TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Oct 97 Factory Floor

Volume Number: 13 (1997)
Issue Number: 10
Column Tag: From The Factory Floor

A CodeWarrior Rhapsody Update: Part One

by Dave Mark, ©1997 by Metrowerks, Inc., all rights reserved.

Berardino E. Baratta is Vice President, Research and Development for Metrowerks Corp. With the Metrowerks R&D department quickly approaching 100, he has little time left for doing actual coding but he does still sneak it in (mostly by working on it late at night, or early in the morning, depending on how you look at it). Most recently having done compiler and linker modifications for PalmPilot Release 3. He also tries to spend as much time as possible with his wife and young son.

Andreas Hommel is currently the C/C++ front end and 68K back end/linker architect at Metrowerks. After finishing his masters degree in computer science, Andreas did some contract programming in the desktop publishing area and also published several games on the Macintosh and Amiga. He has been with Metrowerks for three and a half years.

Andreas lives in a small country village about 20 kilometers north of Hamburg, Germany with his wife, two Australian Shepherd dogs, and two arabian horses. When he is not coding, riding horses or walking his dogs Andreas likes travelling, playing a good video game, and driving really fast on the Autobahn. He also likes cooking and fine red wines (in particular Californian Cabernets).

Bob Campbell is the enginer responsible for the Mac OS and Rhapsody, PowerPC code generators. Prior to joining Metrowerks, he worked for Apple Computer for 8 years. To relieve the stress of programming he rides in bicycle races on the weekends.

Since starting at Metrowerks in early 1996, Lawrence You has been helping shape the CodeWarrior debugging architecture for non-Mac OS targets, including Rhapsody. He has been a longtime Macintosh developer, also working for Apple and Taligent.

As you read this column, the finishing touches are being applied, as CodeWarrior Pro 2 gets ready to ship. Hopefully, you've all had a chance to bang on the first Rhapsody pre-release and you're chomping at the bit to get your apps ported using Latitude and the first native-yellow box version of CodeWarrior. This month's interview is with the CodeWarrior Rhapsody team. It is the first half of a two parter. The second half will be featured in next month's issue.

Dave: What's the current state of Metrowerks' Rhapsody development tools?

Berardino Baratta: By the time you read this, CodeWarrior Professional Release 2 will have shipped. The Pro 2 release will show the fruit of our current labors (oh, the joys of printed publications and their built-in time delays).

We plan on having a release of our C/C++ PowerPC compiler with support for generating mixed C/C++/Objective-C binaries for native Yellow Box, which builds on the first pre-release version of Objective-C support that we shipped on Pro 1. We will also be shipping a pre-release version of both our IDE and Debugger hosted on Rhapsody as native Yellow Box applications. This port will be done using our Metrowerks Latitude porting library, which forces us to "eat our own dogfood", so to speak.

The new Apple OS architecture forced us to come up with a debug kernel solution that didn't involve MetroNub, as MetroNub was designed strictly for Mac OS and wouldn't port to Rhapsody. For that we ported a piece of technology that came out of the ashes of the Taligent project.

We've also modified our x86 code generator to emit Mach-O executables, so that when Apple releases their version of Yellow Box for x86, CodeWarrior users can target building binaries for that version without having to change toolsets.

Dave: What's the status of the Objective-C compiler?

Andreas Hommel: The basic Objective-C support is pretty much complete. We actually shipped a pre-release of our Objective-C front-end on the CodeWarrior Pro 1 CD (in Pre-Release:1.9b1 MacOS plugins.sit). This compiler comes with a mini runtime that lets you use Objective-C under Mac OS. Objective-C is actually a relative small extension to ANSI C (or C++) and a lot of the real advanced functionality, such as remote messaging, comes from NeXT's foundation framework. As you've seen in recent issues of MacTech, the OpenStep environment gives you a way to start learning the Objective-C syntax until Apple ships the first developer's release of Rhapsody.

Dave: What about support for modern Objective-C syntax?

Andreas Hommel: We still have to add support for the modern Objective-C syntax. The classic Objective-C syntax is based on Smalltalk and it looks a little weird to C/C++ or Java programmers. The modern syntax is much closer to C++ or Java. So, for example, instead of writing code like this:

@implementation MyClass : NSObject
{
     int m;
}

- (void)set:(int)i
{
     m=i;
}

- (void)print
{
     printf("m = %d\n",m);
}
@end

int main()
{
     MyClass *my;

     my=[[MyClass alloc] init];
     [my set:123];
     [my print];
     [my dealloc];

     return 0;
}

You will soon be able to write code like this:

@implementation MyClass : NSObject
{
     int m;
}

void set(int i)
{
     m=i;
}

void print()
{
     printf("m = %d\n",m);
}
@end

int main()
{
     MyClass *my;

     my=(new MyClass)->init();
     my->set(123);
     my->print();
     delete my;

     return 0;
}

The latter, modern form looks a lot more familiar to C++ programmers. We will support this as a real modern syntax specification falls into place.

