TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Rhapsody SimpleText

Volume Number: 13 (1997)
Issue Number: 11
Column Tag: Rhapsody

A Simple Word Processor...on Rhapsody

by Andrew Stone, Chief Executive Haquer, Stone Design Corp

Here is a Simple Rich Text and Graphics Word Processor you can build yourself in 20 minutes on Rhapsody

Leveraging the power of Rhapsody is your key to building cool apps quickly. If I asked you "How many lines of code would you have to write to implement a word procesor that reads/writes rich text files (including full support for graphics of EPS, TIFF, JPEG, PICT, GIF, etc type), full font support, full rulers with tabs and hanging indents, full support for color, printing, faxing and saving as PS with embedded fonts".

But wait, before you answer, that's not all (can you hear the Ginzu knife salesman yet?)... "What if it also had ligatures, kerning, superscripting, justification, underlining, ability to drag out graphics, copy and paste of contents and copy and paste of font styles? Don't answer yet, because it will also run on Windows95 and Windows NT, and has a built-in spell checker."

If I said 13 lines of code and that you'll be done in 20 minutes, would you believe it? This is why I quit developing on the Mac in 1989 when I saw my first NeXT demo, and why I'm happy as heck to be developing on a Mac in 1997!

First look at Rhapsody

The week before Macworld Boston 97, the Rhapsody Group at Apple invited several key OpenStep developers out to Cupertino to port their wares to Rhapsody running on the PowerPC. It was a great privilege to be included in this 3 day Kitchen - a MacHack with the Apple engineers dropping in and helping us at all hours. And, as promised, create, compile, and it "just worked".

This article will take you step-by-step through the process of creating a new application, building the user interface, generating the skeleton class code, filling in the 13 lines required, compiling and testing your word processor. If you encounter terms you don't recognize, please refer to the online documentation for developers, especially /NextLibrary/Documentation/NextDev/TasksAndConcepts/DevEnvGuide/DevGuide.rtfd.

Note that this article was written before the Developer release, so be aware that the screenshots may be a bit out-of-date! Note also that the purpose is to show how easy it is to get going, not good application architecture!

How to Build It

Step 0: Install the Rhapsody Developer release on your Power Mac, if you haven't done so already. Refer to Apple's instructions on how to do this.

1. Launch ProjectBuilder.app (aka "PB").

It's in /NextDeveloper/Apps, just double-click it.

2. Click Project - New...

An OpenPanel will come up - select "Application" for project type in the pop-up menu, type in "sWord" and "OK".

This will create a new directory named "sWord" with various project files:

PB.project: the file which maintains your makefiles.
Makefile, Makefile.preamble, Makefile.postamble: the makefiles.
sWord_main.m: the source file which defines main().
English.lproj: the directory with localized interface files (NIBs)
sWord.iconheader: the file which keeps track of App and Doc icons.

All of these files are created and maintained by ProjectBuilder - you don't have to write a single line of code to get your app skeleton.

3. In the sWord ProjectBuilder window, click "Interfaces", and then double-click "sWord.nib" to automatically launch InterfaceBuilder - where you will design your interface, create new classes, and test your application.

Note also the sWord-windows.nib file, which is for deploying your application on WindowNT and Window95, with no changes to your code! Since Windows organizes its menus differently, this NIB file will be different, according to Windows human interface (or lack thereof) design.

4. In InterfaceBuilder's Palette window, click the "Text" icon to load "DataViews", the palette containing Text in a ScrollView. Drag the ScrollView onto your main window, "My Window".

5. Move the ScrollView to the upper left hand corner of your window, and drag its bottom right knob to resize the ScrollView to fill your window.

6. We will now add the ability for the Text to be able to accept drag and drop graphics, as well as display and save them. Bring up InterfaceBuilder's Inspector Panel with Tools - Inspector. Be sure that the ScrollView is selected. All you have to do is click the "Graphics Allowed" switch!

7. InterfaceBuilder allows you to specify how objects behave when the window they are in is resized. For our ScrollView with our Text object to automatically fill the window, we must set its "autosizing". IB allows to visually set these constraints. This eliminates us having to write code to deal with window size changes.

Choose "Size" from the pop-up menu at the top of the inspector. The Size inspector allows you to specify how objects behave when a user resizes the window. Lines mean "stays fixed", springs means "size to fit". click the middle vertical and horizontal lines to allow the ScrollView to expand and contract with the window:

8. It's time to add power to our app, which we will get for free by adding various menus to our app. By default, IB gives your app some lightweight menus without the depth of functionality that is possible. For example, the stock "Edit" menu just has copy,cut,delete and paste. However, if you drag off an "Edit" menu from the IB palette, it will contain the full range of menu items and associated functionality, including the SpellChecker and a Find Menu.

