TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Nov 99 Challenge

Volume Number: 15 (1999)
Issue Number: 11
Column Tag: Programmer's Challenge

Programmer's Challenge

by Bob Boonstra, Westford, MA

Putting Green

I'll confess. While I'm as much of a sports fan as the next guy, I've never been able to get excited about golf. Not playing it, except maybe a round of miniature golf while on vacation each summer. Not watching it, which is the closest thing to watching grass grow that I can imagine. In fact, I have a hard time even thinking of golf as a sport. Real sports involve perspiration. Real sports involve being exhausted. Golf doesn't have either, as near as I have been able to tell, and therefore couldn't be worth getting involved in. Or so I thought.

Feeling this way, I didn't pay very much attention to the news that the 1999 Ryder Cup was going to be held relatively close by. And, when a ticket to the first day of matches came my way, I thought about passing it on to someone else. For a few days, that is. Until I started reading some of the growing volume of newspaper coverage and got an appreciation for what a really big deal people were making of this. It seemed even bigger than the baseball All Star game, also held in Boston this year. Baseball, also not the most intense sport, involves some amount of running and perspiration. So if the Ryder Cup was as big as the All Star game, it must be worth watching. So I decided to attend.

What, you must be asking, does any of this have to do with the Programmer's Challenge? Did someone substitute an issue of Sports Illustrated under the cover? No, it's just that the Ryder Cup provided the inspiration for this month's Challenge. Watching Tiger Woods make a birdie putt on the 10th, watching three teams miss essentially the same putt on the 14th, my mind turned to - why, physics, of course. How did they read (or misread) those breaks? Your Challenge will be to figure it out.

The Challenge this month is going to be to put some simulated balls into simulated holes on simulated greens. The greens will be provided to you as an array of three dimensional points, divided into an array of adjoining triangles. You will "putt" the ball by imparting a velocity. The ball will move according to a black box propagation model that incorporates the effects of gravity and drag. How are you supposed to know how the ball will move if you don't have the propagation code? The same way Tiger and Monty do it, of course - practice!

The prototype for the code you should write is:

#if defined(__cplusplus)
extern "C" {
#endif

#include <MacTypes.h>

typedef struct Point3DDouble {
 double x;
 double y;
 double z;
} Point3DDouble;

typedef struct Velocity2DDouble {
 double x;
 double y;
} Velocity2DDouble;

typedef struct MyTriangle {
  long pointIndices[3];   /* index of points comprising the triangle */
} MyTriangle;

typedef struct BallPosition {
  double time;
  Point3DDouble pt;
} BallPosition;

void InitGreen(
  Point3DDouble points[], /* green terrain description */
  long numPoints,         /* number of points */
  MyTriangle triangles[], /* triangles comprising the green */
  int numTriangles,       /* number of triangles */
  long pinTriangle,       /* index in triangles[] of the pin on this green */
  long numPracticeHoles,
            /* number of unscored (but timed) holes to practice on this green */
  long numScoredHoles       /* number of holes to be scored on this green */
);
  
void StartHole(   /* called to start play on this hole */
  Point3DDouble ballPosition, /* initial ball position on the green */
  Boolean practice   /* TRUE if this hole is practice */
);

Boolean /* quit */ MakePutt(
  Velocity2DDouble *xyVelocity
   /* return initial ball velocity in the z==0 plane */
);

void BallMovement(
  BallPosition ballPositions[],
                     /* provides ball movement in response to MakePutt */
  int numBallPositions, /* number of ballPositions provided */
  Boolean inHole   /* true if the ball went into the hole */
);

#if defined(__cplusplus)
}
#endif

For each green you play on, your InitGreen routine will be called. It will be provided with the coordinates of numPoints points and with the numTriangles triangles that describe the topography of the green. One of the triangles (triangles[pinTriangle]) will represent the pin position on this hole - you need to move the ball from the starting ballPosition so that it enters this triangle in order to complete the hole. InitGreen will also be given the number of practice holes and the number of scored holes to be played on this green, each with a different initial ballPosition. The practice holes will all be played before any of the nonpractice holes, and the number of practice holes will always be at least as great as the number of nonpractice holes.

For each hole, your StartHole routine will be called with the initial ballPosition for that hole. The practice indicator will be set to TRUE if this is a practice hole. Next, your MakePutt and BallMovement routines will be called repeatedly until you put the ball in the hole (inHole==TRUE) or until you quit (MakePutt returns TRUE). You might quit on a practice hole if you decide you don't need any more practice (saving execution time). You might quit on a nonpractice hole if you decide that the cost of completing the hole exceeds the benefit (see the notes on scoring below).