Dave: What changes were required in the code generators to support Rhapsody?

Bob Campbell: As far as ABI changes go, Mach for PowerPC changes some of the runtime model from the Mac OS ABI. While the usage of registers when calling functions is almost exactly the same, the Mach model does not have a "TOC" pointer. This changes the way that global variables are addressed, as well as the way that routines in shared libraries are called.

There are a lot of reasons for the changes to the ABI. Unfortunately, it would probably take an entire article just to explain the underlying logic behind the current Mach-based ABI design. For now, I think it would be useful to see an overview. If we get the chance, we'll explore these issues in more detail in a future column.

Addressing global variables, in Mac OS addressing an external global variable requires an indirection via a TOC pointer, as follows:

    lwz r4,x(RTOC)
    lwz r4,0(r4)

In Mach (using the static model), this would be done by breaking the first instruction up into two. The first loads the high half of the address, which is then used as a base register with the low half of the address to load the actual data:

    lis r4,HA(L_x$non_lazy_ptr)
    lwz r4,LO(L_x$non_lazy_ptr)(r4)
    lwz r4,0(r4)

Note "HA" is the high 16 bits of the address adjusted for the case where the low 16 bits when treated as signed becomes a negative value. It is possible to use the HI function but in this cause it would require more instructions:

    lis r4,HI(L_x$non_lazy_ptr)
    ori r4,r4,LO(L_x$non_lazy_ptr)
    lwz r4,0(r4)
    lwz r4,0(r4)

When we are using the dynamic model we need to use a base register to insure position independant code so it becomes:

    ; set up PIC base register
    mflr  r0        ; save the return address
    bl    L_pic_base  ; put pc of next instruction in lr
      L_pic_base:
    mflr  r3        ; setup r3 as a base register
...
    addis r4,r3,HA(L_x$non_lazy_ptr-L_pic_base)
    lwz   r4,LO(L_x$non_lazy_ptr-L_pic_base)(r4)
    lwz   r4,0(r4)
...
    mtlr  r0        ; restore return address
    blr

Another example is of differences in calling external functions. In the Mac OS case, there may need to be a reload of the TOC pointer so it inserts a nop which the linker may fill with an instruction. In the Mach case, the reload of the TOC is not needed.

extern void x(void);

void y(void)
{
    x();
}

.y:
    mflr  r0
    stw   r0,0(r1)
    stwu  r1,-64(r1)
    bl    .x
    nop      ; slot for restoring the TOC pointer if needed
    lwz   r0,72(r1)
    addi  r1,r1,64
    mtlr  r0
    blr

becomes:

_y:
    mflr  r0
    stw   r0,0(r1)
    stwu  r1,-64(r1)
    bl    L_x$stub
    lwz   r0,72(r1)
    addi  r1,r1,64
    mtlr  r0
    blr

Dave: What about object formats?

Bob Campbell: The object format defined by Apple for Rhapsody is Mach-O. It is a very different from the object format that Metrowerks uses for Mac OS.

One big difference is that in our Mac OS object format we let our linker resolve things which the Mach-O object format requires be resolved at compile time. For example, in our current object files we start the address for each function at zero and let the linker resolve the addresses. For Mach-O we must assign each function and variable a unique address before the object file is written.

I would like to point out that these are the ABIs and Object Formats that are being used for the initial release of Rhapsody. Once the initial version is out the door we will start looking for ways to improve the performance of the dynamic model.

Dave: What's the linker strategy for Mach-O?

Berardino Baratta: For this part of the equation, we decided early on, after discussions with core Apple/NeXT engineers, that NeXT had developed some very good linker technology, and it made the most sense to license that technology so we could convert that command line linker into a CodeWarrior plugin for use under our IDE. This allows us to concentrate our resources on the rest of our tools and not in trying to replicate the excellent linker optimizations that the NeXT linker implements. This helps reduce the method call overhead penalty that the ObjectiveC runtime imposes.

Dave: What can you tell me about porting the IDE to Rhapsody?

Berardino Baratta: Technically, we don't have to do anything to port our IDE to Rhapsody as it will run just fine inside of the Blue Box (Apple's solution that allow users to run their existing application inside of Rhapsody). Of course, that would be too easy. So, as I said before, we're using Latitude to solve this part of the equation. This solution involved a two step process.

First, we ported our IDE to run under Latitude hosted on SunOS, as at the time Latitude for Rhapsody was still under development. This cleaned up any issues in the IDE that were not supported under Latitude, and validated the core of Latitude with another large sourcebase.