First, delete some of the stock ones provided by clicking the menu item, and choosing Edit - Cut. (This may change for Rhapsody Developer Release.) Your menu should look something like this now:

9. In IB's Palette window, click the Menu icon to load the Menus. Drag over the following menus from the Palette to the sWord Menu window:

Apple
	Document (rename this to "File")
	Edit (replace the other one - this one has a Spell Checker in it!)
	Font
	Text

Click the File menu to drop it down. From the IB Palette window, click and drag from the "Item" button to the sWord File menu. Rename the new menu item to "Page Setup...". Drag over another menu item, and rename this one to "Print...". These items may be there automatically in the Rhapsody Developer Release.

10. Now we are going to design a simple object, add its outlets (technically speaking, "instance variables") and actions (Objective C methods), and have InterfaceBuilder automatically create the source files for this new class. All you will have to do is add the few lines of code reproduced below to make these custom actions do something useful.

Click the "Classes" tab in the window with the "Instances" of objects in your interface, and an outline of the class hierarchy will be displayed.

Click "NSObject". Select "Classes - Subclass" from the menu bar.

Rename "MyNSObject" to "WordDelegate".

11. We will now add an instance of this new class, WordDelegate to our app. Choose "Classes- Instantiate".

Click the "Instances" tab to reveal what we've added:

12. Now, return to the "Classes" tab to add the actions (the objC method called when you click a menu item or button) and outlets (the instances of objects that your WordDelegate knows about) to the WordDelegate Class.

13. Click the "outlet plug" icon to the right of the WordDelegate, and click "Outlets" when it appears. Hit the RETURN key to create a new outlet, "myOutlet". Double-click to select the text and rename this outlet to "theText". This outlet will become an instance variable in our new WordDelegate class, so we can refer to the NSTextView object programmatically and send messages to it, but we'll "hook it up" in InterfaceBuilder. "Hooking Up" is the visual programming equivalent of assigning both an action and a target for menu items, buttons, controls, etc.

14. Connect the WordDelegate's outlet "theText" to the NSTextView which is inside of the ScrollView by control-dragging from the WordDelegate instance. Double-click "theText" in the Inspector's Outlets Browser.

15. Now, we'll add the functionality to our WordDelegate by adding the actions to which it can respond.

a. Click the small cross icon on the right to drop down the "Actions".

b.Select Actions, and type RETURN to add a new action.

c. Rename it "newText:".

d. Again, type RETURN and rename the new action to "openText:".

e. Again, for "saveText:".

16. Now, we'll connect our menu items to the object which performs the action and select the action to be performed.

Click the File menu to drop it down. Hold down the Control-Key, and click-drag from the Open... menu to the instance of WordDelegate, and release the mouse. Black lines will connect them up. Select "openText:" in the Actions browser, and click "Connect" in the NSMenuItem Inspector (double-click openText: to avoid this second step).

Repeat this for "Save" and "New", but double-click the actions "saveText:" and "newText:" respectively.

17. In the same control-drag manner, connect the Page Setup... to "First Responder" object in the Instance Browser. This is a very cool "placeholder" object which will send the method to the most appropriate object for the current context of the application. In Rhapsody, there is this notion of a responder chain which begins with the active user interface object (such as the Text if your cursor is blinking there), the window's delegate, the window, then the Application's delegate, and finally, the Application itself. The action is sent to the first object in the chain that responds to it (ie First Responder), and if none do, the menu item is automatically dimmed and disabled. For a full description of the Responder chain, you can access the online documentation via ProjectBuilder: click "Frameworks" - "AppKit.framework" - "Documentation" - "Reference" - "Classes" - "NSResponder.rtf". You will quickly learn how useful these docs are!

For our WordDelegate object to get these First Responder method calls, we'll must insert our WordDelegate into the First Responder chain.

Control-Drag from the "My window" icon in the Instance Browser to the "WordDelegate" instance, and select "delegate" outlet in the Outlets browser of the Window Inspector.

18. Control drag from "Page Setup..." menu item in the dropped down File menu to the First Responder icon in the Instances browser. Double-click "runPageLayout:" in the Inspector's Actions browser.

Likewise, Control-drag from "Print..." menu item to the Text portion of the ScrollView. Double-click "print:" in the Actions browser.

