TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Introduction to Perl for Mac OS X

Volume Number: 18 (2002)
Issue Number: 9
Column Tag: Mac OS X

Introduction to Perl for Mac OS X

There's more than one way to do it.

by Joe Zobkiw

What is Perl?

Perl is short for "Practical Extraction and Report Language." However, Perl really doesn't sound too interesting when you put it in those terms, so, now that you know that much, forget everything that you've learned up to this point.

Perl is an advanced, cross-platform programming language created by Larry Wall. It's strength lies in the fact that it can perform extremely complex tasks easily while not being too big or bulky for the simpler tasks. It is an expert at manipulating text, strings, numbers, streams of data, files and directories. It can just as easily massage massive amounts of data on your local computer as it can connect to a remote server, across an ocean, and feed it in streams. As long as you don't need a fancy GUI, Perl may just have an answer for you. In a word, Perl is elegant.

Perl and Mac OS X

Perl (verion 5.6 as of this writing) comes pre-installed with Mac OS X so there really isn't anything to install or configure. You can create a Perl script with any text editor. I use BBEdit from Bare Bones Software since it automatically colors the syntax of your Perl script and is simply the best programmer's text editor available for Mac OS X. Because Perl is based in the command line, you primarily run Perl scripts using the Terminal application that comes with Mac OS X. Don't let this scare you though, as you'll soon learn, the Terminal isn't so scary.


Figure 1. Perl running in Terminal.

As you can see in Figure 1, we ran Perl from within the Terminal passing the -v command. This tells Perl to spit back its version information. In this example we are using Perl 5.6.0 specifically built for Mac OS X. We then called Perl passing the -e command which tells Perl that we are including actual Perl code between the single quotes and expect it to be interpreted, executed and the results displayed in the Terminal. Perl performed the task flawlessly, as it told us Hello!

Most of the time you will write your Perl scripts and store them in a text file. These files end in .pl and should be saved with UNIX linefeeds, otherwise Perl will get confused and return confusing errors when it attempts to run your scripts. Remember, with Mac OS X you are really running the UNIX operating system underneath a Macintosh user experience! Assume we have the following text stored in a file named myfirstscript.pl:

#!/usr/bin/perl
print "Hello from Perl on Mac OS X!\n";

Note that that the very first line of the script points to Perl. This is how all Perl scripts must start - with the path to Perl. The line may be slightly different depending on your operating system but this is what you will usually see with Mac OS X. The # symbol is actually a comment designator. Normally whenever you see this symbol, anything to the right of it is a comment. The next line gives Perl the command to print to the Terminal. Looks just like what we typed on the command line earlier! To run this script using Terminal you first open Terminal, use the cd command to point to the directory which contains the script and then type perl myfirstscript.pl. Upon pressing return your script will execute and you'll see the "hello..." message printed on the screen! Now all that's left to do is write a script that actually does something.

One thing to remember is that Perl is a complex programming language that entire books were written about. It is impossible to go into all of the intricacies of the language in this short article. As you continue to read you will learn some of the basics and some great places to turn to learn the language itself. So don't turn away just yet...half a million programmers can't be wrong!

So What Can I Do With Perl?

Now that you know the basics of how Perl fits into Mac OS X and how you create and execute scripts, what is it actually good for?

Let's say you have a bunch of ASCII text files that you need to scan for certain characters, change them to something else, then make a copy of the altered file and the original. If this was a one-time occurrence you might just spend 5 hours and do it by hand. However, if this is part of a process that you have to perform every day or even every month, why not the let the computer - with the help of Perl - do it for you? You could literally write such a program in Perl in less than 20 lines of code. Adding a few more lines of code would be all you would need to make it email or page you when it was finished processing. I know people in the corporate world who have their entire jobs automated - they can start a process and go biking for the rest of the day - if there is a problem (or upon success) their Perl scripts page them!

As you may already know most everything you send or receive via the Internet is text-based. The HTTP protocol that web servers use is a completely text-based protocol. Your web browser sends a text request to the server, which sends a text response in return. Your e-mail program works the same way. News readers work the same way. As do many of the simpler, more behind-the-scenes protocols such as Ping, Telnet and Finger.