Next, we rebuilt the IDE under Latitude for Rhapsody, giving David Hempling and the other Latitude engineers a large sourcebase with which to validate their port of Latitude for Rhapsody. If all went well, then you should be seeing the results of this work on Pro 2, as a pre-release version of the Metrowerks IDE running native on Rhapsody in the Yellow Box.

In the future, we're going to use the native hooks in Latitude to add in Yellow Box specific functionality that will make sure that the IDE is, from the user's standpoint, a fully native Yellow Box application.

Dave: Will there be any integration between CodeWarrior and InterfaceBuilder?

Berardino Baratta: Yes, we're working together with Apple to fully support InterfaceBuilder (IB), but this work is not scheduled to begin until after our IDE is up and stable under Rhapsody. Our goal is to replace ProjectBuilder, in order to provide seamless support between IB and the Metrowerks IDE.

Next month, we'll finish up this interview, starting with Lawrence You's discussion of yellow box debugging plans.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

BlueStacks 4.230.10 - Run Android applic...
BlueStacks App Player lets you run your Android apps fast and fullscreen on your Mac. Feature comparison chart How to install Bluestacks on your Mac Go to MacUpdate and click the green "Download"... Read more
Kodi 18.8 - Powerful media center tool f...
Kodi (was XBMC) is an award-winning free and open-source (GPL) software media player and entertainment hub that can be installed on Linux, OS X, Windows, iOS, and Android, featuring a 10-foot user... Read more
Wireshark 3.2.7 - Network protocol analy...
Wireshark is one of the world's foremost network protocol analyzers, and is the standard in many parts of the industry. It is the continuation of a project that started in 1998. Hundreds of... Read more
Fantastical 3.2 - Create calendar events...
Fantastical is the Mac calendar you'll actually enjoy using. Creating an event with Fantastical is quick, easy, and fun: Open Fantastical with a single click or keystroke Type in your event... Read more
Mindjet MindManager 13.2.132 - Professio...
MindManager is a powerful mind mapping tool that increases your productivity. From business plans or developing a new website, its robust mind maps have all the features you need to accomplish your... Read more
Tweetbot 3.4.3 - Popular Twitter client.
Tweetbot is a full-featured OS X Twitter client with a lot of personality. Whether it's the meticulously-crafted interface, sounds and animation, or features like multiple timelines and column views... Read more
OmniPlan 4.0.2 - Professional-grade proj...
With OmniPlan, you can create logical, manageable project plans with Gantt charts, schedules, summaries, milestones, and critical paths. Break down the tasks needed to make your project a success,... Read more
Numbers 10.2 - Apple's spreadsheet...
With Apple Numbers, sophisticated spreadsheets are just the start. The whole sheet is your canvas. Just add dramatic interactive charts, tables, and images that paint a revealing picture of your data... Read more
A Better Finder Attributes 6.25 - Change...
A Better Finder Attributes 6 allows you to change JPEG & RAW shooting dates, JPEG EXIF meta-data tags, file creation & modification dates, file flags and deal with invisible files. Correct... Read more
Keynote 10.2 - Apple's presentation...
Easily create gorgeous presentations with the all-new Keynote, featuring powerful yet easy-to-use tools and dazzling effects that will make you a very hard act to follow. The Theme Chooser lets you... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

