Aug 01 Challenge

Volume Number: 17 (2001)
Issue Number: 08
Column Tag: Programmer's Challenge

by Bob Boonstra, Westford, MA

### Carribean Cruising

I love sailing. That is, most of the time I love it, in between the moments when I'm terrified in an exhilarating sort of way. I don't own a boat, which has allowed me to avoid both of the two favorite days of a boat owner's life - the day he buys the boat, and the day he sells the boat. Most years I'm a two-week-a-year sailor, renting small to medium size boats on inland lakes during summer vacations.

But this year we did something different. We decided to charter a sailboat and spend a week in the U.S. and British Virgin Islands. Thanks to Captain Jerry and Chef Christine Miller on a 51' Beneteau, the Rusty Nail II , we had a wonderful week sailing, snorkeling, (drinking - I'd forgotten how many truly excellent drinks can be made with rum) and dining our way around St John, Tortola, Norman Island, Virgin Gorda, Marina Cay, and several other islands.

So why am I telling you this? Not to arouse envy, certainly not. No, I'm telling you this because the August Challenge is based on sailing. Your task this month is to write code that will efficiently sail a simulated boat around a set of obstacles, through a specified sequence of marks.

The prototype for the code you should write is:

```typedef struct Position {
long x;   /* positive x is East */
long y;   /* positive y is North */
} Position;

typedef double Direction;   /* clockwise from north, in radians */

typedef struct Velocity {
Direction direction;
double speed;
/* x velocity is speed*sin(direction) */
/* y velocity is speed*cos(direction) */
} Velocity;

void InitCarribeanCruise(
short numberOfMarks,
Position mark[],
/* must pass through mark[i] for each i in turn */
double tolerance,
/* must pass within this distance of each mark */
double integrationInterval
/* amount of time between calls to Cruise, in seconds */
);

Boolean /* done */ Cruise(
Position boatLocation,   /* boat position at the start of this time segment */
Velocity boatVelocity,   /* boat velocity at the start of this time segment */
Velocity windVelocity,   /* true wind velocity at this location and time */
double currentTime,         /* time since cruise start, in seconds */
Direction *targetBoatDirection,
/* commanded boat direction */
Direction *sailTrim
/* commanded sail trim, 0..PI/4, measured as angle off the stern,
in the direction away from the source of the wind.
Actual sail position is a function of trim and wind direction. */
);

void TermCarribeanCruise(void);
```

The Challenge works like this. First, your InitCarribeanCruise routine is called, providing you with a description of the course to be followed. You will need to pass through the specified marks in sequence, approaching each within a specified distance tolerance. Then your Cruise routine is called repeatedly, at time intervals of integrationInterval, until you complete the course. Finally, your TermCarribeanCruise routine is called, where you should return any dynamically allocated memory.

With each Cruise call, you are given the current boatLocation and boatVelocity, along with the current WindVelocity for your location at the currentTime. You have two controls for the boat, the helm and the sailTrim. For simplicity, we're going to treat your boat as if it has only one sail - no need to separately trim the main and the jib. Our simplified sail trim model lets you control the maximum amount the sail can be let out, from 0° off the stern (tight trim) to 90° off the stern. The sail always moves away from the stern in the direction away from the source of the wind, clockwise off the stern when the wind is from starboard (right of the boat), and counterclockwise when the wind is from port (left of the boat).

High fidelity sailing models use complicated velocity prediction programs to determine boat speed as a function of wind and sails, but we'll use something simpler. When sailing into the wind (you cannot sail directly into the wind, but you can sail up to 45° off the wind direction in our model), the greatest sailing force is provided with the sails tight, 0° off the stern. As you fall off the wind, greater thrust is provided by easing the sails out. When the wind is directly astern (behind you), letting the sail out a full 90° provides the greatest thrust.

As counterintuitive as it might seem, you actually sail faster when going upwind. This is because the motion of the boat actually increases the apparent speed of the wind. You can take my word for it, or you can do a little vector arithmetic to convince yourself. Similarly, going downwind, the force of the wind on the boat actually approaches zero as the boat speed gets closer to the true wind speed, reducing the apparent wind speed. Of course, the resistance of the water prevents the boat from actually reducing the apparent wind speed to zero.

Enough about sailing, back to what you need to do. For each call to Cruise, you need to return the direction you want the boat to move (targetBoatDirection), and how you want to trim the sail (sailTrim). There are limits on how quickly the boat can turn, so you might not actually attain the targetBoatDirection in one integration interval. As for the sailTrim, if you ease the sail too much, it will luff and provide less (or perhaps no) force. If you keep it too tight, you'll also get less force from the wind and will go more slowly. The specifics of the velocity model will be included in the test code provided with the problem - see www.mactech.com/progchallenge/ for details.