MakePutt returns the velocity vector you want to impart for this shot. It is important to remember that your stroke velocity is specified in the x-y plane. That velocity will be increased (by 1/cos(slope)) to compensate for terrain angle. As the ball moves, the velocity will accelerated due to the effect of gravity, and decelerated due to the effect of drag.

BallMovement provides you with the results of your shot as a sequence of numBallPositions BallPositions. Each BallPosition has a three-dimensional position and a time tag (in seconds relative to the start of this shot). The inHole flag will tell you whether the ball went into the hole, indicating that the hole is over.

Solutions will be scored based on the number of holes successfully completed, the number of strokes required to complete those holes, and the amount of execution time expended. Each completed nonpractice hole earns 100 points. Each nonpractice stroke reduces the score by 10 points, and each second of execution time (including practice time) costs 10 points. The winner will be the solution that earns the greatest number of total points.

This will be a native PowerPC Challenge, using the latest CodeWarrior environment. Solutions may be coded in C, C++, or Pascal. Solutions in Java will also be accepted this month. Java entries must be accompanied by a test driver that uses the interface provided in the problem statement.

Three Months Ago Winner

Congratulations to Rob Shearer (location unknown) for submitting the fastest solution to the August FlyBy Challenge. The objective was to repeatedly render a scene from a sequence of viewpoints and viewing angles. Both Rob and first-time contestant Joe Strout used QuickDraw3D to do the rendering, and both described their solutions as straightforward. Rob converted the triangles that describe the scene to be rendered into a trimesh. He gained a speed advantage by turning off double buffering in QuickDraw3D, which makes the quality of the animation poor, but which was not prohibited by the problem statement. Restoring double buffering is a one-line code change. As a final comment, I'll note that Rob's code demonstrates some good coding techniques (e.g., modularization, use of assert)

I tested the two programs using a single scene with ~3200 points and ~6000 triangles, rendered from a sequence of ~260 viewpoints. The table below lists, for both of the solutions submitted, the total execution time in milliseconds, the code and data size, and the programming language used. As usual, the number in parentheses after the entrant's name is the total number of Challenge points earned in all Challenges prior to this one..

Name Time (msec) Code SizeData Size Lang
Rob Shearer (14) 232035540 1366 C++
Joe Strout 23873 1632 76 C++

Top Contestants

Listed here are the Top Contestants for the Programmer's Challenge, including everyone who has accumulated 10 or more points during the past two years. The numbers below include points awarded over the 24 most recent contests, including points earned by this month's entrants.

RankNamePoints
1.Munter, Ernst217
2.Saxton, Tom106
3.Maurer, Sebastian70
4.Boring, Randy66
5.Rieken, Willeke51
6.Heithcock, JG39
7.Shearer, Rob34
8.Brown, Pat20
9.Hostetter, Mat20
10. Mallett, Jeff20
11.Nicolle, Ludovic20
12.Murphy, ACC14
13.Jones, Dennis12
14.Hart, Alan11
15.Hewett, Kevin10
16.Selengut, Jared10
17.Smith, Brad10
18.Strout, Joe10
19.Varilly, Patrick10

There are three ways to earn points: (1) scoring in the top 5 of any Challenge, (2) being the first person to find a bug in a published winning solution or, (3) being the first person to suggest a Challenge that I use. The points you can win are:

1st place20 points
2nd place10 points
3rd place7 points
4th place4 points
5th place2 points
finding bug2 points
suggesting Challenge2 points

Here is Rob's winning CHALLENGENAME solution:

FlyBy.cp
Copyright © 1999 Rob Shearer

//  Very simple and straightforward implementation. It was
//  coded beginning to end in under three hours and worked
//  pretty much perfectly on the first build (only bug was
//  (1), below). It won't win any prizes for speed, though.
//
//  Only two caveats:
//  1)  As is documented in FlyByCamera.h, Quickdraw3D has
//    trouble with camera range with very low hither
//    values in relation to their yon values. This code
//    fixes that by pinning hither to a lower bound.
//  2)  FlyByView.h line 37 turns off double buffering.
//    This gives a tiny speed boost, but obviously makes
//    the animation not so nice. If you need pretty
//    animation, turn double buffering on.