19. Now, let's test drive our app within InterfaceBuilder by choosing "Document- Test Interface". This then "runs" our application in an interpreted environment, so you can try out typing text, changing fonts, bringing up the ruler, dragging in graphics and so on. You won't be able to save or open yet, because we need to write that code, compile it, and run the compiled version to see additional functionality over what is already part of the runtime system.

20. We've designed an object, hooked it up, now let's ask IB to make the skeletal source files. Click the "Classes" tab and select the WordDelegate Class. Choose "Classes- Create Files..." from the menu bar.

After verifying that creating classes is what you want to do, InterfaceBuilder will then ask you if you want insert these new files into your sWord project.

Click "OK", and then ProjectBuilder will come up showing you the new source files.

21. Click "WordDelegate.m" under the Classes category in ProjectBuilder. The skeletal source file will be displayed, now it's time to write those 13 lines of code, and you'll see the beauty and elegance of Rhapsody!

22. Type in this code, I added the comments for your edification, so they don't count in the number of lines of code!

 ***** WordDelegte.m *****

#import "WordDelegate.h"
@implementation WordDelegate
- (void)newText:(id)sender
{
// empty out the text with the empty NSString:
    [theText setString:@""];

// Set the window's title to be untitled:
    [[theText window]setTitle:@"Untitled"];
// bring the window up in case the user has closed it:
    [[theText window] makeKeyAndOrderFront:self];
}

- (void)openText:(id)sender
{
// Get a new Open Panel
    NSOpenPanel *openPanel = [NSOpenPanel openPanel];

// Have it run modal and look for files of "rtf" or "rtfd" type:
    if ([openPanel runModalForTypes:[NSArray arrayWithObjects:@"rtf",@"rtfd",NULL]]) {
// we have a valid file, ask theText to read it in
        [theText readRTFDFromFile:[openPanel filename]];
// Update the window's name with the filename, but in a readable way:
        [[theText window]setTitleWithRepresentedFilename:[openPanel filename]];
// bring the window up in case the user has closed it:
        [[theText window] makeKeyAndOrderFront:self];
    }
}

- (void)saveText:(id)sender
{
// Get a new Save Panel:
    NSSavePanel *savePanel = [NSSavePanel savePanel];

// Set it to save "rtfd" files:
    [savePanel setRequiredFileType:@"rtfd"];

// Run modal, which returns YES if a valid path is chosen:
    if ([savePanel runModal]) {

// Ask the text to write itself to the chosen filename
// But don't make it back up before
// Set atomically:YES if you want "save backups", slower but more secure
        [theText writeRTFDToFile:[savePanel filename] atomically:NO];

// Update the title bar of the window
        [[theText window]setTitleWithRepresentedFilename:[savePanel filename]];
   }
}


@end
*************************

23. Click PB's Build icon, which brings up the "sWord - Project Build" panel. Click the Hammer icon again, and your app will get compiled. You can run it from within PB, or simply double-click the sWord.app in your sWord directory.

24. To build an installed version, click the "Options" panel button, and choose "Install" for the make target, then select the architectures you wish your app to run on. Build again. This will install the sWord.app into your ~/Apps directory, after "stripping" it to its smallest possible size.

25. Launch sWord.app and try it out!

Epilogue

That was easy, eh? Here are some things you can do to enhance your word processor:

  1. Rename "My Window" to "Untitled" so that the title starts in the right state. This is trivial to do in IB's Inspector, "Attributes" when the window is selected in the Instance browser.
  2. Add multiple documents to your app by creating a separate nib file which is owned by the WordDelegate class. See /NextDeveloper/Examples/AppKit/TextEdit for a very powerful, yet simple TextEditor which allows multiple docs (Document.h & Document.m).
  3. Add an Application Icon by creating a 48*48 icon (/NextDeveloper/Apps/IconBuilder.app), saving it, and then dragging it from the FileViewer to the "Project" icon well in ProjectBuilder's inspector, and recompiling.
  4. Add Find - TextFinder.h, TextFinder.m and FindPanel.nib and FindPanel.strings from TextEdit contain the functionality you need. This is much vaunted "code reuse" of object programming!
  5. Create methods for SaveAs... Again, look at the document architecture in the /NextDeveloper/Examples/Appkit folder.
  6. Add an "About..." panel. Drag in a panel from the IB palette and connect the "About..." menu item to this panel, with an action of "orderFront:".
  7. Add Tool Tips. Simply create an rtf file for each object that you want give popup help to, and attach to the user interface object in IB, Inspector- Help.
  8. Make the OpenPanel and SavePanel remember their last opened directory by making those variables static, and "retaining" them.
 - (void)saveText:(id)sender
{
// Create a static variable lives between invocations:
    static NSSavePanel *savePanel = nil;
// If it's the first time through, get a new Save Panel:
    if (savePanel == nil) {
   	 NSSavePanel *savePanel = [[NSSavePanel savePanel] retain];
    }
// Now, it will 'remember' it's last chosen directory...