Your objective is to sail through the marks as quickly as possible. The winner will be the entry that completes the course in the minimum simulated time, after adding a penalty of one simulated second for each millisecond of execution time. The Challenge prize will be divided between the overall winner and the best scoring entry from a contestant that has not won the Challenge recently.

This will be a native PowerPC Challenge, using the CodeWarrior Pro 6 environment. Solutions may be coded in C or C++. You may provide a solution in Java instead, provided you also provide a test driver equivalent to the C code provided on the web for this problem.

### Three Months Ago Winner

Nine contestants, including many first-time participants, submitted entries for the May Klondike Challenge. This Challenge required readers to create a Klondike solitaire game using the RealBASIC development environment. Unlike most Challenges, performance played no role in evaluating the entries. Instead, the evaluation was based on features, both features specified in the problem statement, and extra features that readers were invited to add. There were several excellent solutions submitted, and it was difficult to select a winner. Congratulations to Peter Truskier (San Mateo, CA) for winning the Klondike Challenge.

Peter's solution satisfies all but one of the features specified in the problem. He provides a high quality representation of the game state; allows cards to be played by dragging them to their destination; highlights a legal destination when a card is dragged over it; provides an undo/redo capability; includes menu items for saving, replaying, and restarting games; and allows cards to be turned over in increments of one or three. As extras, he provides sound effects, including a shuffle sound at the start of a new game, a celebratory sound following victory, and feedback when a card was clicked. He displays the tableaus in staggered fashion, so it is possible to see how many cards remain to be uncovered (not all entries did this, which made play more difficult). Peter displays cards being dragged translucently, so it is possible to see what is under the card as it is dragged. He allows cards to be played to their final destinations by clicking as well as dragging. He provides extra preference options, including control over whether strict or loose rules apply to game play and scoring. And he provides preference control over the background and highlight colors. Peter's entry automatically detects a win when all cards have been uncovered and made playable, but before the cards are actually played. Finally, Peter provides a help function.

The second-place entry by Noah Desch also has some interesting features. He provides extensive preference options for controlling scoring, including subtracting points as time passes, subtracting points for multiple passes through the deck, and subtracting points as a penalty for using the undo/redo feature. His entry displays not only the score, but the elapsed time, and sound effects notify the user when a time penalty is being applied. His preference panel displays a rollover explanation of what each item does. Noah displays the top ten high scores and gives you an option to clear those scores. And he provides four choices for card deck style and three choices for the game board. Noah also provides warnings to the user when he quits a game that is in progress without saving it. Noah's entry was targeted at Mac OS X, but it ran under 9.1 as well. It could easily have been the winner.

Closely following Noah in the admittedly subjective scoring is Presidential Klondike, by Will Leshner. Will provides all of the specified features, plays sound effects during the game, and plays the U.S. national anthem as a bonus after a win. He also provides the convenience of automatically turning over the next card in a tableau when a card is played. Will provides preference control over sound, a scoring time penalty, and animation. He also provides a folder of saved games developed as his spouse became addicted to the game during testing (sorry about that. :)).

Tied in the scoring with Will, Thomas Reed also submitted an excellent entry. Thomas provides preference control over the game and scoring rules, a separate "hard *ss" option to set them all, and a slider control over the number of undo/redo levels allowed. He provides balloon help. And you can change the background by placing a gif file in a Backgrounds folder. Finally, Thomas provides a "play out" option, that will complete the game for you once all of the cards have been exposed.

Rounding out the top five entries is the submission from Jacqueline Landsman Gay. Jacque's entry would have scored even higher, but it was written in MetaCard rather than RealBASIC. Given the unusual rules for this Challenge, I decided to accept the entry, even though I couldn't rebuild the application (not having access to MetaCard), and instead withheld evaluation points for not meeting one of the problem requirements. The graphics in the game are excellent, it has a high score list, it provides options for the card back and playing surface. It also has attractive features cited for some of the earlier entries, like a shuffle sound, play by double-clicking cards, automatically detecting a win, and playing a tribute when a win is detected.

I also asked people for feedback about using RealBASIC or other non-C environments for the Challenge, and the reaction was quite positive. Many new readers decided to enter, although few traditional Challenge participants did so. I'm inclined to try this again sometime. If you have additional thoughts on the topic, let me know at progchallenge@mactech.com.

The table below lists, for each of the solutions submitted, the points earned in various categories: features specified in the problem statement, extra game play and help features, display and sound features, extra scoring and preference options, and a subjective assessment of style and quality of play. As usual, the number in parentheses after the entrant's name is the total number of Challenge points earned in all Challenges prior to this one.