Given this, you can relatively easily write an anti-spam Perl script that logs into your email server and deletes any email that contains the words "GET RICH" in the subject - before you ever get a chance to see them. How about a script that pulls down the latest weather information from a web site and emails you when an advisory is posted for your area. Consider a script that watches a newsgroup for job postings of interest and automatically emails them to you. The possibilities are literally endless when you look at all the data available on the net!

I recently wrote a Perl script that reads data from a GPS that is connected via a Keyspan USB PDA adapter locally to my computer. The script (available online at http://homepage.mac.com/zobkiw/) opens the Keyspan driver and begins reading and parsing position data being sent by the GPS. Once parsed, I can easily display detailed, self-updating maps (read from the Internet) showing my position. Given this technique, you can hook up any RS232-type device to your Mac and communicate with it via Perl. This would include personal weather stations, amateur radios, musical instruments, custom hardware and many other little gadgets.

A More Advanced Example

Now that you have an idea of some of the things you can do with Perl, let's specifically take a look at a more advanced example. The example that we will walk through pulls the current page displayed at cnn.com (although you can easily change it to support any web site) and reports if certain words are "in the news." Take a look at the code and then we will explain it in detail.

#!/usr/bin/perl
use strict;
my @a = ("Clinton", "Gore", "Bush", "Cheney");
my $url = "http://www.cnn.com";
my $sysstring = "curl -s $url";
my $count = 1;
print "Opening...\n";
open(FOO, "$sysstring|");
print "Searching...\n";
while (<FOO>){
   my $lineout = $_;
   foreach my $search (@a) {
      if ($lineout =~ /$search/){
         print "$count. $search found.\n";
         $count++;
      }
   }
}
close FOO;
print "Complete.\n";

This is a pretty good example of Perl performing a complex task - easily. If you think about what is going on here in detail: your computer has to use DNS to resolve the cnn.com web site name to the proper IP address; connect to it; create the proper http request to obtain the contents of the web page; then search the web page for particular text and display the results. If you were to write this code by hand, following the multiple protocols (DNS and http), it might take you days - if not longer. Let's look at the code!

We've already discussed the very first line, which points to Perl itself so we will begin with use strict. The Perl keyword use is used like the keyword include in C. Whenever you need to let Perl know you will be making use of a module, or in this case, the services of Perl itself, you use the word use. Specifically, use strict tells Perl that you want it to be a bit stricter than it would otherwise be as it interprets your code. In Perl, there are more ways to perform a task than in C - hence the Perl motto "There's more than on way to do it.". It is very easy to make a mistake. Enabling strict helps to catch common problems before they cause you to lose your hair.

The next four lines declare some variables. The Perl keyword my is used to explicitly declare variables. In reality you don't have to declare variables in Perl, it will automatically create any variable you attempt to use. However, remember use strict. One of the features of strict is that Perl requires us to employ my to declare the variables we use before we use them. This can help with the hair loss mentioned earlier.

The first variable, a, is an array of strings. We use the @ symbol to signify an array of items. The items in the array follow in parenthesis and quotes. $url is a variable named url. Most variable names in Perl begin with a $. I say most because although a is a variable, it is also an array, so it starts with an @ symbol. It may seem confusing now but as you work with Perl you will begin to appreciate the power that Perl offers as it confuses you.

$sysstring is a variable that contains a command line command. The curl program is one that you can execute from the command line, that is, the Terminal. Curl is a client program that retrieves data from (and sends data to) various servers. It supports numerous protocols including http, https, FTP, GOPHER, DICT, TELNET, LDAP, and FILE. Type man curl in the Terminal for complete details. The important thing to come away with here is that you can execute command line commands and then process the results all from within your Perl script! Note the substitution of the $url variable in the string assignment of the $sysstring variable. The $sysstring variable ends up as 'curl -s http://www.cnn.com/' after this substitution.

Next we declare a $count variable to number the items we find and then use the print command to write some text to the Terminal so anyone running our script can follow along as it executes.

The open command opens the $sysstring variable for reading (hence the | symbol following $sysstring). Open can be used to open files too but in this case it is smart enough to execute the curl command line embedded in the $sysstring variable. Once executed, we can read the data returned by curl by referencing the FILEHANDLE named FOO. A FILEHANDLE, in this case, is an I/O (input/output) connection between the Perl script and the output of curl. Once we have the output available in FOO, we can use a standard while loop to examine each line. The $lineout variable is assigned the $_ variable, which is a special variable that while returns as it extracts each line - $_ contains the last line extracted. If you were to add print "$lineout"; at this point you would see each line in the Terminal.

