, iPod touch, and Apple TV devices in your school or business. Use Apple Configurator to quickly configure large numbers of devices connected to... Read more
Spotify 1.1.15.448. - Stream music, crea...
Spotify is a streaming music service that gives you on-demand access to millions of songs. Whether you like driving rock, silky R&B, or grandiose classical music, Spotify's massive catalogue puts... Read more
MenuMeters 1.9.8 - CPU, memory, disk, an...
MenuMeters is a set of CPU, memory, disk, and network monitoring tools for Mac OS X. Although there are numerous other programs which do the same thing, none had quite the feature set I was looking... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Marvel Strike Force is adding Agent Coul...
Marvel Strike Force, the popular squad-based RPG, is set to receive a bunch of new content over the next few weeks. [Read more] | Read more »
Lots of premium games are going free (so...
You may have seen over the past couple weeks a that a bunch of premium games have suddenly become free. This isn’t a mistake, nor is it some last hurrah before Apple Arcade hits, and it’s important to know that these games aren’t actually becoming... | Read more »
Yoozoo Games launches Saint Seiya Awaken...
If you’re into your anime, you’ve probably seen or heard of Saint Seiya. Based on a shonen manga by Masami Kurumada, the series was massively popular in the 1980s – especially in its native Japan. Since then, it’s grown into a franchise of all... | Read more »
Five Nights at Freddy's AR: Special...
Five Nights at Freddy's AR: Special Delivery is a terrifying new nightmare from developer Illumix. Last week, FNAF fans were sent into a frenzy by a short teaser for what we now know to be Special Delivery. Those in the comments were quick to... | Read more »
Rush Rally 3's new live events are...
Last week, Rush Rally 3 got updated with live events, and it’s one of the best things to happen to racing games on mobile. Prior to this update, the game already had multiplayer, but live events are more convenient in the sense that it’s somewhat... | Read more »
Why your free-to-play racer sucks
It’s been this way for a while now, but playing Hot Wheels Infinite Loop really highlights a big issue with free-to-play mobile racing games: They suck. It doesn’t matter if you’re trying going for realism, cart racing, or arcade nonsense, they’re... | Read more »
Steam Link Spotlight - The Banner Saga 3
Steam Link Spotlight is a new feature where we take a look at PC games that play exceptionally well using the Steam Link app. Our last entry talked about Terry Cavanaugh’s incredible Dicey Dungeons. Read about how it’s a great mobile experience... | Read more »
Combo Quest (Games)
Combo Quest 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Combo Quest is an epic, time tap role-playing adventure. In this unique masterpiece, you are a knight on a heroic quest to retrieve... | Read more »
Hero Emblems (Games)
Hero Emblems 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: ** 25% OFF for a limited time to celebrate the release ** ** Note for iPhone 6 user: If it doesn't run fullscreen on your device... | Read more »
Puzzle Blitz (Games)
Puzzle Blitz 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Puzzle Blitz is a frantic puzzle solving race against the clock! Solve as many puzzles as you can, before time runs out! You have... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

11″ WiFi iPad Pros on sale today for up to $2...
Amazon has new 2018 Apple 11″ WiFi iPad Pros in stock today and on sale for up to $200 off Apple’s MSRP. These are the same iPad Pros sold by Apple in its retail and online stores. Be sure to select... Read more
Select 12″ iPad Pros on sale for $200 off App...
Amazon has select 2018 Apple 12″ iPad Pros in stock today and on sale for $200 off Apple’s MSRP. These are the same iPad Pros sold by Apple in its retail and online stores. Be sure to select Amazon... Read more
Get one of Apple’s new 2019 iPhone 11 models...
Boost Mobile is offering the new 2019 Apple iPhone 11, iPhone 11 Pro, and 11 Pro Max for $100 off MSRP. Their discount reduces the cost of an iPhone 11 to $599 for the 64GB models, $899 for the 64GB... Read more
13″ 1.4GHz Silver MacBook Pros on sale for $1...
B&H Photo has new 2019 13″ 1.4GHz 4-Core Touch Bar Silver MacBook Pros on sale for $100 off Apple’s MSRP. Overnight shipping is free to many addresses in the US. These are the same MacBook Pros... Read more
4-core and 6-core 2018 Mac minis available at...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2018 Mac minis available on their online store for $120-$170 off the cost of new models. Each mini comes with a new outer case plus a standard Apple one-year warranty... Read more
$250 prepaid Visa card with any Apple iPhone,...
Xfinity Mobile will include a free $250 prepaid Visa card with the purchase of any new iPhone, new line activation, and transfer of phone number to Xfinity Mobile. Offer is valid through October 27,... Read more
Sprint is offering the 64GB Apple iPhone 11 P...
Sprint has the new 64GB iPhone 11 Pro available for $12.50 per month for new customers with an eligible trade-in in of iPhone 7 or newer. That’s down from their standard monthly lease of $41.67. The... Read more
Final week: Apple’s 2019 Back to School Promo...
Purchase a new Mac using Apple’s Education discount, and take up to $400 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution with a .edu email address qualify for the discount... Read more
Save $30 on Apple’s AirPods at these reseller...
Amazon is offering discounts on new 2019 Apple AirPods ranging up to $30 off MSRP as part of their Labor Day sale. Shipping is free: – AirPods with Charging Case: $144.95 $15 off MSRP – AirPods with... Read more
Preorder your Apple Watch Series 5 today at A...
Amazon has Apple Watch Series 5 GPS models available for preorder and on sale today for $15 off Apple’s MSRP. Shipping is free and starts on September 20th: – 40mm Apple Watch Series 5 GPS: $384.99 $... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Mobile App Developer - eiWorkflow So...
…eiWorkflow Solutions, LLC is currently looking for a consultant for the following role. Apple Mobile App Developer Tasks the role will be performing: ? Mobile App Read more
Essbase Developer - *Apple* - Theorem, LLC...
Job Summary Apple is seeking an experienced, detail-minded Essbase developer to join our worldwide business development and strategy team. If you are someone who Read more
Student Employment (Blue *Apple* Cafe) Spri...
Student Employment (Blue Apple Cafe) Spring 2019 Penn State University Campus/Location: Penn State Brandywine Campus City: Media, PA Date Announced: 12/20/2018 Date Read more
Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**732093BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Job Category:** Store Associates **Location Number:** 001441-Beaumont-Store **Job Description:** The Read more
*Apple* Mobile Master - Best Buy (United Sta...
**733770BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobile Master **Job Category:** Store Associates **Location Number:** 000376-Benton Harbor-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.