 Name Specified Play Display Features and Help and Sound Peter Truskier 50 6 6 Noah Desch 53 1 5 Will Leshner 53 1 4 Thomas Reed 53 3 4 Jacqueline Gay 42 6 6 Henrik Rintala 47 3 5 Bruno Dlubak 50 0 3 Ernst Munter(751) 32 3 2 Thomas Cunningham 5 0 0
 Name Scoring Style TOTAL and Prefs Points Points Peter Truskier 1 10 73 Noah Desch 6 6 71 Will Leshner 2 10 70 Thomas Reed 3 7 70 Jacqueline Gay 4 8 66 Henrik Rintala 1 4 60 Bruno Dlubak 0 6 59 Ernst Munter 0 4 41 Thomas Cunningham 0 0 5

### Top Contestants...

Listed here are the Top Contestants for the Programmer's Challenge, including everyone who has accumulated 20 or more points during the past two years. The numbers below include points awarded over the 24 most recent contests, including points earned by this month's entrants.

 Rank Name Points Wins Total (24 mo) (24 mo) Points 1. Munter, Ernst 284 11 751 2. Rieken, Willeke 83 3 134 3. Saxton, Tom 69 2 185 4. Taylor, Jonathan 56 2 56 5. Wihlborg, Claes 49 2 49 6. Shearer, Rob 55 1 62 7. Maurer, Sebastian 38 1 108 8. Truskier, Peter 20 1 20

### ...and the Top Contestants Looking for a Recent Win

In order to give some recognition to other participants in the Challenge, we also list the high scores for contestants who have accumulated points without taking first place in a Challenge during the past two years. Listed here are all of those contestants who have accumulated 6 or more points during the past two years.

 Rank Name Points Total (24 mo) Points 9. Boring, Randy 32 142 10. Schotsman, Jan 14 14 11. Sadetsky, Gregory 12 14 12. Nepsund, Ronald 10 57 13. Day, Mark 10 30 14. Jones, Dennis 10 22 15. Downs, Andrew 10 12 16. Desch, Noah 10 10 17. Duga, Brady 10 10 18. Fazekas, Miklos 10 10 19. Flowers, Sue 10 10 20. Strout, Joe 10 10 21. Nicolle, Ludovic 7 55 22. Hala, Ladislav 7 7 23. Leshner, Will 7 7 24. Miller, Mike 7 7 25. Widyatama, Yudhi 7 7 26. Heithcock, JG 6 43

There are three ways to earn points: (1) scoring in the top 5 of any Challenge, (2) being the first person to find a bug in a published winning solution or, (3) being the first person to suggest a Challenge that I use. The points you can win are:

 1st place 20 points 2nd place 10 points 3rd place 7 points 4th place 4 points 5th place 2 points finding bug 2 points suggesting Challenge 2 points

Here is Peter's winning Klondike solution:

Klondike_ptruskier.rbp
Peter Truskier

```Window1
Window1.newGame:
Sub newGame()
Canvas1.newGame(flip3)
gameOver = false
gameUnderWay = false
pushNewState()
End Sub

Window1.Open:
Sub Open()
dim i as integer

canvas1.setDepth(32)
canvas1.repaint
newGame()
showScore = true
windowOpen = true
End Sub

Window1.Canvas1.MouseDrag:
Sub MouseDrag(X As Integer, Y As Integer)
dim i,j,m,n as integer

me.targetPile = nil
me.dragX = x
me.dragY = y

//are we dragging from the deck?
if me.theDeck.topCardDragging then
me.dragObj.matingRect.xUL = x - me.dragObj.mouseOffsetX
me.dragObj.matingRect.yUL = y - me.dragObj.mouseOffsetY
me.dragObj.matingRect.xLR = me.dragObj.matingRect.xUL + w1
me.dragObj.matingRect.yLR = me.dragObj.matingRect.yUL + h1
n = uBound(me.theTableaus)
for i = 0 to n
if me.theTableaus(i).myRect.isOverlapping(me.dragObj.matingRect) then
if me.theTableaus(i).canIDrop(me.dragObj) then
me.targetPile = me.theTableaus(i)
exit
end if
end if
next
n = uBound(me.theFoundations)
for i = 0 to n
if me.theFoundations(i).myRect.isOverlapping(me.dragObj.matingRect) then
if me.theFoundations(i).canIDrop(me.dragObj) then
me.targetPile = me.theFoundations(i)
exit
end if
end if
next
end if

//or a tableau?
m = uBound(me.theTableaus)
for j = 0 to m
if me.theTableaus(j).topCardDragging then
me.dragObj.matingRect.xUL = x - me.dragObj.mouseOffsetX
me.dragObj.matingRect.yUL = y - me.dragObj.mouseOffsetY
me.dragObj.matingRect.xLR = me.dragObj.matingRect.xUL + w1
me.dragObj.matingRect.yLR = me.dragObj.matingRect.yUL + h1
n = uBound(me.theTableaus)
for i = 0 to n
if me.theTableaus(i).myRect.isOverlapping(me.dragObj.matingRect) then
if me.theTableaus(i).canIDrop(me.dragObj) then
me.targetPile = me.theTableaus(i)
exit
end if
end if
next
n = uBound(me.theFoundations)
for i = 0 to n
if me.theFoundations(i).myRect.isOverlapping(me.dragObj.matingRect) then
if me.theFoundations(i).canIDrop(me.dragObj) then
me.targetPile = me.theFoundations(i)
exit
end if
end if
next
end if
next

me.repaint
End Sub

Window1.Canvas1.dealCards:
Sub dealCards()
dim i,j,n as integer
dim num as integer

for i = 0 to 6
for j = i to 6
num = num + 1
if j = i then
else
end if
next
next
//initialize the score
me.theScore = me.theScore - 52
//save a state on the stack
pushNewState()
End Sub

Window1.Canvas1.MouseUp:
Sub MouseUp(X As Integer, Y As Integer)
dim success as boolean
dim i,n as integer
dim temp as integer

if not gameOver then
temp = me.theScore
me.dragging = false
me.theDeck.topCardDragging = false
if me.deckRect1.isWithin(x,y) then
me.theDeck.flip
me.graphics.drawPicture dimCard,me.deckRect1.xUL,me.deckRect1.yUL
else
n = uBound(me.theTableaus)
for i = 0 to n
me.theTableaus(i).topCardDragging = false
next
if me.targetPile <> nil then
success = me.targetPile.dropCards(me.dragObj,temp)
me.dragObj.source.removeCards(me.dragObj)
me.dragObj = nil
elseif me.dragObj <> NIL then
//here's where we implement playng a top card to a foundation with a click
//in this case, me.targetPile will be nil, but me.dragObj will NOT
for i = 0 to 3
if me.theFoundations(i).canIDrop(me.dragObj) then
success = me.theFoundations(i).dropCards(me.dragObj,temp)
me.dragObj.source.removeCards(me.dragObj)
me.dragObj = nil
me.repaint
exit  //the for-next loop
end if
next
end if
end if
me.targetPile = nil
me.theScore = temp
me.repaint
end if
End Sub

Window1.Canvas1.MouseDown:
Function MouseDown(X As Integer, Y As Integer) As Boolean
dim i,n as integer

if not gameOver then
if me.deckRect2.isWithin(x,y) then
me.dragObj = me.theDeck.getDragCard(x,y,me.deckRect2.yUL,me.deckRect2.xUL)
me.dragging = true
else
for i = 0 to 6
if me.theTableaus(i).myRect.isWithin(x,y) then
n = uBound(me.theTableaus(i).theCards)
if n > -1 then
if me.theTableaus(i).theCards(n).faceUP then
me.dragObj = me.theTableaus(i).getDragCards(x,y)
me.dragging = true
else
me.theTableaus(i).theCards(uBound(me.theTableaus(i).theCards)).faceUP = true
pushNewState()
cardDownSound.play
end if
end if
end if
next
end if
return true
end if
End Function

Window1.Canvas1.Open:
Sub Open()
dim i as integer
//initilaize the position of our deck rectangles
me.deckRect1 = new aRectangle(20,220,w1,h1)
me.deckRect2 = new aRectangle(20,320,w1,h1+44)
End Sub

Window1.Canvas1.Paint:
Sub Paint(g as Graphics)
dim i,c,w as integer
dim s as string

if windowOpen then   //don't draw intot he window unless it ready
g.foreColor = backGroundColor
g.fillRect 0,0,me.width,me.height