Next we search the line for each item in our array of search strings. The foreach statement does just what it says. For each item in the array @a, we are going to place it into a variable named $search. At this point we use the =~ matching operator to search $lineout for the $search string. If the text is found, the print command is executed and we display what we found. We happen to be doing a case sensitive search here but you can change that if you like. Don't be afraid of the =~ stuff, this is just a fancy way to say "find this". If you are interested in researching this, it's all part of a topic larger than what can be covered in this article: regular expressions.

Once we've looped through each line $lineout and searched for each $search string within them, we close the FILEHANDLE FOO and the program is complete. Not too bad, huh? Here are some exercises for the reader: make the search case-insensitive; make the program return an individual total count of each search term found (ie: 2 Clinton, 5 Bush, 3 Cheney, 1 Gore); search an array of news sites for an array of search terms.

Perl CGI And Apache

Thus far we've discussed using Perl in scripts that run locally on your computer to perform some task. However, one very popular use of Perl is as an Apache CGI. Apache is one of the most popular web servers in use today, and it comes pre-installed with Mac OS X. A CGI is a program (written in Perl, C, C++, PHP, ASP, etc.) that runs on a web server. You create a web-based form that allows a user to interact with the CGI. Examples of CGIs include search engines, guest books, shopping carts, etc. Most any time you fill out a form on a web page and press the "Submit" button, you are calling a CGI.

Behind the scenes, the web server receives the information from the web page and passes all of the fields to the CGI for processing. The CGI might verify the data and then send an email, write the information to a database, or send an order to the shipping department so you can receive your new toy via FedEx overnight delivery. Most of the time the CGI will then return a web page saying "thank you: order processed!"

Apache alone isn't too smart; it knows how to serve a file to a client but not much more. By adding a CGI you can extend Apache in any way you desire to perform tasks that the developers of Apache could never have imagined you would need to perform. Perl is the perfect language to write your CGI as thousands of examples are available throughout the net. For more information on Apache, you can visit http://www.apache.org/. For more information on specifically using Perl with Apache, you can visit http://perl.apache.org/.

Extending Perl

We discussed how Perl can be used to extend Apache, but what about extending Perl itself? The standard installation of Perl comes with hundreds of "built-in" functions that will meet many of your needs, however it also supports something called modules for those times when you need a little more. A module is like a library in C. Modules may be written in Perl or in C or C++ but that is transparent to the user of the module. A module usually concentrates on the support of a particular task. There are modules that support Internet protocols, encryption schemes, scientific and mathematical algorithms, image manipulation, audio, and much more.

You can create your own modules or you can download thousands (yes, thousands!) of them that currently exist from CPAN, the Comprehensive Perl Archive Network (at http://cpan.org/). CPAN contains not only modules but many sample Perl scripts and the Perl distributions themselves. It covers many too many things to discuss in this article, so you should visit the web site to explore for yourself.

Where To Go From Here?

Hopefully this article has given you a spark to go pursue Perl on your own. There are some excellent web sites to help you learn the intricacies of Perl. Make sure to visit http://www.perl.com/, which is a great place to read articles and learn more about Perl. All of the documentation is available online for you to read. Also be sure to visit http://www.perl.org/ and http://learn.perl.org/. There are also plenty of books available as well. Now that you have a short introduction to Perl, look for more articles in these pages to introduce you to complete real-world examples of what you can do with Perl under Mac OS X!