#include "GuardedFlyBy.h"
#include <assert.h>
#include "Terrain.h"
#include "FlyByCamera.h"
#include "FlyByView.h"
#include <memory> // for auto_ptr
#include <Types.h>

// Globals are bad.
namespace FlyBy {
  auto_ptr<Terrain>       theTerrain;
  auto_ptr<FlyByCamera> theCamera;
  auto_ptr<FlyByView>     theView;
}

// -----------------------------
//    * InitFlyBy
// -----------------------------
//  Set up our globals and init Quickdraw3D

void
InitFlyBy(  CWindowPtr      theWindow,
      long      numPoints,
      const   TQ3Point3D  thePoints[],
      long      numTriangles,
      const   MyTriangles theTriangles[],
      const   TQ3ViewAngleAspectCameraData
                perspectiveData,
      const   TQ3ColorRGB backgroundColor ) {
  
  assert( (long) Q3Initialize !=
      kUnresolvedCFragSymbolAddress );
  TQ3Status theStatus(Q3Initialize());
  assert(theStatus != kQ3Failure);
  
  using namespace FlyBy;
  theTerrain.reset(new Terrain(numPoints,
                  thePoints,
                  numTriangles,
                  theTriangles ));
  assert(theTerrain.get());
  theCamera.reset(new FlyByCamera(perspectiveData));
  assert(theCamera.get());
  theView.reset(new FlyByView(theWindow,
                theCamera->GetQ3Camera(),
                backgroundColor));
  assert(theView.get());
}

// -----------------------------
//    * GenerateView
// -----------------------------
//  Update the camera placement and render

void
GenerateView(TQ3CameraPlacement viewPoint) {
  using namespace FlyBy;
  assert(theTerrain.get());
  assert(theCamera.get());
  assert(theView.get());
  theCamera->SetPlacement(viewPoint);
  
  theView->RenderModel(theTerrain->GetQ3Group());
}

// -----------------------------
//    * TermFlyBy
// -----------------------------
//  Delete our globals and exit Quickdraw3D

void
TermFlyBy() {
  using namespace FlyBy;
  theTerrain.reset();
  theCamera.reset();
  theView.reset();
  TQ3Status theStatus(Q3Exit());
  assert(theStatus != kQ3Failure);
}

Terrain.h

#ifndef _H_Terrain
#define _H_Terrain

#include <QD3DGeometry.h>
#include <QD3DGroup.h>
#include <QD3DMath.h>
#include "auto_array_ptr.cp"
#include <assert.h>
#include "GuardedFlyBy.h"

class Terrain {
public:
  Terrain(  long        inNumPoints,
        const TQ3Point3D  inPoints[],
        long        inNumTriangles,
        const MyTriangles inTriangles[] )
    : mModel(Q3OrderedDisplayGroup_New()) {
    
    // Allocate arrays for triangles and attributes
    auto_array_ptr<TQ3TriMeshTriangleData> theTriangles(
      new TQ3TriMeshTriangleData[inNumTriangles]
    );
    assert(theTriangles.get() != nil);
    auto_array_ptr<TQ3ColorRGB> theTriColors(
      new TQ3ColorRGB[inNumTriangles]
    );
    assert(theTriColors.get() != nil);
    auto_array_ptr<TQ3Vector3D> theNormals(
      new TQ3Vector3D[inNumTriangles]
    );
    assert(theNormals.get() != nil);
    
    // Init attributes
    TQ3TriMeshAttributeData theTriAttributes[2];
    theTriAttributes[0].attributeType =
      kQ3AttributeTypeDiffuseColor;
    theTriAttributes[0].data = theTriColors.get();
    theTriAttributes[0].attributeUseArray = nil;
    theTriAttributes[1].attributeType =
      kQ3AttributeTypeNormal;
    theTriAttributes[1].data = theNormals.get();
    theTriAttributes[1].attributeUseArray = nil;
    // Loop over inTriangles, filling in triangle
    // and attribute values in TriMesh structures.
    for (long i(0); i < inNumTriangles; ++i) {
      theTriangles[i].pointIndices[0] =
        inTriangles[i].pointIndices[0];
      theTriangles[i].pointIndices[1] =
        inTriangles[i].pointIndices[1];
      theTriangles[i].pointIndices[2] =
        inTriangles[i].pointIndices[2];
      theTriColors[i] =
        inTriangles[i].triangleColor;
      TQ3Vector3D theFirstEdge;
      Q3Point3D_Subtract(
        &(inPoints[inTriangles[i].pointIndices[0]]),
        &(inPoints[inTriangles[i].pointIndices[1]]),
        &theFirstEdge
      );
      TQ3Vector3D theSecondEdge;
      Q3Point3D_Subtract(
        &(inPoints[inTriangles[i].pointIndices[0]]),
        &(inPoints[inTriangles[i].pointIndices[2]]),
        &theSecondEdge
      );
      Q3Vector3D_Cross( &theFirstEdge,
                &theSecondEdge,
                &(theNormals[i]) );
      Q3Vector3D_Normalize( &(theNormals[i]),
                  &(theNormals[i]) );
    }
    