//draw the deck
me.theDeck.drawSelf(g,me.deckRect1,me.deckRect2)
//draw each fo the tableaux
for i = 0 to 6
me.theTableaus(i).drawSelf(g)
next
//and each of the foundations
for i = 0 to 3
me.theFoundations(i).drawSelf(g)
next
//if we are dragging then draw the drag object's pict
if me.dragging then
if me.dragObj <> NIL then
g.drawPicture me.dragObj.thePic,me.dragX - me.dragObj.mouseOffsetX,me.dragY -
me.dragObj.mouseOffsetY
end if
end if
if showScore then
me.drawScore(g,480,20)
end if
if gameWon then
for i = 0 to 51
g.drawPicture packOfCards(i).cardPic,rnd*(self.width - w1),rnd*(self.height - h1)
next
c = round(rnd)*255
g.foreColor = rgb(c,0,0)
s = "You Win !!"
g.textSize = 110
w = g.stringWidth(s)
g.drawString s,(me.width - w)/2,me.height/2 + 18
end if
end if
End Sub

Card
// see online code

app
// see online code

CardConstants
// see online code

Globals
// see online code

deck
deck.deck:
Sub deck(f3 as boolean)
//constructor
dim i as integer

flipThree = f3
for i = 0 to 51
me.theCards.append packOfCards(i)
next
currentCard = -1
clearStates()
End Sub

deck.drawSelf:
Sub drawSelf(g as graphics,L as aRectangle, R as aRectangle)

dim x1,y1,x2,y2 as Integer
dim dY as integer
dim i,n,numCards,numUP as integer

x1 = L.xUL
y1 = L.yUL
x2 = R.xUL
y2 = R.yUL
if not gameOver then
g.drawPicture cardBack, x1,y1
g.drawPicture dimCard, x2,y2
if currentCard > -1 then
if flipThree then
n = 2
else
n = 0
end if
n = min(n,currentCard )
numCards = uBound(theCards)
for i = 0 to numCards
if theCards(i).faceUP then
numUP = numUP + 1
end if
next
if numUP = 0 then
theCards(currentCard).faceUP = true
end if
for i = -n to 0
if theCards(currentCard + i).faceUP then
g.drawPicture theCards(currentCard + i).cardPic,x2,y2 + dY
dY = dY + 19
end if
next
if dY > 0 then
dY = dY - 19
end if
if topCardDragging then
g.drawPicture dimCard,x2,y2+(numUP-1)*19
end if
else
g.drawPicture doneWithDeckCard, x1,y1
end if
else  //game over
g.drawPicture gameOverCard, x1,y1
end if
End Sub

deck.shuffle:
Sub shuffle()
dim i,j as integer
dim tempCard as card
dim t1,t2 as double

t1 = microseconds
shuffleSound.playLooping
do until t2 > t1 +750000
j = rnd*52
tempCard = theCards(j)
theCards.remove j
j = rnd*51
theCards.insert j,tempCard
t2 = microseconds
loop
for i = 0 to 51
theCards(i).faceUP = false
next
currentCard = -1
shuffleSound.stop
End Sub

deck.flip:
Sub flip()
dim i,n,numCards as integer
dim newCurrentCard as integer

if not gameOver then
numCards = uBound(theCards)
carddownSound.play
if not done then
if flipThree then
n = 3
else
n = 1
end if
//turn them all face down
for i = 0 to currentCard
theCards(i).faceUp = false
next
newCurrentCard = min(currentCard + n,numCards)
if newCurrentCard = numCards then
done = true
timesThroughDeck = timesThroughDeck + 1
if strict then
if flip3 then
gameOver = (timesThroughDeck = 3)
else
gameOver = (timesThroughDeck = 1)
end if
end if
end if
if newCurrentCard <= numCards then
for i = currentCard + 1 to newCurrentCard
theCards(i).faceUP = true
next
currentCard = newCurrentCard
end if
else  // the deck IS done
n = uBound(theCards)
for i = 0 to n
theCards(i).faceUp = false
next
currentCard = -1
done = false
end if
gameUnderWay = true
pushNewState()
end if

End Sub

deck.getTopCard:
Function getTopCard() As card
dim tempCard as card

tempCard = theCards(0)
theCards.remove 0
return tempCard
End Function

deck.getDragCard:
Function getDragCard(x as integer,y as integer,t as integer,l as integer) As dragObject
dim d as dragObject
dim p as picture
dim topCardTop as integer
dim i,numCards,numUP as integer

if currentCard > -1 then
numCards = uBound(theCards)
for i = 0 to numCards
if theCards(i).faceUP then
numUP = numUP + 1
end if
next

topCardTop = t + (numUP-1)*19

if y < topCardTop + h1 then
d = new dragObject
d.source = me
p = newpicture(dragCard.width,dragCard.height,32)
if p = nil then
msgBox "NIL PIC IN deck.getdragcards"
end if
d.theCards.append me.theCards(currentCard)
d.matingCard = me.theCards(currentCard)
p.graphics.drawPicture dragCard,0,0
p.graphics.drawPicture d.theCards(0).cardPic,0,0
d.thePic = p
d.mouseOffsetX = x - l
d.mouseOffsetY = y - topCardTop
topCardDragging = true
flySound.play
return d
end if
end if
End Function

deck.removeCards:
Sub removeCards(d As dragObject)
me.theCards.remove currentCard
currentCard = currentCard - 1
pushNewState()
End Sub

deck.stateString:
Function stateString() As string