Joe Zobkiw is a software developer, musician and author living in Raleigh, NC. He has been a Macintosh user since 1986 and has owned no less than a baker's dozen Macintosh computers. He is currently keeping busy on a PowerBook G4 running OS X and rediscovering the command line. You can email Joe at zobkiw@triplesoft.com between 9am and 5pm ET M-F.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Hopper Disassembler 5.6.1 - Binary disas...
Hopper Disassembler is a binary disassembler, decompiler, and debugger for 32- and 64-bit executables. It will let you disassemble any binary you want, and provide you all the information about its... Read more
Skim 1.6.11 - PDF reader and note-taker...
Skim is a PDF reader and note-taker for OS X. It is designed to help you read and annotate scientific papers in PDF, but is also great for viewing any PDF file. Skim includes many features and has a... Read more
Alfred 4.6.7 - Quick launcher for apps a...
Alfred is an award-winning productivity application for OS X. Alfred saves you time when you search for files online or on your Mac. Be more productive with hotkeys, keywords, and file actions at... Read more
Transmit 5.8.7 - Excellent FTP/SFTP clie...
Transmit is an excellent FTP (file transfer protocol), SFTP, S3 (Amazon.com file hosting) and iDisk/WebDAV client that allows you to upload, download, and delete files over the internet. With the... Read more
Adobe Lightroom Classic 11.4.1 - Import,...
You can download Lightroom for Mac as a part of Creative Cloud for only $9.99/month with Photoshop, included as part of the photography package. The latest version of Lightroom gives you all of the... Read more
MarsEdit 4.5.9 - Quick and convenient bl...
MarsEdit is a blog editor for OS X that makes editing your blog like writing email, with spell-checking, drafts, multiple windows, and even AppleScript support. It works with with most blog services... Read more
Thunderbird 91.11.0 - Email client from...
As of July 2012, Thunderbird has transitioned to a new governance model, with new features being developed by the broader free software and open source community, and security fixes and improvements... Read more
A Better Finder Rename 11.50 - File, pho...
A Better Finder Rename is the most complete renaming solution available on the market today. That's why, since 1996, tens of thousands of hobbyists, professionals and businesses depend on A Better... Read more
DaisyDisk 4.23 - $9.99
DaisyDisk allows you to visualize your disk usage and free up disk space by quickly finding and deleting big unused files. The program scans your disk and displays its content as a sector diagram... Read more
BBEdit 14.5 - Powerful text and HTML edi...
BBEdit is the leading professional HTML and text editor for the Mac. Specifically crafted in response to the needs of Web authors and software developers, this award-winning product provides a... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Downhill Mountain Biking Game ‘Descender...
Just over three years ago in May of 2019 developer RageSquid and publisher No More Robots released a quirky downhill mountain biking game called Descenders on PC and Xbox One. Bemoaning a lack of “extreme sports" titles in recent years led RageSquid... | Read more »
SwitchArcade Round-Up: ‘Monster Hunter R...
Hello gentle readers, and welcome to the SwitchArcade Round-Up for June 30th, 2022. Thursday is once more upon us, and that means a bunch of new releases to look at. We start things off with DLC for some very big games, Monster Hunter Rise and... | Read more »
‘HOOK 2’ Review – A Sharp Left Hook From...
The original HOOK ($1.99) had a very simple idea behind it. You were presented with a tangled mess of hooks and loops, and you needed to remove each one without snagging any others. Extremely simple at first, but as the puzzles rolled along,... | Read more »
‘Dicey Dungeons’ Mobile Version Launchin...
After a very long wait, Terry Cavanagh’s dungeon crawling roguelite deckbuiler hybrid experience Dicey Dungeons is coming to mobile platforms next week alongside a huge free DLC pack on all platforms. This DLC will be included in the mobile... | Read more »
Distract Yourself With These Great Mobil...
Every day, we pick out a curated list of the best mobile discounts on the App Store and post them here. This list won't be comprehensive, but it every game on it is recommended. Feel free to check out the coverage we did on them in the links below... | Read more »
‘Danganronpa S: Ultimate Summer Camp’ is...
If you’ve been following Danganronp over the last few years, Spike Chunsoft celebrated its anniversary by bringing the series to mobile in the form of anniversary editions. After the first two released, there was a long delay for V3, but it finally... | Read more »
Out Now: ‘HOOK 2’, ‘Incoherence’, ‘Juras...
Each and every day new mobile games are hitting the App Store, and so each week we put together a big old list of all the best new releases of the past seven days. Back in the day the App Store would showcase the same games for a week, and then... | Read more »
Upcoming Mobile MMO RPG Shooter ‘Avatar:...
This past January a contingent of developers made up of Archosaur Games, Tencent, Lightstorm Entertainment, and Disney announced a new mobile game set in James Cameron’s Avatar universe titled Avatar: Reckoning. | Read more »
Culinary Platformer ‘Chefy-Chef’ Coming...
If your name is Chefy, it’s pretty much a given that you should be a chef. Such is the case with Chefy-Chef, a game from Bug Studio about a chef named Chefy who must travel to all sorts of exotic locations using a magical refrigerator in an effort... | Read more »
SwitchArcade Round-Up: Nintendo Direct H...
Hello gentle readers, and welcome to the SwitchArcade Round-Up for June 29th, 2022. As the month winds to a close, we’ve got a bigger-than-usual Wednesday for both news and new games to check out. I’ve got some crib notes for yesterday’s Nintendo... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

