TweetFollow Us on Twitter

CGIs in Lisp
Volume Number:12
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:Webtech™

CGIs in Lisp

A Web dictionary server

By Mathieu Lafourcade and Gilles Sérasset

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

Introduction

A paper dictionary is fine for reading comfort, versatility, etc., but updating of the data is not possible (apart from buying a new dictionary!), and the amount of data may be smaller than an electronic version. A resident electronic dictionary allows cut and paste, and updates are generally possible; but, like the paper dictionary, you must carry it along (in your hard disk). The Web-based dictionary doesn’t take any space on your hard disk; the memory footprint is that of your Web browser. On the other hand you do rely on the availability of the network and/or server.

This article describes how a Web server offering multilingual dictionary services was set up by integrating three components: MacHTTP, AppleScript, and Macintosh Common Lisp (MCL). The dictionary server is constructed from a dictionary application, ALEX, written with MCL. This application can be remotely (and facelessly if needed) controlled with AppleScript. Given this design, the connection with MacHTTP is painless. The result is a very cost-effective way of providing a large linguistic resource on the Web.

Our developmental approach was to come up with something functional as fast as possible and to enhance the solution afterward. We had to compromise between functionality delivered to the user, performance, and the technical implications for the developer.

We first describe a typical user session; you can try this out yourself by pointing to the URL from your own browser (you can see the URL in Figure 1). The general architecture of the server is then presented, followed by some technical details about the three components.

Note: The included sources have often been trimmed to keep this article as short as possible - for instance, the error handling is generally not included.

Figure 1. Initial Web page of the server

A Typical User Session

The Web page displays a form (Figure 1). The user can choose a dictionary, enter a word to look up, and click on the “Look up” button. It is possible to terminate the candidate word with an asterisk; in this case the first entry which starts with the text entered is returned.

A new page appears displaying the information associated with the word entered (Figure 2). If the entry is not found, a (friendly) error message is given. Beside the title (corresponding to the word looked up), the user has access to links to the previous word (if any), to the form (just like pressing the “Back” button of the Web client), or to the next word (if any). This way, the user can walk through the entire dictionary.

Figure 2. The data displayed for the entry “apple”;
the source of this page is given in Listing 10

For example, the user can click on the previous entry “applause” and obtain the corresponding page (Figure 3). The user can continue to scan the dictionary or can return to the form and choose an other entry or dictionary.

Figure 3. The web page for the entry “applause”

The HTML Form

The form used as an interface between user and server, the starting point of a session, is a plain HTML page. The link between this page and the application handling the action is made in the form declaration. The standard POST method is used for sending the message from the server to the application, wAlex.acgi.

We assume you are familiar with HTML (if not, check out the numerous informative pages available on the Web). The <FORM> tag specifies a form, which may include various items, such as text input (text field) and select input (menu). Notice that many less common characters (in English at least) are represented a specific way (for example the “ç” as "&ccedil"), and this is the beginning of big problems when you decide to deal with other languages, like French for instance.

Listing 1:
HTML Source of Figure 1

The dictionary lookup form

All the cosmetic and informative stuff at the beginning of the page.
<TITLE>web-generic-ds</TITLE>
<TABLE CELLPADDING=3 WIDTH="100%">
<T>R
  <TD ALIGN=LEFT>
   <img ALIGN=middle src="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/wAlex-vert.GIF" 
WIDTH=25>
   <img ALIGN=middle src="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/wAlexVLogo.GIF">
  </TD>
  <TD ALIGN=LEFT>
<H1><FONT SIZE=+7>GENERIC</FONT><B>R dictionary web service</H1>
 </TD>
</T>R
</TABLE>

The form definition starts here.
<FORM ACTION="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/wAlex.acgi" METHOD=Post>

<TABLE border UNITS=PIXELS CELLPADDING=2 WIDTH="100%">
<T>R
  <TD>
  <P>To look up for a word fill the text field below and click in the 
button "Submit". 
You can search by prefixes by adding the character "*" at the end of 
the entry.<B>R
  </TD></T>R
<T>R
  <TD ALIGN=CENTE>REntry to look up <INPUT TYPE="text" NAME="Entry" VALUE="" 
MAXLENGTH=150>
in 
<SELECT NAME="DictID">
<OPTION VALUE="2">Fran&ccedil;ais-Malais
<OPTION VALUE="3">English-Malay
<OPTION VALUE="1">informatique Fran&ccedil;ais-Anglais-Malais
</SELECT>
  </TD></T>R
</TABLE>

The Submit button is defined here.
<P><CENTE>R<INPUT TYPE="Submit" VALUE="Look up"></CENTE>R

One hidden item giving the name of the form we are in.
<INPUT TYPE=HIDDEN NAME="FormName" VALUE="web-generic-ds.html">
The form definition ends here.
</FORM>

Some links to specific dictionary forms are presented here.
<H>R
Or if you prefer, you can go to specific form for each of these dictionaries. 