    // Compute bounding box
    TQ3BoundingBox theBox;
    if (inNumPoints > 0) {
      theBox.min = theBox.max = inPoints[0];
      theBox.isEmpty = kQ3False;
    } else {
      theBox.isEmpty = kQ3True;
    }
    for (long i(1); i < inNumPoints; ++i) {
      if (inPoints[i].x < theBox.min.x) {
        theBox.min.x = inPoints[i].x;
      } else if (inPoints[i].x > theBox.max.x) {
        theBox.max.x = inPoints[i].x;
      }
      if (inPoints[i].y < theBox.min.y) {
        theBox.min.y = inPoints[i].y;
      } else if (inPoints[i].y > theBox.max.y) {
        theBox.max.y = inPoints[i].y;
      }
      if (inPoints[i].z < theBox.min.z) {
        theBox.min.z = inPoints[i].z;
      } else if (inPoints[i].z > theBox.max.z) {
        theBox.max.z = inPoints[i].z;
      }
    }
    
    // Init TriMesh data
    TQ3TriMeshData theData;
    theData.triMeshAttributeSet = nil;
    theData.numTriangles = inNumTriangles;
    theData.triangles = theTriangles.get();
    theData.numTriangleAttributeTypes = 2;
    theData.triangleAttributeTypes = theTriAttributes;
    theData.numEdges = 0;
    theData.edges = nil;
    theData.numEdgeAttributeTypes = 0;
    theData.edgeAttributeTypes = nil;
    theData.numPoints = inNumPoints;
    theData.points = const_cast<TQ3Point3D*>(inPoints);
      // Yes, I know: bad form.
    theData.numVertexAttributeTypes = 0;
    theData.vertexAttributeTypes = nil;
    theData.bBox = theBox;
    
    // Create the TriMesh and add it to our model group
    TQ3GeometryObject theGeometry(Q3TriMesh_New(&theData));
    try {
      assert(theGeometry);
      assert(mModel);
      TQ3GroupPosition thePos =
        Q3Group_AddObject(mModel, theGeometry);
      assert(thePos);
    } catch (...) { // Wish for C++ "finally" block...
      Q3Object_Dispose(theGeometry);
      throw;
    }
    Q3Object_Dispose(theGeometry);
  };
  
  ~Terrain() {
    Q3Object_Dispose(mModel);
  };
  
  TQ3GroupObject GetQ3Group() { return mModel; };

private:
  TQ3GroupObject mModel;

  Terrain(const Terrain& rhs);
  Terrain& operator=(const Terrain& rhs);
};

#endif

FlyByCamera.h

#ifndef _H_FlyByCamera
#define _H_FlyByCamera

#include <QD3DCamera.h>
#include <assert.h>

class FlyByCamera {
public:
  FlyByCamera(const TQ3ViewAngleAspectCameraData& inData)
    : mCamera(Q3ViewAngleAspectCamera_New(&inData)) {
    assert(mCamera);
    // Quickdraw3D gets confused when the ratio of
    // hither to yon drops too low. All documentation
    // for this Challenge indicates that 0 will be
    // passed for hither, which causes significant
    // artifacts to appear. We pin hither to a lower
    // limit to prevent this (although the better
    // solution is probably to simply have a more
    // reasonable value of hither passed in).
    if (inData.cameraData.range.hither <
      inData.cameraData.range.yon/10000000) {
      TQ3CameraRange newRange;
      newRange.hither =
        inData.cameraData.range.yon/10000000;
      newRange.yon = inData.cameraData.range.yon;
      TQ3Status theStatus =
        Q3Camera_SetRange(mCamera, &newRange);
      assert(theStatus != kQ3Failure);
    }
  };
  ~FlyByCamera() {
    Q3Object_Dispose(mCamera);
  };
  TQ3CameraObject GetQ3Camera() { return mCamera; };
  void SetPlacement(const TQ3CameraPlacement& inWhere) {
    TQ3Status theStatus =
      Q3Camera_SetPlacement(mCamera, &inWhere);
    assert(theStatus != kQ3Failure);
  };
private:
  TQ3CameraObject mCamera;
  FlyByCamera(const FlyByCamera& rhs);
  FlyByCamera& operator=(const FlyByCamera& rhs);
};

