TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Feb 01 ADC Direct Volume Number: 17 (2001)
Issue Number: 2
Column Tag: ADC Direct

Tools for the Trade

By Godfrey DiGiorgi

The focus of this article is Apple's development tools. Apple has been working on a Mac OS X tool suite to address all facets of Mac OS X development needs and provide valuable options for all developers.

Recalling from the first article in this series, Mac OS X is all about choices: what to develop, what to take advantage of in this new state of the art operating system. From its UNIX - based kernel to its advanced object - oriented application frameworks, Mac OS X provides a wide variety of opportunities for new products, each of which presents a need for development tools support.

The Apple Developer Connection (ADC) ensures the success of Macintosh developers by supporting them at Apple events. During Macworld San Francisco, ADC members displayed software and hardware products to customers and received discounts on booth space and CPUs. ADC has similar programs in place for Macworld Tokyo, Macworld Paris, and many other shows. ADC Members in Europe were recently treated to a series of in-depth developer briefings. These briefings, designed for developers who want to make the move to Mac OS X by carbonizing their applications and plug-ins, covered topics such as Aqua, Carbon, Cocoa, Core OS, and Java. Be sure to mark your calendar for Apple's Worldwide Developers Conference 2001, which takes place in San Jose, California from May 21-25. Details and preliminary schedules will be available soon.

The first developer tool to highlight is Mac OS X reference documentation. In particular, developers wishing to understand and take full advantage of Mac OS X's capabilities should start by reading "Inside Mac OS X: System Overview", available from the Apple Developer Connection web site in the Mac OS X Documentation section, System Overview category:

http://developer.apple.com/techpubs/ macosx/macosx.html

This book will take you through the entire operating system from the kernel OpenSource layer (Darwin) to the Aqua User Experience and give you the system overview necessary to make development choices.

Let's say you've already chosen your development area; you have your product in mind; you know what you want it to do; you have chosen your development API set from the choices available in Carbon, Cocoa, Java, BSD or Kernel centric realms. In front of you is the next set of choices: What development tools will you use to achieve your development goals most effectively?

Both Apple Computer and third-party tool vendors have a long history of delivering Mac OS development tools which span the gamut: from high - level, easy to use, and fast to learn tools to commercially oriented, high - power tool suites that approach every kind of operating system component and application development. No less is true for Mac OS X. Apple has been working closely with third-party IDE and other tool vendors to bring their tools to Mac OS X, including Metrowerks' CodeWarrior Pro and Real Software's REALbasic along with many others. For a more detailed listing of available tools and URL links to their vendors, see the Development Tools page on the Apple Developer Connection web site:

http://developer.apple.com/tools/

Let's now take a brief look at Apple's development tools for Mac OS X.

Project Builder

Project Builder is Apple's integrated development environment (IDE) for Mac OS X. It is designed to fully support all of the major platform initiatives of Mac OS X, such as the Carbon and Cocoa frameworks, Java, I/O Kit and the application bundle mechanisms. It provides templates for quick creation of new projects; a few clicks of the mouse will create a starter project for an I/O Kit driver, a standard UNIX type tool, or a Cocoa or Carbon application. Everything that can be written for Mac OS X can be created with Project Builder including applications, tools, frameworks, libraries, plug-in bundles, down to kernel extensions and device drivers.

Project Builder provides project editing, search and navigation facilities, file editing, build system and target setup, and high - level debugging facilities. Language implementations allow development using C, C++, Objective-C and Java. CVS source code control system access is integrated into the user interface.

All of these features are built on top of industry standard tool components provided by Mac OS X, allowing for great robustness and compatibility with source code developed on many platforms. C, C++ and Objective-C compilers are the gcc compiler suite; Java is compiled with either javac from Sun's JDK or with the jikes compiler from IBM. The build system is based upon jam, a high performance 'make' with reduced maintenance requirements. Project Builder's debugger uses gdb providing both high level debug panes and direct access to gdb commands for any desired runtime inspection.

The design centers of Project Builder provide robustness and flexibility along with multi-user, multi-project capabilities. In order to keep project management and debugging clear and consistent, Project Builder uses a paned-window approach in its UI with growable/collapsible areas that allow maximized effectiveness when working in a specific area of its functionality. It can open separate editing windows when multiple files need to be available at the same time. Project Builder is also able to accommodate pre-existing and legacy projects, with support for makefile driven builds as well as CodeWarrior project imports.

Interface Builder

Interface Builder is Apple's user interface design tool for applications. Developers using its graphical editing environment can manage virtually every aspect of creating a well designed user interface that adheres to the Aqua user interface guidelines. It's great for prototyping and fast development changes.