//save a string representation of the current state of the deck
dim s as string
dim i,n as integer

if flipThree then
s = "3|"
else
s = "1|"
end if

s = s + str(currentCard) + "|"
if gameUnderWay then
s = s + "gameUnderWay"+"|"
else
s = s + "|"
end if
if gameOver then
s = s + "gameOver"+"|"
else
s = s + "|"
end if
if done then
s = s + "done"+"|"
else
s = s + "|"
end if

n = uBound(theCards)
for i = 0 to n
s = s + theCards(i).stateString + ","
next

return s
End Function

deck.restoreState:
Sub restoreState(stateStr as string)
//restore the state of the deck represented in the string saved by the stateString method

dim s,cardStr as string
dim i,n,v as integer

s = nthField(stateStr,"|",1)
me.flipThree = (s = "3")
s = nthField(stateStr,"|",2)
me.currentCard = val(s)

gameUnderWay = (nthField(stateStr,"|",3) = "gameUnderWay")
gameOver = (nthField(stateStr,"|",4) = "gameOver")
done = (nthField(stateStr,"|",5) = "done")
s = nthField(stateStr,"|",6)

n = countFields(s,",")

redim me.theCards(-1)
for i = 1 to n
if s <> "" then
cardStr = nthField(s,",",i)
if cardStr <> "" then
v = val(cardStr)
if v > 51 then
v = v - 52
packOfCards(v).faceUp = true
else
packOfCards(v).faceUp = false
end if
me.theCards.append packOfCards((v))
end if
end if
next
End Sub

deck.CardCount:
Function CardCount() As integer
return uBound(theCards) + 1
End Function

SmoothCanvas
// see online code

CardCanvas
CardCanvas.dealCards:
Sub dealCards()
dealCards()
End Sub

CardCanvas.newGame:
Sub newGame(flip3 as boolean)
dim i as integer

redim theFoundations(-1)
redim theTableaus(-1)

me.theDeck = new deck(flip3)
me.theDeck.shuffle
for i = 0 to 6
me.theTableaus.append new tableau(new aRectangle(110+65*i,120,w1,h1))
next

for i = 0 to 3
me.theFoundations.append new foundation(new aRectangle(110+97*i,10,w1,h1))
next
dealCards
timesThroughDeck = 0
me.repaint

End Sub

CardCanvas.drawScore:
Sub drawScore(g as graphics,x as integer,y as integer)
dim i,n as integer
dim s as string
dim neg as boolean

g.forecolor = rgb(0,0,0)
g.textSize = 12

neg = (theScore < 0)
s = "Score: "
if neg then
g.forecolor = rgb(255,0,0)
s = s + " - "
end if
s = s + "\$" + str(abs(theScore))
g.drawString s,x,y
End Sub

CardCanvas.updateWinningGameScore:
Sub updateWinningGameScore()
dim i,n as integer

theScore = theScore + me.theDeck.cardCount * 5
for i = 0 to 6
theScore = theScore + me.theTableaus(i).cardCount*5
next
End Sub

CardCanvas.stateString:
Function stateString() As string
return str(theScore)
End Function

CardCanvas.restoreState:
Sub restoreState(stateStr as string)
theScore = val(stateStr)
End Sub

soundGlobals
// see online code

aRectangle
// see online code

tableau
tableau.tableau:
Sub tableau(r as aRectangle)
me.myRect = r
End Sub

Sub addCard(c as card,fUP as boolean)

theCards.append c
c.faceUp = fUP

End Sub

tableau.drawSelf:
Sub drawSelf(g as graphics)
dim x,y,dY,numUP as integer
dim i,n as integer

n = uBound(theCards)
numUp = 0
x = myRect.xUL
y = myRect.yUL
g.drawPicture dimCard,x,y
for i = 0 to n
if theCards(i).faceUp then
g.drawPicture theCards(i).cardPic,x,y
y = y + 19
numUP = numUP + 1
else
g.drawPicture cardBack,x,y
y = y + 3
end if
next
if numUP = 0 then
numUP = 1
end if
if n = -1 then
n = 0
end if
myRect.yLR = myRect.yUL + h1
dY = (numUP - 1)*16 + (n)*3
myRect.yLR = myRect.yLR + dY
if me.couldAccept then
g.drawPicture hiliteCard,myRect.xUL,myRect.yLR - h1
couldAccept = false
end if
if topCardDragging then
g.drawPicture myDimCard,myRect.xUL,myRect.yLR - myDimCard.height
end if

End Sub

tableau.canIDrop:
Function canIDrop(d as dragObject) As boolean
dim n as integer

couldAccept = false
n = uBound(me.theCards)
if n > -1 then
couldAccept = (d.matingCard.isRed <> me.theCards(n).isRed) and
(d.matingCard.cardVal = me.theCards(n).cardVal - 1)
else
couldAccept = (d.matingCard.cardVal = 12)
end if
return couldAccept
End Function

tableau.dropCards:
Function dropCards(d As dragObject,byRef theScore as integer) As Boolean
dim i,n as integer

n = uBound(d.theCards)
cardDownSound.play
for i = 0 to n
d.theCards(i).faceUP = true
me.theCards.append d.theCards(i)
next
gameUnderWay = true
End Function

tableau.removeCards:
Sub removeCards(d As dragObject)
dim i,j,m,n as integer

n = uBound(d.theCards)
for i = 0 to n
m = uBound(me.theCards)
me.theCards.remove m
next
pushNewState()
End Sub

tableau.getDragCards:
Function getDragCards(x as integer,y as integer) As dragObject
dim d as dragObject
dim bottomCard as integer