#endif

FlyByView.h

#ifndef _H_FlyByView
#define _H_FlyByView

#include <QD3DView.h>
#include <QD3DDrawContext.h>
#include <QD3DRenderer.h>
#include <assert.h>

class FlyByView {
public:
  FlyByView(  CWindowPtr    inWindow,
        TQ3CameraObject inCamera,
        TQ3ColorRGB   inBGColor )
    : mView(Q3View_New()) {
    assert(mView);
    // Set up the draw context
    // This doesn't seem like the most efficient way
    // to fill in these data structures, but hey...
    TQ3DrawContextData theDrawData;
    theDrawData.clearImageMethod =
      kQ3ClearMethodWithColor;
    theDrawData.clearImageColor.a = 1;
    theDrawData.clearImageColor.r = inBGColor.r;
    theDrawData.clearImageColor.g = inBGColor.g;
    theDrawData.clearImageColor.b = inBGColor.b;
    theDrawData.paneState = kQ3False;
    theDrawData.maskState = kQ3False;
    // NOTE: We explicitly turn off double  buffering
    // for purposes of speed. This makes the animation
    // very ugly. If you want nicer animation then turn
    // double buffering back on.
    theDrawData.doubleBufferState = kQ3False;
    TQ3MacDrawContextData theMacData;
    theMacData.drawContextData = theDrawData;
    theMacData.window = (CWindowPtr) inWindow;
    theMacData.library = kQ3Mac2DLibraryNone;
    theMacData.viewPort = nil;
    theMacData.grafPort = nil;
    TQ3DrawContextObject theContext =
      Q3MacDrawContext_New(&theMacData);
    try {
      assert(theContext);
      TQ3Status theStatus =
        Q3View_SetDrawContext(mView, theContext);
      assert(theStatus != kQ3Failure);
    } catch (...) {
      Q3Object_Dispose(theContext);
      throw;
    }
    Q3Object_Dispose(theContext);
    // Set up the renderer
    TQ3RendererObject theRenderer =
    Q3Renderer_NewFromType(kQ3RendererTypeInteractive);
    try {
      assert(theRenderer);
      TQ3Status theStatus =
        Q3View_SetRenderer(mView, theRenderer);
      assert(theStatus != kQ3Failure);
    } catch (...) {
      Q3Object_Dispose(theRenderer);
      throw;
    }
    Q3Object_Dispose(theRenderer);
    // Set up the camera (which was passed in)
    assert(inCamera);
    TQ3Status theStatus =
      Q3View_SetCamera(mView, inCamera);
    assert(theStatus != kQ3Failure);
    
    // Set up the lighting
    TQ3LightData theData;
    theData.isOn = kQ3True;
    theData.brightness = 1;
    theData.color.r = 1;
    theData.color.g = 1;
    theData.color.b = 1;
    TQ3LightObject theLight =
      Q3AmbientLight_New(&theData);
    try {
      assert(theLight);
      TQ3GroupObject theLights(Q3LightGroup_New());
      try {
        assert(theLights);
        TQ3GroupPosition thePos =
          Q3Group_AddObject(theLights, theLight);
        assert(thePos);
        TQ3Status theStatus =
          Q3View_SetLightGroup(mView, theLights);
        assert(theStatus != kQ3Failure);
      } catch (...) {
        Q3Object_Dispose(theLights);
        throw;
      }
      Q3Object_Dispose(theLights);
    } catch (...) {
      Q3Object_Dispose(theLight);
      throw;
    }
    Q3Object_Dispose(theLight);
  };
  ~FlyByView() {
    Q3Object_Dispose(mView);
  };
  
  void RenderModel(TQ3GroupObject inModel) {
    Q3View_StartRendering(mView);
    do {
      Q3DisplayGroup_Submit(inModel, mView);
    } while ( Q3View_EndRendering(mView)
          == kQ3ViewStatusRetraverse );
  };
private:
  TQ3ViewObject mView;

  FlyByView(const FlyByView& rhs);
  FlyByView& operator=(const FlyByView& rhs);
};
#endif

auto_array_ptr.h

// A "smart pointer" template very similar to the standard
// auto_ptr but using array deletion to delete its pointee.

#ifndef _H_auto_array_ptr
#define _H_auto_array_ptr

#include <size_t.h>
template<class T>
class auto_array_ptr {

public:
  explicit auto_array_ptr(T* p = nil);  
          // Create an auto pointer with
          // ownership of the given object.
  auto_array_ptr(auto_array_ptr<T>& rhs);   
          // Copy constructor sets pointer
          // passed in to nil; new auto pointer
          // assumes ownership of its pointee.
  ~auto_array_ptr();
          // Destructor deletes pointee (with
          // delete[]).
  auto_array_ptr<T>&  operator=(auto_array_ptr<T>& rhs);  
          // Assignment sets pointer passed in
          // to nil, deletes current pointee,
          // and assumes ownership of rhs's old
          // pointee.
  // Emulate pointer/array behavior.
  T&      operator*() const;
  T*      operator->() const;
  T&      operator[](std::size_t inIndex);
  const T&  operator[](std::size_t inIndex) const;
  T*      get() const;
          // Return value of current dumb
          // pointer (for the purpose of
          // comparison).
  T*      release();
          // Relinquish ownership of pointee
          // and return value of current dumb
          // pointer.
  void    reset(T* p = nil);
          // Delete current pointee and assume
          // ownership of the given array.
        
private:
  T*      pointee;
};

#endif

auto_array_ptr.cp

// Code for auto_array_ptr template.
// This file must be #include -ed somewhere in your project
// in order to instantiate the template code.