2nd generation 4K Apple TVs with Siri remote...
Apple has restocked a full line of Certified Refurbished 2nd generation 32GB and 64GB 4K Apple TVs with Siri remotes for $30 off the cost of new models. Apple’s standard one-year warranty is included... Read more
Back in stock: Apple Watch Series 7 models fo...
Apple has restocked Certified Refurbished Apple Watch Series 7 WiFi-only models in their online store for $60-$70 off MSRP, starting at $339. Each Watch includes Apple’s standard one-year warranty, a... Read more
July 4th Sale at Expercom: $200 off any 16″ M...
Apple reseller Expercom has 16″ M1 Pro and M1 Max MacBook Pros available for $200 off MSRP as part of their July 4th sale. In addition to their MacBook Pro sale prices, take $50 off AppleCare+ when... Read more
10.2″ Apple iPads (WiFi models) are on sale f...
Amazon has Apple’s 9th generation 10.2″ WiFi iPads on sale for up to $20-$50 off MSRP for a limited time. Their prices are the lowest price currently available for one of these iPads. All models are... Read more
10-Core M1 Pro 14″ MacBook Pros on sale for $...
B&H Photo is offering $200 discounts on Apple’s new 14″ M1 Pro MacBook Pros with 10-Core CPUs (16GB RAM/1TB SSDs). Free 1-2 day shipping is available to most US addresses, and both models are in... Read more
B&H has 16-inch M1 Pro MacBook Pros in st...
New Space Gray 16″ MacBook Pros with Apple’s M1 Pro CPUs are in stock and on sale today at B&H Photo for $200 off Apple’s MSRP. Sale prices are for M1 Pro models with 512GB or 1TB of SSD storage... Read more
Price drop! 13″ M1 MacBook Pro with 512GB SSD...
Amazon has dropped prices on recently-discontinued 13″ M1 MacBook Pros with a 512GB SSD by $200 off Apple’s original MSRP. Shipping is free: – 2020 13″ MacBook Pro (Space Gray or Silver) M1 CPU/512GB... Read more
Deal Alert! 14″ Apple MacBook Pros with M1 Pr...
Amazon has 14″ MacBook Pros with 8-Core M1 Pro CPUs back on sale for $200 off MSRP, only $1799. Shipping is free. Be sure to make your purchase from Amazon rather than a third-party seller: – 14″ M1... Read more
16″ MacBook Pros with Apple M1 Pro CPUs are b...
Amazon is discounting new 16″ MacBook Pros with 10-Core Apple M1 Pro CPUs by $200 off MSRP again today. Be sure to select Amazon as the seller rather than a third-party seller, and note that Amazon’s... Read more
13″ M1 MacBook Airs with 16GB of RAM availabl...
Apple has 13″ M1 MacBook Airs (8-Core CPU/7-Core GPU) in stock today with 16GB of RAM for $190 off MSRP, Certified Refurbished. Apple includes a standard one-year warranty with these models, each... Read more

Jobs Board

I/S Senior Engineer - *Apple* Systems Engin...
**19647BR** **Position Title:** I/S Senior Engineer - Apple Systems Engineering - Remote **Department:** Information Systems **Location:** Lakeland, FL between Read more
*Apple* IT Support Analyst - 2nd Shift - Zon...
Apple IT Support Analyst - 2nd Shift Professional Services Albany, New York Malta, New York Clifton Park, New York Menands, New York Syracuse, New York Watertown, Read more
Infotainment Certification Test Engineer (XC)...
…integration - CarPlay, android auto, MirrorLink, Baidu Carlife, MFi/iPod certification testing; Apple PPID preparation, Google HUCD and GTM preparation + 3 years of Read more
Workplace Services *Apple* Device Managemen...
…3350 Riverwood Parkway Suite 900, Atlanta, GA, 30339 USA **Workplace Services Apple Device Management** **Role Overview** Carrier is seeking an experienced and Read more
Physician Assistant - Certified, Primary Care...
Physician Assistant - Certified, Primary Care, Apple Valley (1.07FTE) + Job ID: 65766 + Department: AV Primary Care + City: Apple Valley, MN + Location: HP - Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.