The 5 Best Mobile Games Like Hades
Supergiant Games finally released Hades upon the world this week, and we’re loving it. The game plays to all of the studio’s strengths while still retaining a strong sense of identity. It also just so happens to play rather well using the Steam... | Read more »
A Year of Apple Arcade: The Good, The Ba...
Apple Arcade has persisted for just over a year at this point, and although that means I've been busy ranking and re-ranking every game on the service for just about as long, I haven't done much reflection on the service as a whole. [Read more] | Read more »
Animal Restaurant anniversary event team...
Animal idle simulator Animal Restaurant is celebrating its first-year anniversary with a crossover event with popular YouTube series Aaron’s Animals. [Read more] | Read more »
Raziel: Dungeon Arena is a hack 'n...
Raziel: Dungeon Arena is available now on mobile and will appeal to fans of both comic books and old school dungeon crawlers. Not only will you hack 'n' slash your way through mobs of enemies but there's also fully-narrated animated comic to enjoy... | Read more »
Steam Link Spotlight - Hades
Steam Link Spotlight is a feature where we look at PC games that play exceptionally well using the Steam Link app. Our last entry was on Disco Elysium. Read about how it plays using Steam Link over here. | Read more »
Microsoft has acquired ZeniMax Media and...
In the latest of a series of blockbuster moves, Microsoft has now acquired Zenimax Media and its subsidiary, Bethesda Softworks, for $7.5 billion. [Read more] | Read more »
Infinity Mechs is an upcoming idle game...
Indie developer SkullStar studio has announced an upcoming idle mech game called Infinity Mechs. It draws inspiration from the mobile game Iron Saga and has been officially licensed by Game Duchy. It's set to launch for both iOS and Android on... | Read more »
PUBG Mobile Lite's latest update se...
PUBG Mobile Lite, the streamlined version of the popular battle royale that's designed to work on less powerful devices, sees the return of a popular game variant today, Survive Till Dawn mode. It arrives as part of the 0.19.0 content update. [... | Read more »
Matchy Catch, Jyamma Games’ new hyper-ca...
Matchy Catch is a new hyper-casual puzzler from Jyamma Games, the Italian studio behind the Pong-inspired puzzle-adventure Hi-Ball Rush. It’s only the developer’s second game for iOS and Android devices, but it promises to be every bit as fun and... | Read more »
Among Us! Imposter Guide - How to be a s...
Among Us! continues to be getting a lot of play in these parts, and since our first guide we've learned a thing or two about the game. This is especially true regarding the imposter role, as its a relatively rare opportunity that we've now put... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple has restocked 2020 13″ MacBook Airs sta...
Apple has restocked Certified Refurbished 2020 13″ MacBook Airs starting at only $849 and up to $200 off the cost of new Airs. Each MacBook features a new outer case, comes with a standard Apple one-... Read more
Apple’s new 8th generation 10.2″ iPads are on...
Amazon is discounting new 2020 8th generation 10.2″ Apple iPads by up to $35 off MSRP with prices starting at only $299. Shipping is free. These are the same iPads sold by Apple in their retail and... Read more
Today on Woot: Apple refurbished 16″ MacBook...
Amazon-owned Woot has Apple refurbished 16″ MacBook Pros available today for up to $605 off the cost of new models. Shipping is free for Prime members: – 16″ 6-Core MacBook Pros: $1874.99 $525 off... Read more
Apple offers last year’s iMacs for as little...
Apple has dropped prices on last year’s 21″ iMacs, Certified Refurbished, by up to $240 off the original cost of new models. Apple’s one-year warranty is standard, shipping is free, and each iMac... Read more
Get last year’s 32GB iPad for only $279 today...
Amazon has dropped prices on clearance 2019 Silver 32GB WiFi Apple iPads by $50 to $279 shipped. That’s the cheapest price available for a new 10.2″ iPad from any Apple reseller. Act now if you’re... Read more
New Apple Watch Series 6 and SE models now on...
Amazon is the first Apple reseller to offer the new Apple Watch Series 6 and Apple Watch SE models at discounted sale prices. These are the same Watches sold by Apple in their retail and online... Read more
The cheapest Macs are back in stock today at...
Apple has restocked clearance, previous-generation, Certified Refurbished Mac minis starting at only $599. Each mini comes with free shipping plus Apple’s standard one-year warranty. These are the... Read more
Sale! Amazon has 2020 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pros...
Amazon has 2020 13″ MacBook Pros with 10th generation Intel CPUs back in stock on sale again today for $150-$200 off Apple’s MSRP. Shipping is free. Be sure to purchase the MacBook Pro from Amazon,... Read more
Base 13″ 1.4GHz Apple MacBook Pros on sale fo...
Apple reseller Expercom is offering a $65-$75 discount on new 2020 13″ 1.4GHz MacBook Pros, depending on configuration. Shipping is free. Expercom estimates shipping in 3-5 days, as stock of Apple’s... Read more
Price drop! Get a 44mm Apple Watch Series 5 G...
Amazon has dropped their price on the 44mm Apple Watch Series 5 GPS + Cellular by $100 to $429 shipped. That’s $100 off Apple’s original MSRP for this model. For the latest prices and sales, see our... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Certified Macintosh Technician - Exc...
Apple Certified Macintosh Technician Summary Title: Apple Certified Macintosh Technician ID:350 Department:All Location:Falls Church, VA Description Apple Read more
Department Manager- Tech Shop/ *Apple* Stor...
…their parents want, and our faculty needs. As a Department Manager in our Tech Shop/ Apple Store you will spend the majority of your time on the sales floor engaging Read more
Security Officer ($23.00/Hourly) - *Apple*...
**Security Officer \($23\.00/Hourly\) \- Apple Store** **Description** About NMS Built on a culture of safety and integrity, NMSdelivers award\-winning, integrated Read more
Product Manager, *Apple* Commercial Sales -...
Product Manager, Apple Commercial Sales Austin, TX, US Requisition Number:77652 As an Apple Product Manager for the Commercial Sales team at Insight, you Read more
Security Officer ($23.00/Hourly) - *Apple*...
**Security Officer \($23\.00/Hourly\) \- Apple Store** **Description** About NMS Built on a culture of safety and integrity, NMSdelivers award\-winning, integrated Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.