// This is an #include file, so add guard macros.
#ifndef _CP_auto_array_ptr
#define _CP_auto_array_ptr

#include "auto_array_ptr.h"

// -----------------------------
//    * auto_array_ptr
// -----------------------------
//  Constructor

template<class T>
inline
auto_array_ptr<T>::auto_array_ptr(T* p)
  : pointee(p) {
}

// -----------------------------
//    * auto_array_ptr
// -----------------------------
//  Copy constructor
template<class T>
inline
auto_array_ptr<T>::auto_array_ptr(auto_array_ptr<T>& rhs)
  : pointee(rhs.release()) {
}

// -----------------------------
//    * ~auto_array_ptr
// -----------------------------
//  Destructor calls array delete on pointee

template<class T>
inline
auto_array_ptr<T>::~auto_array_ptr() {
  delete[] pointee;
}

// -----------------------------
//    * operator=
// -----------------------------
//  Assignment operator
template<class T>
inline
auto_array_ptr<T>&
auto_array_ptr<T>::operator=(auto_array_ptr<T>& rhs) {
  if (this != &rhs) reset(rhs.release());
  return *this;
}
// -----------------------------
//    * operator*
// -----------------------------
//  Dereference operator

template<class T>
inline
T&
auto_array_ptr<T>::operator*() const {
  // We could check for nil and throw an exception if
  // necessary, but we don't because (1) it's more
  // efficient not to do so and (2) if we do this array
  // won't act exactly as real arrays do when
  // dereferenced.
  return *pointee;
}

// -----------------------------
//    * operator->
// -----------------------------
//  Member selection operator
template<class T>
inline
T*
auto_array_ptr<T>::operator->() const {
  return pointee;
}

// -----------------------------
//    * operator[]
// -----------------------------
//  Element access operator (non-const version)
template<class T>
inline
T&
auto_array_ptr<T>::operator[](std::size_t inIndex) {
  // We could check for nil and throw an exception if
  // necessary, but we don't because (1) it's more
  // efficient not to do so and (2) if we do this array
  // won't act exactly as real array do when
  // accessed.
  return pointee[inIndex];
}

// -----------------------------
//    * operator[]
// -----------------------------
//  Element access operator (const version)
template<class T>
inline
const T&
auto_array_ptr<T>::operator[](std::size_t inIndex) const {
  // We could check for nil and throw an exception if
  // necessary, but we don't because (1) it's more
  // efficient not to do so and (2) if we do this array
  // won't act exactly as real array do when
  // accessed.
  return pointee[inIndex];
}
// -----------------------------
//    * get
// -----------------------------
//  Returns dumb pointer to pointee

template<class T>
inline
T*
auto_array_ptr<T>::get() const {
  return pointee;
}

// -----------------------------
//    * release
// -----------------------------
//  Relinquish ownership of pointee

template<class T>
inline
T*
auto_array_ptr<T>::release() {
  T* oldPointee(pointee);
  pointee = nil;
  return oldPointee;
}

// -----------------------------
//    * reset
// -----------------------------
//  Delete pointee and assume ownership of the given object

template<class T>
inline
void
auto_array_ptr<T>::reset(T* p) {
  delete[] pointee;
  pointee = p;  
}

#endif

FlyBy.h

#include <QD3D.h>
#include <QD3DLight.h>
#include <QD3DCamera.h>
#include <Windows.h>

#if defined(__cplusplus)
extern "C" {
#endif

typedef struct MyTriangles {
  long pointIndices[3];
  TQ3ColorRGB triangleColor;
} MyTriangles;

void InitFlyBy(
  CWindowPtr theWindow,
  long numPoints,
  const TQ3Point3D thePoints[],
  long numTriangles,
  const MyTriangles theTriangles[],
  const TQ3ViewAngleAspectCameraData  perspectiveData,
    // perspectiveData.cameraData.range.hither  = 0.0;
    // perspectiveData.cameraData.range.yon   = 1000.0
    // perspectiveData.cameraData.viewPort.origin.x = -1.0
    // perspectiveData.cameraData.viewPort.origin.y = 1.0
    // perspectiveData.cameraData.viewPort.width = 2.0
    // perspectiveData.cameraData.viewPort.height = 2.0
    // perspectiveData.fov        = 1.0
    // perspectiveData.aspectRatioXToY  =
    //   (float) (theWindow->portRect.right - theWindow->portRect.left) / 
    //   (float) (theWindow->portRect.bottom - theWindow->portRect.top)
  const TQ3ColorRGB backgroundColor
    // color of background
);
void GenerateView(
  TQ3CameraPlacement    viewPoint
);
void TermFlyBy(
);
#if defined(__cplusplus)
}
#endif