dim i,numCards,numUP,curTop as integer
dim picHt as integer

if not gameOver then
bottomCard = whichCard(y)
d = new dragObject
if strict then
if bottomCard <> uBound(theCards) then  //unless it's the top card...
for i = 0 to (bottomCard-1)
if theCards(i).faceUP then
return d
//we'll return a null object since the player cannot play a partial run...
end if
next
end if
end if
if theCards(bottomCard).faceUP then
//don't even consider face down cards
d.source = me
numCards = uBound(theCards)
picHt = dragCard.height + (numCards - bottomCard)*19
p = newpicture(dragCard.width,picHt,32)
if p = nil then
msgBox "NIL PIC IN tableau.getdragcards"
end if

myDimCard = newpicture(w1,picHt-14,32)
if p = nil then
msgBox "NIL PIC IN tableau.getdragcards"
end if

if p = nil then
msgBox "NIL PIC IN tableau.getdragcards"
end if
p.graphics.foreColor = rgb(0,0,0)
p.graphics.fillrect 0,0,p.width,p.height

for i = bottomCard to numCards
d.theCards.append me.theCards(i)
p.graphics.drawPicture me.theCards(i).cardPic,0,curTop
p.graphics.drawPicture tempPic,0,curTop
if i = bottomCard then
else
end if
if i = bottomCard then
else
end if
curTop = curTop + 19
next

d.matingCard = me.theCards(bottomCard)
d.thePic = p
d.mouseOffsetX = x - me.myRect.xUL
d.mouseOffsetY = y - topOfCardY(bottomCard) - myRect.yUL
topCardDragging = true
end if
flySound.play
return d
end if
End Function

tableau.whichCard:
Function whichCard(canvasY as integer) As integer
dim i,n,testY as integer

testY = 0
n = uBound(me.theCards)
for i = 0 to n
if testY > canvasY-myRect.yUL then
return i - 1
end if
if theCards(i).faceUP then
testY = testY + 19
else
testY = testY + 3
end if
next
return n
//if we've gotten here, it must be the top card...
End Function

tableau.topOfCardY:
Function topOfCardY(theIndex as integer) As integer
//this function will return the top of the specified card in local coordinates

dim i,n,curTop as integer
n = uBound(theCards)

for i = 0 to n
if i = theIndex then
exit
end if
if theCards(i).faceUP then
curTop = curTop + 19
else
curTop = curTop + 3
end if
next
return curTop
End Function

tableau.stateString:
Function stateString() As string
//save a string representation of the current state of this tableau
dim s as string
dim i,n as integer

s = myRect.stateString + "|"
n = uBound(theCards)
for i = 0 to n
s = s + theCards(i).stateString + ","
next
return s
End Function

tableau.restoreState:
Sub restoreState(stateStr as string)
//restore the state of this tableau represented in the string saved by the stateString method
dim s,cardStr as string
dim i,n,v as integer

s = nthField(stateStr,"|",1)
me.myRect.restoreState(s)
s = nthField(stateStr,"|",2)
n = countFields(s,",")
redim me.theCards(-1)
for i = 1 to n
if s <> "" then
cardStr = nthField(s,",",i)
if cardStr <> "" then
v = val(cardStr)
if v > 51 then
v = v - 52
packOfCards(v).faceUp = true
else
packOfCards(v).faceUp = false
end if
me.theCards.append packOfCards((v))
end if
end if
next

End Sub

tableau.allFaceUp:
Function allFaceUp() As boolean
dim i,n as integer

if uBound(me.theCards) <=0 then
return true
end if

n = uBound(theCards)
for i = 0 to n
if not theCards(i).faceUP then
return false
end if
next
return true
End Function

tableau.cardCount:
Function cardCount() As integer
return uBound(theCards) + 1
End Function

Foundation
Foundation.foundation:
Sub foundation(r as aRectangle)
me.myRect = r
End Sub

theCards.append c
End Sub

Foundation.drawSelf:
Sub drawSelf(g as graphics)
dim x,y,dY,numUP as integer
dim i,n as integer

n = uBound(theCards)

x = myRect.xUL
y = myRect.yUL

g.drawPicture dimCard,x,y
if n > -1 then
g.drawPicture theCards(n).cardPic,x,y
end if
if me.couldAccept then
g.drawPicture hiliteCard,myRect.xUL,myRect.yUL
couldAccept = false
end if
End Sub

Foundation.canIDrop:
Function canIDrop(d As dragObject) As Boolean
dim n as integer

couldAccept = false
n = uBound(d.theCards)
if n <> 0 then //you can only move one card to a foundation
return couldAccept
end if
n = uBound(me.theCards)
if n > -1 then
couldAccept = (d.matingCard.cardSuit = me.theCards(n).cardSuit) and
(d.matingCard.cardVal = me.theCards(n).cardVal + 1)
else
couldAccept = (d.matingCard.cardVal = 0)
end if
return couldAccept
End Function

Foundation.dropCards:
Function dropCards(d As dragObject,byRef theScore as integer) As boolean
cardDownSound.play
d.theCards(0).faceUP = true
me.theCards.append d.theCards(0)
theScore = theScore + 5