Interface Builder understands all Carbon and Cocoa UI elements and produces 'nib' files that provide a modern way to manage and develop the static resources used by applications. Recent enhancements to Interface Builder include layout tools that use guides and distance measurement tailored for Aqua, a high degree of integration with Project Builder, and improvements in performance, stability, and "Undo" capability.

Interface Builder provides the easiest way to use advanced Carbon Events in the Carbon application development process and it is a highly tuned part of the Cocoa application development process through implementation of the Cocoa concepts of outlets and actions. By leveraging the AppKit and Foundation frameworks of Cocoa, Interface Builder provides a highly efficient rapid application development environment.

Interface Builder works with Project Builder to make application design and implementation more productive and to create highly reliable, good looking applications. Expect much more to come as Apple evolves these applications to take advantage of upcoming Mac OS X features.

Performance Tools

Mac OS X is a new operating system with new libraries and semantics that can differ in many ways from previous incarnations of Mac OS. There are different costs to the use of these APIs, often different algorithms are required to get the most out of your implementation. Apple has developed several performance analysis tools that are available to you now. Inspection capabilities that we have developed fall into roughly three categories:

  • System State: memory, resource usage, system calls
  • Execution Patterns: profiling and tracing
  • Memory usage: tracing allocations and leaks

One group of these tools leverages the command line environment provided by BSD services and allows for minimally invasive ways to gather data about a running application. These include but are not limited to:

top - determine what tasks are executing and statistics

fs_usage, sc_usage - observe system call usage

At a higher level, there is Sampler for 'on the fly' profiling. This tool stops the program at intervals to see what's running, summarizes which functions and call traces were seen, and provides a statistical look at runtime operation. It requires no recompilation or source code changes to do its job. It's best for exploring an application's execution in large context; the command-line version, 'sample', is great for seeing why an application is hanging.

Discounts on Mac OS X Migration

Bring Your Apps to Mac OS X

With Mac OS X Public Beta here, and the commercial release just over the horizon, Mac developers everywhere have a huge need for Carbon and Cocoa application porting, Aqua user interface implementation, and driver development services. Several high-quality software engineering firms, in association with the Apple Developer Connection, are offering these services at very attractive discounts to all ADC Select and Premier members.

http://developer.apple.com/mkt/macosxmigration.html

A last tool to highlight here is MallocDebug. MallocDebug is intended to do memory heap analysis, answering difficult questions like:

  • How much heap memory is a program using?
  • Where has a buffer been overrun or underrun?
  • Which functions request large chunks of memory?
  • Am I leaking memory?

MallocDebug can tell you how much memory is used at specific times and identify the call stack leading to each allocation. It can also see all Carbon, Core Foundation and Objective-C memory allocations.

Use of these analysis tools can contribute to substantial improvements in application performance and reliability.

Delivery and Documentation ... where to go for more!

All of Apple's Mac OS X development tools are distributed on a companion CD to Mac OS X called the "Mac OS X Developer Tools CD". This jam-packed CD contains packages that install the applications, reference documentation and sample code into a Mac OS X configured system.

Documentation for tools and APIs is available from within running applications using the Mac OS X help system's "Developer Center" and in the form of HTML pages viewable with any browser. On a Mac OS X Public Beta system with the Developer Tools CD installed, see the file:

/Developer/Documentation/DeveloperTools/devtools.html

The first version of the Mac OS X Developer Tools CD was delivered in conjunction with Mac OS X Public Beta, mailed directly to all Premier, Select, and Student members of the Apple Developer Connection. A downloadable version was made available to all ADC Online program members. Future plans include similar distribution, and web-based component and documentation updates. Stay tuned for future announcements on these plans!

Summing up

Choosing your development tools is important. You should weigh the strengths of all the development tool options to achieve your implementation goals. Apple's tool suite provides a rich set of capabilities for Mac OS X development allowing you to access every feature of this new operating system and providing you with the broadest development flexibility.


Godfrey DiGiorgi is Technology Manager for Development Tools and Cocoa in Apple Worldwide Developer Relations. He's in his 8th year at Apple, having spent six years in Developer Technical Support as an engineer and manager. Godfrey has been involved with software development on Mac OS since 1984, working on Radar Imaging applications while at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and later in the chemical research industry as lead architect/engineer for a cross-platform application framework implemented on Mac OS. He also spent two years at Sun Microsystems as part of the team that developed the specification for the Java Card language platform.

Did You Know?