GuardedFlyBy.h

//  Added guard macros to "FlyBy.h"
#ifndef _H_GuardedFlyBy
#define _H_GuardedFlyBy
#include "FlyBy.h"
#endif
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Notion 2.1.9 - A unified workspace for m...
Notion is the unified workspace for modern teams. Features: Integration with Slack Documents Wikis Tasks More guests: invite up to 10 collaborators, friends & family to your pages Page... Read more
Spotify 1.2.0.1165 - Stream music, creat...
Spotify is a streaming music service that gives you on-demand access to millions of songs. Whether you like driving rock, silky R&B, or grandiose classical music, Spotify's massive catalogue puts... Read more
Thunderbird 102.5.1 - Email client from...
As of July 2012, Thunderbird has transitioned to a new governance model, with new features being developed by the broader free software and open source community, and security fixes and improvements... Read more
Pinegrow 7.03 - Mockup and design web pa...
Pinegrow (was Pinegrow Web Designer) is desktop app that lets you mockup and design webpages faster with multi-page editing, CSS and LESS styling, and smart components for Bootstrap, Foundation,... Read more
Adobe After Effects 2022 23.1 - Create p...
The new, more connected Adobe After Effects can make the impossible possible. Get powerful new features like a Live 3D Pipeline that brings CINEMA 4D scenes in as layers - without intermediate... Read more
SteerMouse 5.6.7 - Powerful third-party...
SteerMouse is an advanced driver for USB and Bluetooth mice. SteerMouse can assign various functions to buttons that Apple's software does not allow, including double-clicks, modifier clicks,... Read more
Wireshark 4.0.2 - Network protocol analy...
Wireshark is one of the world's foremost network protocol analyzers, and is the standard in many parts of the industry. It is the continuation of a project that started in 1998. Hundreds of... Read more
Adobe Premiere Pro 2022 23.1 - Digital v...
Adobe Premiere Pro is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $54.99/month. The price on display is a price for annual by-monthly plan for Adobe Premiere Pro only. Adobe Premiere... Read more
1Password 8.9.10 - Powerful password man...
1Password is a password manager that uniquely brings you both security and convenience. It is the only program that provides anti-phishing protection and goes beyond password management by adding Web... Read more
FotoMagico 6.3 - Powerful slideshow crea...
FotoMagico lets you create professional slideshows from your photos and music with just a few, simple mouse clicks. It sports a very clean and intuitive yet powerful user interface. High image... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

SwitchArcade Round-Up: ‘Chained Echoes’,...
Hello gentle readers, and welcome to the SwitchArcade Round-Up for December 8th, 2022. Today is Thursday, and that usually means an absolute deluge of new releases on the eShop. But the year is winding down, so we’ve only got ten or so to look at... | Read more »
‘Awaken Legends: Idle RPG’ Celebrates th...
Awaken Legends: Idle RPG is adding its first update since the game was soft-launched in November, letting players get their hands on a new hero “Hera Valen". Players can also look forward to the Covenant of the Dark Knight event and the Wishing Well... | Read more »
‘Horizon Chase 2’ Japan World Tour Expan...
Horizon Chase 2 () from Aquiris is getting a major expansion today on Apple Arcade. The Japan World Tour expansion brings in 11 new races across 9 cities and it should be rolling out now as of this writing. I expect it to be available worldwide... | Read more »
Dark Fantasy Visual Novel ‘The 13th Mont...
Originally announced for release in August, The 13th Month from Japanese developer Kobayashimaru and publisher Kodansha released on PC via Steam worldwide this month. The dark fantasy visual novel that reimagines the classic Sleeping Beauty tale, is... | Read more »
Tom Clancey’s The Divison Resurgence ann...
Ubisoft has announced the latest Live Test dates for Tom Clancy’s The Division Resurgence, the hotly anticipated mobile entry in the Divison series. Starting December 8th and ending on the 22nd, the test will offer a huge amount of content for the... | Read more »
‘Easy Come Easy Golf’ New Update Adds St...
Easy Come Easy Golf () from Clap Hanz is one of my favorite games on Apple Arcade. It has been updated quite a bit since launch bringing in new modes and improvements. It recently launched on Nintendo Switch as well. | Read more »
Out Now: ‘Magic vs Metal’, ‘Suzerain’, ‘...
Each and every day new mobile games are hitting the App Store, and so each week we put together a big old list of all the best new releases of the past seven days. Back in the day the App Store would showcase the same games for a week, and then... | Read more »
SwitchArcade Round-Up: Reviews Featuring...
Hello gentle readers, and welcome to the SwitchArcade Round-Up for December 7th, 2022. Today can be accurately described as Mikhail Madness, with a whopping four reviews from our pal-est of pals. Football Manager 2023 Touch, Wobbledogs, Soccer Story... | Read more »
Alchemy Stars celebrates 1 and a half ye...
It has been one and a half years since Alchemy Stars launched, and Level Infinite is celebrating in style with a host of new content. There will be a new story mission and even a store to explore, and a whole new mode for those budding idol... | Read more »
Fighting Game ‘Art of Fighting 2’ ACA Ne...
Last week, side-scrolling shooter Pulstar hit mobile platforms as the newest ACA NeoGeo series release from Hamster and SNK. Read Shaun’s review of it here. Today, fighting game Art of Fighting 2 has launched on iOS and Android. Art of Fighting 2... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