Anyway, I hope this gives you a taste for the elegance and comfort of finely integrated Rhapsody development tools.


Andrew Stone, an early HyperTalk developer and coauthor of "Tricks of the HyperTalk Masters" emigrated to the NeXT community in 1989, going on to write such NeXT classics as TextArt, Create, DataPhile and 3Dreality.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Adobe After Effects CC 2018 16.1.3 - Cre...
After Effects CC 2018 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for $52.99/month (or $20.99/month for a single app license). The new, more connected After Effects CC 2018 can make the impossible... Read more
Adobe Audition CC 2019 12.1.4 - Professi...
Audition CC 2019 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $20.99/month (or $9.99/month if you're a previous Audition customer). Adobe Audition CC 2019 empowers you to create and... Read more
Adobe Premiere Pro CC 2019 13.1.5 - Digi...
Premiere Pro CC 2019 is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for as little as $52.99/month. The price on display is a price for annual by-monthly plan for Adobe Premiere Pro only Adobe Premiere... Read more
Navicat Premium Essentials 12.1.25 - Pro...
Navicat Premium Essentials is a compact version of Navicat which provides basic and necessary features you will need to perform simple administration on a database. It supports the latest features... Read more
Sketch 58 - Design app for UX/UI for iOS...
Sketch is an innovative and fresh look at vector drawing. Its intentionally minimalist design is based upon a drawing space of unlimited size and layers, free of palettes, panels, menus, windows, and... Read more
ClipGrab 3.8.5 - Download videos from Yo...
ClipGrab is a free downloader and converter for YouTube, Vimeo, Facebook and many other online video sites. It converts downloaded videos to MPEG4, MP3 or other formats in just one easy step Version... Read more
Dash 4.6.6 - Instant search and offline...
Dash is an API documentation browser and code snippet manager. Dash helps you store snippets of code, as well as instantly search and browse documentation for almost any API you might use (for a full... Read more
FotoMagico 5.6.8 - Powerful slideshow cr...
FotoMagico lets you create professional slideshows from your photos and music with just a few, simple mouse clicks. It sports a very clean and intuitive yet powerful user interface. High image... Read more
Civilization VI 1.2.4 - Next iteration o...
Sid Meier’s Civilization VI is the next entry in the popular Civilization franchise. Originally created by legendary game designer Sid Meier, Civilization is a strategy game in which you attempt to... Read more
Skype 8.52.0.138 - Voice-over-internet p...
Skype allows you to talk to friends, family and co-workers across the Internet without the inconvenience of long distance telephone charges. Using peer-to-peer data transmission technology, Skype... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Lots of premium games are going free (so...
You may have seen over the past couple weeks a that a bunch of premium games have suddenly become free. This isn’t a mistake, nor is it some last hurrah before Apple Arcade hits, and it’s important to know that these games aren’t actually becoming... | Read more »
Yoozoo Games launches Saint Seiya Awaken...
If you’re into your anime, you’ve probably seen or heard of Saint Seiya. Based on a shonen manga by Masami Kurumada, the series was massively popular in the 1980s – especially in its native Japan. Since then, it’s grown into a franchise of all... | Read more »
Five Nights at Freddy's AR: Special...
Five Nights at Freddy's AR: Special Delivery is a terrifying new nightmare from developer Illumix. Last week, FNAF fans were sent into a frenzy by a short teaser for what we now know to be Special Delivery. Those in the comments were quick to... | Read more »
Rush Rally 3's new live events are...
Last week, Rush Rally 3 got updated with live events, and it’s one of the best things to happen to racing games on mobile. Prior to this update, the game already had multiplayer, but live events are more convenient in the sense that it’s somewhat... | Read more »
Why your free-to-play racer sucks
It’s been this way for a while now, but playing Hot Wheels Infinite Loop really highlights a big issue with free-to-play mobile racing games: They suck. It doesn’t matter if you’re trying going for realism, cart racing, or arcade nonsense, they’re... | Read more »
Steam Link Spotlight - The Banner Saga 3
Steam Link Spotlight is a new feature where we take a look at PC games that play exceptionally well using the Steam Link app. Our last entry talked about Terry Cavanaugh’s incredible Dicey Dungeons. Read about how it’s a great mobile experience... | Read more »
Combo Quest (Games)
Combo Quest 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Combo Quest is an epic, time tap role-playing adventure. In this unique masterpiece, you are a knight on a heroic quest to retrieve... | Read more »
Hero Emblems (Games)
Hero Emblems 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: ** 25% OFF for a limited time to celebrate the release ** ** Note for iPhone 6 user: If it doesn't run fullscreen on your device... | Read more »
Puzzle Blitz (Games)
Puzzle Blitz 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Puzzle Blitz is a frantic puzzle solving race against the clock! Solve as many puzzles as you can, before time runs out! You have... | Read more »
Sky Patrol (Games)
Sky Patrol 1.0.1 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0.1 (iTunes) Description: 'Strategic Twist On The Classic Shooter Genre' - Indie Game Mag... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