Finding API Information from Project Builder

Through integration with the Mac OS X help system, Project Builder makes it easy to look up reference documentation on functions, methods, structures, and other API symbols directly from your code. This feature is easy to set up and use.

  1. Index your project. Choose Index Project from the Project menu. Indexing caches the definitions of all project symbols, including those of imported frameworks and libraries. These symbols are also captured in the reference documentation as special tags embedded in the HTML.
  2. Search for definitions. Choose Show Batch Find from the Find menu (or click the Find tab) and, in the Batch Find pane, choose Definitions from the pop-up menu. Then type the name (full or partial) of an API symbol in the Find field and click the Find button. To look up a symbol directly from your code, select the symbol in your code and press Command-Shift-E (Find > Find Selection).
  3. Click the book icon. When you search for a symbol definition, Project Builder returns a list of all symbols that match what you entered. If documentation on the symbol is available, it displays a book icon next to the symbol. Click the icon to display the documentation in Help Viewer.

The Developer Help Center section of Help Viewer includes a feature allowing you to copy declarations and other code "snippets" into your project. Click the folder icon next to the declaration or example to copy it to the Clipboard. Then, in Project Builder, move the insertion point to the desired place in your code and paste the declaration or code example from the Clipboard.

New Mac OS X Related Releases

The following software is available from the Download Software area of the ADC Member Site at: http://connect.apple.com/

Latest CarbonLib SDK

The CarbonLib SDK provides all the files needed to begin Carbon development.

Apple MacApp 15d3

Apple MacApp 15d3 is an application framework for creating user-friendly, object-oriented applications for the Mac OS. This release includes support for building with Project Builder, a new framework of helper classes for Mac OS X's Core Foundation, and updates to a variety of Toolbox suites in ACS.

Developer Documentation

The following new and updated documentation is available to help you on your way to successful Mac OS X application and peripheral development at: http://developer.apple.com/techpubs/

  • Moon Travel Tutorial (Building a Simple Carbon Application)
  • Providing User Assistance With Apple Help
  • Handling Unicode Text Editing With Multilingual Text Engine
  • Aqua Human Interface Guidelines
  • Navigation Services for Carbon API Reference
  • Managing Fonts With the Font Manager
  • Programming With Language Analysis Manager
  • Using Apple Japanese Analysis Engine and Access Method
  • Programming With Dictionary Manager
  • Rendering Library Preliminary Reference
  • Carbon Specification
  • Carbon Event Manager Preliminary API Reference
  • Carbon Porting Guide
  • Drag Manager Reference
  • AGL Reference
  • Games Sprockets Reference
  • Power Manager Reference
  • Matching Fonts With Font Sync
  • Window Manager Reference
  • Dialog Manager Reference
  • Menu Manager Reference
  • File Manager Reference
  • Transferring Data With the URL Access Manager
  • Implementing Security Features Using the Keychain Manager
  • TN2009 - The Browser Control (aka That ListView Thing)
  • TN2006 - MP-Safe Routines
  • TN1128 - Understanding Open Transport Memory Management
  • Q&A JAVA28 - Creating JNI Libraries With Project BuilderMac
  • Q&A JAVA29 - Creating Mac OS X Applications From Java JAR Files
  • SAMPLECODE - Networking: OTMP
  • SAMPLECODE - Networking: DumpNetworkSetup
  • SAMPLECODE - Overview: MoreIsBetter
  • SAMPLECODE - Processes: CallMachOFramework

Carbon Tips & Tricks

The Apple Developer Connection web site now includes a Carbon "Tips & Tricks" web page dedicated to sharing special techniques for debugging and building Carbon applications. http://developer.apple.com/macosx/carbon/tipsandtricks.html

Upcoming Seminars and Events

For more information on Apple developer events please visit the developer Events page at: http://developer.apple.com/events/

Training and Seminars

Programming with Cocoa

Taught by Aaron Hillegass at the Big Nerd Ranch, Ashville, NC and Atlanta, GA. Five-day classes are taught on developing web-based and Mac OS X applications http://www.bignerdranch.com/when.html

Developer Related Conferences

* MACWORLD Expo Tokyo 2001 February 22-24 Macworld conference and Expo Tokyo provides you with the ideal venue to introduce your company and products to over 200,000 eager attendees. Special exhibitor packages and hardware discounts for ADC Premier and Select members are available. http://developer.apple.com/mkt/mwtokyo2001.html

* Worldwide Developers Conference (WWDC) 2001, San Jose, California May 21-25 WWDC 2001, the definitive event for Mac software and hardware developers, is coming to the San Jose Convention Center a week later than usual this May. Mark your calendar now and read ADC Direct for updates. http://developer.apple.com/mkt/