New! Details on Verizon’s Christmas/Holiday p...
Verizon is offering discounts on iPhones, Apple Watch models, and iPads with specific promo codes as part of their Christmas/Holiday 2022 offerings. Codes are valid when adding a new line of service... Read more
Apple MagSafe accessories are back on Holiday...
Amazon has Apple MagSafe Chargers and Apple’s MagSafe Battery on sale for up to 24% off MSRP again as part of their Christmas/Holiday sale. Shipping is free, and all models are in stock: – MagSafe... Read more
13″ M2 MacBook Airs on sale again for the low...
Amazon has 13″ MacBook Airs with M2 CPUs in stock today and on sale for $150 off MSRP as part of their Christmas/Holiday Sale, prices start at $1049. Shipping is free. They are the lowest prices... Read more
Get an Apple 16″ MacBook Pro for $400 off MSR...
16″ MacBook Pros with Apple’s M1 Pro CPUs are in stock and on sale today at B&H Photo for $300-$400 off Apple’s MSRP for a limited time. Prices start at $2099 for M1 Pro models with 512GB or 1TB... Read more
Holiday clearance sale! Previous-generation A...
Amazon has 2nd generation 32GB and 64GB 4K Apple TVs with Siri remotes and 32GB Apple TV HDs on clearance sale for $80-$90 off original MSRP. Shipping is free, and delivery is available in time for... Read more
Christmas sale at Verizon: Apple AirPods Pro...
Verizon has first-generation Apple AirPods Pro on sale for $159.99 on their online store as part of their continuing Christmas/Holiday sale. Their price is $90 off Apple’s original MSRP, and it’s the... Read more
New Christmas/New Years promo at Xfinity Mobi...
Switch to Xfinity Mobile and open a new line of service, and take $400 off the price of a new iPhone, no trade-in required, through January 10, 2023. The $400 is applied to your account as credits... Read more
Apple iPad Smart Keyboard Folio prices drop u...
Apple iPad Smart Keyboard Folio prices have dropped up to $60 off MSRP at Amazon and Walmart as part of their Christmas/Holiday sales. These are the cheapest prices currently available for these iPad... Read more
Today is the final day for Xfinity Mobile’s $...
If you switch to Xfinity Mobile and open a new line of service, they will take $500 off the price of a new iPhone, no trade-in required. This is the best no trade-in Cyber Monday Apple iPhone 14 deal... Read more
Amazon restocks 10.2″ 64GB 9th-generation iPa...
Amazon has Apple’s 9th generation 10.2″ 64GB WiFi iPads (Silver) in stock and on sale for $269.99 shipped as part of their Christmas/Holiday Sale. Their price is $60 off Apple’s MSRP. Free delivery... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Systems Administrator - JAMF - Activ...
…Administration **Duties and Responsibilities** + Configure and maintain the client's Apple Device Management (ADM) solution. The current solution is JAMF supporting Read more
Cashier - *Apple* Blossom Mall - JCPenney (...
Cashier - Apple Blossom Mall Location:Winchester, VA, United States (https://jobs.jcp.com/jobs/location/191170/winchester-va-united-states) - Apple Blossom Mall Read more
Omnichannel Associate - *Apple* Blossom Mal...
Omnichannel Associate - Apple Blossom Mall Location:Winchester, VA, United States (https://jobs.jcp.com/jobs/location/191170/winchester-va-united-states) - Apple Read more
Sephora Beauty Advisor - *Apple* Blossom Ma...
Sephora Beauty Advisor - Apple Blossom Mall Location:Winchester, VA, United States (https://jobs.jcp.com/jobs/location/191170/winchester-va-united-states) - Apple Read more
Operations Associate - *Apple* Blossom Mall...
Operations Associate - Apple Blossom Mall Location:Winchester, VA, United States (https://jobs.jcp.com/jobs/location/191170/winchester-va-united-states) - Apple Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.