$250 prepaid Visa card with any Apple iPhone,...
Xfinity Mobile will include a free $250 prepaid Visa card with the purchase of any new iPhone, new line activation, and transfer of phone number to Xfinity Mobile. Offer is valid through October 27,... Read more
Sprint is offering the 64GB Apple iPhone 11 P...
Sprint has the new 64GB iPhone 11 Pro available for $12.50 per month for new customers with an eligible trade-in in of iPhone 7 or newer. That’s down from their standard monthly lease of $41.67. The... Read more
Final week: Apple’s 2019 Back to School Promo...
Purchase a new Mac using Apple’s Education discount, and take up to $400 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution with a .edu email address qualify for the discount... Read more
Save $30 on Apple’s AirPods at these reseller...
Amazon is offering discounts on new 2019 Apple AirPods ranging up to $30 off MSRP as part of their Labor Day sale. Shipping is free: – AirPods with Charging Case: $144.95 $15 off MSRP – AirPods with... Read more
Preorder your Apple Watch Series 5 today at A...
Amazon has Apple Watch Series 5 GPS models available for preorder and on sale today for $15 off Apple’s MSRP. Shipping is free and starts on September 20th: – 40mm Apple Watch Series 5 GPS: $384.99 $... Read more
21″ iMacs on sale for $100 off Apple’s MSRP,...
B&H Photo has new 21″ Apple iMacs on sale for $100 off MSRP with models available starting at $999. These are the same iMacs offered by Apple in their retail and online stores. Overnight shipping... Read more
2018 4 and 6-Core Mac minis on sale today for...
Apple resellers are offering new 2018 4-Core and 6-Core Mac minis for $100-$150 off MSRP for a limited time. B&H Photo has the new 2018 4-Core and 6-Core Mac minis on sale for up to $150 off... Read more
Save $150-$250 on 10.2″ WiFi + Cellular iPads...
Verizon is offering $150-$250 discounts on Apple’s new 10.2″ WiFi + Cellular iPad with service. Buy the iPad itself and save $150. Save $250 on the purchase of an iPad along with an iPhone. The fine... Read more
Apple continues to offer 13″ 2.3GHz Dual-Core...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2017 13″ 2.3GHz Dual-Core non-Touch Bar MacBook Pros available starting at $1019. An standard Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, outer cases are new... Read more
Apple restocks 2018 MacBook Airs, Certified R...
Apple has restocked Certified Refurbished 2018 13″ MacBook Airs starting at only $849. Each MacBook features a new outer case, comes with a standard Apple one-year warranty, and is shipped free. The... Read more

Jobs Board

Student Employment (Blue *Apple* Cafe) Spri...
Student Employment (Blue Apple Cafe) Spring 2019 Penn State University Campus/Location: Penn State Brandywine Campus City: Media, PA Date Announced: 12/20/2018 Date Read more
Geek Squad *Apple* Master Consultation Agen...
**732907BR** **Job Title:** Geek Squad Apple Master Consultation Agent **Job Category:** Services/Installation/Repair **Location Number:** 000360-Williston-Store Read more
*Apple* Mobile Master - Best Buy (United Sta...
**728519BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobile Master **Job Category:** Store Associates **Location Number:** 000853-Jackson-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Best Read more
*Apple* Mobility Pro - Best Buy (United Stat...
**733006BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobility Pro **Job Category:** Store Associates **Location Number:** 000865-Conroe-Store **Job Description:** At Best Buy, our Read more
*Apple* Mobility Pro-Store 149 - Best Buy (U...
**731985BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobility Pro-Store 149 **Job Category:** Store Associates **Location Number:** 000149-Towson-Store **Job Description:** At Best Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.