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Dropbox 193.4.5594 - Cloud backup and sy...
Dropbox is a file hosting service that provides cloud storage, file synchronization, personal cloud, and client software. It is a modern workspace that allows you to get to all of your files, manage... Read more
Google Chrome 122.0.6261.57 - Modern and...
Google Chrome is a Web browser by Google, created to be a modern platform for Web pages and applications. It utilizes very fast loading of Web pages and has a V8 engine, which is a custom built... Read more
Skype 8.113.0.210 - Voice-over-internet...
Skype is a telecommunications app that provides HD video calls, instant messaging, calling to any phone number or landline, and Skype for Business for productive cooperation on the projects. This... Read more
Tor Browser 13.0.10 - Anonymize Web brow...
Using Tor Browser you can protect yourself against tracking, surveillance, and censorship. Tor was originally designed, implemented, and deployed as a third-generation onion-routing project of the U.... Read more
Deeper 3.0.4 - Enable hidden features in...
Deeper is a personalization utility for macOS which allows you to enable and disable the hidden functions of the Finder, Dock, QuickTime, Safari, iTunes, login window, Spotlight, and many of Apple's... Read more
OnyX 4.5.5 - Maintenance and optimizatio...
OnyX is a multifunction utility that you can use to verify the startup disk and the structure of its system files, to run miscellaneous maintenance and cleaning tasks, to configure parameters in the... Read more
Hopper Disassembler 5.14.1 - Binary disa...
Hopper Disassembler is a binary disassembler, decompiler, and debugger for 32- and 64-bit executables. It will let you disassemble any binary you want, and provide you all the information about its... Read more
WhatsApp 24.3.78 - Desktop client for Wh...
WhatsApp is the desktop client for WhatsApp Messenger, a cross-platform mobile messaging app which allows you to exchange messages without having to pay for SMS. WhatsApp Messenger is available for... Read more
War Thunder 2.33.0.135 - Multiplayer war...
In War Thunder, aircraft, attack helicopters, ground forces and naval ships collaborate in realistic competitive battles. You can choose from over 1,500 vehicles and an extensive variety of combat... Read more
Iridient Developer 4.2 - Powerful image-...
Iridient Developer (was RAW Developer) is a powerful image-conversion application designed specifically for OS X. Iridient Developer gives advanced photographers total control over every aspect of... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Gorgeous Tactical Puzzle Game ‘Howl’ is...
Following its release on PC and Nintendo Switch this past November, and it’s arrival on Xbox and PlayStation back in January, publisher Astragon Entertainment and developer Mi’pu’mi Games are now bringing their super stylish tactical puzzler Howl to... | Read more »
Best iPhone Game Updates: ‘Shoot the Moo...
Hello everyone, and welcome to the week! It’s time once again for our look back at the noteworthy updates of the last seven days. It feels like a bit of a dry spell this week, at least in terms of really interesting updates. I mean, I found some... | Read more »
Celebrate Phobies spooky second annivers...
Get ready to have that classic song stuck in your head, as Phobies celebrates its second anniversary with the release of its latest update; Birthday Bash, Monster Mash. Starting March 5th and lasting for four weeks, it will be a month of... | Read more »
‘Dissidia Final Fantasy Opera Omnia’ Sto...
Square Enix finally shut down Dissidia Final Fantasy Opera Omnia (Free) on iOS and Android last week following the end of service announcement back in November last year. Following the game shutting down, Square Enix | Read more »
‘Monster Hunter Now’ Is Celebrating the...
Niantic and Capcom have begun celebrating the 20th anniversary of Capcom’s best franchise from today inside Monster Hunter Now (Free) on iOS and Android for a limited time. | Read more »
New ‘Warframe Mobile’ Update Adds 60fps...
Warframe Mobile (Free) launched worldwide on iOS just under two weeks ago. I’ve been playing it for review across multiple iOS devices, but have also been picking it up on Steam Deck and Switch to compare. Right from launch, I was impressed with... | Read more »
Passionate About Fidget Toys – The Touch...
In this week’s episode of The TouchArcade Show we kick things off with some passionate discussion about… fidget toys? For some reason? We quickly change gears to talk about the card-based rogulike Balatro, which we’ve both been playing and enjoying... | Read more »