gameUnderWay = true
return true
End Function

Foundation.stateString:
Function stateString() As string
//save a string representation of the current state of this foundation
dim s as string
dim i,n as integer

n = uBound(theCards)
for i = 0 to n
s = s + theCards(i).stateString + ","
next
return s
End Function

Foundation.restoreState:
Sub restoreState(stateStr as string)
//restore the state of this foundation represented in the string saved by the stateString method
dim i,n,v as integer
dim s,cardStr as string

n = countFields(stateStr,",")

redim me.theCards(-1)
for i = 1 to n
cardStr = nthField(stateStr,",",i)
if cardStr <> "" then
v = val(cardStr)
if v > 51 then
v = v - 52
packOfCards(v).faceUp = true
else
packOfCards(v).faceUp = false
end if
me.theCards.append packOfCards((v))
end if
next
End Sub

dragObject
dragObject.dragObject:
Sub dragObject()
//the "matingRect" is the rectangle that we will test for overlap with each
// tableau and foundation
me.matingRect = new aRectangle(0,0,w1,h1)
End Sub

DroppablePile.canIDrop:
Function canIDrop(d as dragObject) As boolean

End Function

DroppablePile
DroppablePile.dropCards:
Function dropCards(d as dragObject,byRef theScore as integer) As boolean

End Function

dropSource.removeCards:
Sub removeCards(d as dragObject)

End Sub

stateMachine
stateMachine.theStateString:
Function theStateString() As string
dim i,n as integer
dim s as string

s = globalsStateString + "&"
s = s + window1.canvas1.stateString + "&"
s = s + window1.canvas1.theDeck.stateString + "&"
for i = 0 to 6
s = s + window1.canvas1.theTableaus(i).stateString + "&"
next
for i = 0 to 2
s = s + window1.canvas1.theFoundations(i).stateString + "&"
next
s = s + window1.canvas1.theFoundations(3).stateString
return s
End Function

stateMachine.restoreTheState:
Sub restoreTheState(stateStr as string)
dim i,n as integer
dim s as string

restoreGlobals(nthField(stateStr,"&",1))
window1.canvas1.restoreState(nthField(stateStr,"&",2))
window1.canvas1.theDeck.restoreState(nthField(stateStr,"&",3))
for i = 0 to 6
window1.canvas1.theTableaus(i).restoreState(nthField(stateStr,"&",i+4))
next
for i = 0 to 3
window1.canvas1.theFoundations(i).restoreState(nthField(stateStr,"&",i+11))
next
window1.canvas1.repaint
End Sub

stateMachine.initStateMachine:
Sub initStateMachine()
currentState = -1
End Sub

stateMachine.undoAvailable:
Function undoAvailable() As boolean
return currentState > 0
End Function

stateMachine.redoAvailable:
Function redoAvailable() As boolean
return uBound(stateArray) > currentState
End Function

stateMachine.pushNewState:
Sub pushNewState()
dim i,n as integer
dim s as string

//first we need to pop off anything above our current state..

n = uBound(stateArray)
for i = currentState+1 to n
stateArray.remove (currentState+1)
next
s = theStateString
stateArray.append s
currentState = uBound(stateArray)
if hasGameBeenWon then
doGameWinRoutine
end if
//now we'll raise our flag to mark us as dirty
gDirty = true
End Sub

stateMachine.undo:
Sub undo()
currentState = currentState - 1
restoreTheState(stateArray(currentState))
undoSound.play
End Sub

stateMachine.redo:
Sub redo()
currentState = currentState + 1
undoSound.play
restoreTheState(stateArray(currentState))
End Sub

stateMachine.clearStates:
Sub clearStates()
redim stateArray(-1)
currentState = -1
End Sub

stateMachine.startOver:
Sub startOver()
dim i,n as integer

n = uBound(stateArray)
for i = n downto 0
currentState = i
restoreTheState(stateArray(i))
undoSound.play
next
End Sub

stateMachine.saveGameFile:
Function saveGameFile() As boolean
dim f as folderItem
dim tos as textOutputStream
dim i,n as integer

f = getSaveFolderItem("TEXT","myGame")
if f <> NIL then
tos = f.createTextFile
if tos <> NIL then
n = uBound(stateArray)
for i = 0 to n
tos.writeLine stateArray(i)
next
tos.close
gDirty = false
return true
end if
end if
return false
End Function

stateMachine.openGameFile:
Function openGameFile() As boolean
dim f as folderItem
dim tis as textInputStream
dim s as string

f = getOpenFolderItem("TEXT")
if f <> NIL then
tis = f.openAsTextFile
if tis <> NIL then
clearStates()
while not tis.eof
stateArray.append s
currentState = uBound(stateArray)
wend
restoreTheState(stateArray(currentState))
gDirty = false
return true
end if
end if
return false
End Function

// see online code

PrefsWin
// see online code

// see online code
```

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