TouchArcade Game of the Week: ‘Flying Ta...
For me Hexage is one of those developers that harkens back to the early days of the App Store and really the beginnings of iPhone gaming. I have spent many collective hours playing the likes of Totemo, Radiant, Radiant Defense, EVAC, Reaper… the... | Read more »
SwitchArcade Round-Up: ‘Ufouria 2: The S...
Hello gentle readers, and welcome to the SwitchArcade Round-Up for March 1st, 2024. In today’s article, we’re looking at the remaining releases of the week. There are a few really good ones today, but the bin bunch certainly isn’t going home hungry... | Read more »
Steam Deck Weekly: Reviews of PowerWash...
Welcome to the first Steam Deck Weekly of March and this week’s edition is bigger than usual. I was a bit unwell last week and had to push some reviews to this week. Alongside that, there have been many notable announcements, releases, and new Steam... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple discontinues 15-inch M2 MacBook Airs, d...
With today’s introduction of new M3-powered 15″ MacBook Airs, Apple has dropped prices on clearance, Certified Refurbished, 15″ M2 MacBook Airs to a new low of $1019. These are the cheapest 15″... Read more
Price Drop! 13-inch M2 MacBook Airs at Apple...
Apple has dropped prices on Certified Refurbished 13″ M2 MacBook Airs to a new low of $849. These are the cheapest M2-powered MacBooks for sale at Apple. Apple’s one-year warranty is included,... Read more
Apple finally discontinues the 13-inch M1 Mac...
With the introduction of M3-powered 13″ MacBook Airs today, Apple has dropped prices on clearance 13″ M1 MacBook Airs, Certified Refurbished, to $759 for 8-Core CPU/7-Core GPU/256GB models and $929... Read more
Updated Apple iPad Price Trackers
Our Apple award-winning iPad Price Trackers are the best place to find the latest information on iPad sales and deals. We track prices from 20+ Apple retailers, including Apple, Amazon, Best Buy,... Read more
Updated Apple MacBook Price Trackers
Our Apple award-winning MacBook Price Trackers are continually updated with the latest information on prices, bundles, and availability for 16″, 14″, and (recently-discontinued) 13″ MacBook Pros... Read more
Mac Studios with Apple M2 Max and M2 Ultra CP...
B&H Photo has the standard-configuration Mac Studio model with Apple’s M2 Ultra CPU in stock today and on sale for $300 off MSRP, now $3699 (24-Core CPU and 64GB RAM/1TB SSD). B&H Photo has... Read more
Extended: Switch to Verizon and get the Apple...
Verizon has the iPhone 15 on sale for $0 per month when you add a new line if service. Discount is applied to your account monthly over a 36 month term and is valid for the 128GB model. For the first... Read more
Select 16-inch M3 Pro and M3 Max MacBook Pros...
B&H Photo has select 16-inch M3 Pro and M3 Max MacBook Pros on sale for $250 off MSRP. Their prices are the lowest currently available for these configurations. Free 1-2 day shipping is available... Read more
27-inch Apple Studio Displays on sale for $10...
B&H Photo has 27″ Apple Studio Displays on sale for $100 off MSRP today. Free 1-2 day shipping is available to most US addresses: – Studio Display (Standard glass, Tilt stand): $1499 $100 off... Read more
iPad Airs return to their all-time lowest pri...
Best Buy has 10.9″ M1 WiFi iPad Airs on record-low sale prices again for $150 off Apple’s MSRP, starting at $449. Sale prices for online orders only, in-store price may vary. Order online, and choose... Read more

Jobs Board

Teller Part Time *Apple* Valley MN *Apple*...
…is not eligible for Visa sponsorship **Posting Location:** + 15574 Pilot Knod Road Apple Valley, MN 55124 @RWF22 **Posting End Date:** Job posting may come down Read more
*Apple* End User Support Specialist - North...
…that they are performed. + Responsible for support of all College owned Apple computers, mobile ios devices, and peripherals, and for diagnosing and resolving Read more
Omnichannel Associate - *Apple* Blossom Mal...
Omnichannel Associate - Apple Blossom Mall Location:Winchester, VA, United States (https://jobs.jcp.com/jobs/location/191170/winchester-va-united-states) - Apple Read more
Teller Part Time *Apple* Valley MN *Apple*...
…is not eligible for Visa sponsorship **Posting Location:** + 15574 Pilot Knod Road Apple Valley, MN 55124 @RWF22 **Posting End Date:** Job posting may come down Read more
Nurse Anesthetist - *Apple* Hill Surgery Ce...
Nurse Anesthetist - Apple Hill Surgery Center WellSpan Medical Group, York, PA | Advanced Practice Providers | Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetists | FTE: 1 | Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.