These forms allows filtering. <B>R
<A HREF="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Forms/web-FEM-ds.html">Fran&ccedil;ais-Malais</A> 
-
<A HREF="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Forms/web-EM-ds.html">English-Malay</A> -
<A HREF="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Forms/web-FEMterm-ds.html">informatique Fran&ccedil;ais-Anglais-Malais</A> 


The signature ends the page.
<P><IMG ALIGN = MIDDLE src="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/GIFgeneral/line.GIF"></br>
<FONT SIZE = 1> Last revision 24/11/95 - ALEXv1.84 - wALEXv0.8  <IMG 
SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/yellow-diamond.GIF"> 
<A HREF="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/STAFF/ML-us.html">mathieu lafourcade</A> -
<A HREF="http://imag.fr/IMAG/GETA.html">GETA</A>-<A HREF="http://imag.fr/">IMAG</A> | 
<A HREF="http://www.cs.usm.my/">csUSM</A>-<A>UTMK</A> <IMG SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/yellow-diamond.GIF"> 

 Thanks to: Jon Wiederspan for CGI, all the FEM staff
for the dictionaries, USM dan UTMK, IMAG and GETA, and every person who 
gave me some feedback.
</FONT><P>

Opening Pandora’s Box

How does the information get from the browser to the server to the Dictionary Service? In form-based queries, there are two methods (POST and GET) for submitting the data to the gateway script. We use only POST, as recommended by NCSA. POST (unlike GET) is not limited in the amount of information you can pass with a form.

A gateway script is needed on the server side to decode these arguments, process the query, and return an answer. In our case we have MacHTTP (the server application) and our MCL-based application, ALEX (which serves dictionary data). We have tested two different architectures for connecting MacHTTP to ALEX.

In the first solution, we transformed ALEX, our MCL appplication, itself into an acgi script. The second solution uses a small AppleScript applet to make the glue between MacHTTP and ALEX. Both methods have their own advantages and drawbacks.

ALEX (MCL) As a CGI Application

In the first solution MacHTTP interacts directly with ALEX, our MCL application (Figure 4). To make MacHTTP believe it is an acgi script, the name of the application must end with “.acgi”. When MacHTTP receives a query from a WWW client requesting a file whose suffix mapping is “.acgi” (an executable application), MacHTTP will attempt to communicate with it via a custom Apple event of class 'WWW ' and ID 'sdoc'. We want the received request to be handled by ALEX; hence, our application has to listen (at least) to this particular Apple event. For this solution, we also have to change the name of the form action in the HTML file to wAlex.acgi (which is the name of our MCL application).

MCL directly supports the four required Apple events sent by the Finder: Open Application, Open Documents, Print Documents, and Quit Application. In addition, MCL provides a very easy way to support other Apple events by writing and installing new Apple event handlers.

Figure 4. MacHTTP communicates directly with ALEX transformed into an ACGI application

Handling Apple events

An Apple event handler is a generic function specialized on the application class. Hence it is possible to customize the behaviour of the predefined Apple event handlers by specializing the application class. This is not necessary for our purpose. However, we have to write a new handler for the CGI event.

As MCL bypasses the Apple Event Manager’s dispatch routine, you don’t have to bother with how your function is called by the Apple Event Manager. Lisp takes care of dispatching and run-time error checking. If no error occurs, your handler should simply return in a normal way. The returned value is ignored. If an error occurs, your handler should signal an appleevent-error condition, with an error number and an optional error string.

An Apple event handler has four arguments: the application (always the value of the global variable *application*), the Apple event (you generally don’t have to look at the record structure directly), the reply (another Apple event record, provided by the Apple Event Manager) and an optional handler reference constant (any Lisp object that can be used e.g. to distinguish two different installations of the same handler; this will be ignored for our purpose). Look at Listing 4.

Decoding arguments

MacHTTP provides a lot of information (client address, user name and password, arguments of the request, etc.). MacHTTP’s documentation will give you the complete set of parameters and their four-byte codes.

To get the value associated with each parameter, you have to use the ae-get-parameter-char function. You specify the AppleEvent object and the parameter, and the function returns a string containing the required value.

In our case, we assume that the client issues a POST method (the GET method case can be easily deduced from this code). Hence, the arguments we need are the post arguments, accessible via the 'post' four-byte code.

The ae-get-parameter-char function returns a string consisting of all the variables of the form, and their values appended together. This format is not directly usable; hence, we will transform it into a list of variable-value pairs. For instance, the argument string:

"ENTRY=apple&FORMNAME=web-generic-ds&DICTID=3"

will be transformed into:

(:DICTID "3" 
 :FORMNAME "web-generic-ds"
 :ENTRY "apple")

To transform this kind of string, we use one of our publicly available packages called geta-strings (ftp://ftp.digitool.com//pub/MCL/contrib/geta-strings-1.3.sea.hqx).

Listing 2:
wAlex.acgi 1/3 (MCL Application)

Decoding POST arguments
(defun create-keywords-from-args (args)
;; segment the string with ‘&’ as a separator
 (let ((mylist (geta-strings::list-words args "&"))
        pair
        result)
;; for each part, segment with ‘=‘ as a separator and construct the result
  (dolist (lv-pair mylist)
    (setf pair (geta-strings::list-words lv-pair "="))
    (push (second pair) result)
    (push
     (read-from-string 
      (concatenate 'string ":" (first pair))) result)
      )
    result))

This list will be simply used as a list of arguments for a function accepting all the variables defined in the HTML form as keys. Hence, we rely on the standard Lisp binding mechanism to bind each value to its variable. For our purpose, we ask the appropriate dictionary for an HTML version of the entry structure.

Listing 3:
wAlex.acgi 2/3 (MCL Application)

Getting the corresponding entry
(defun get-walex-entry  (&key dictid 
                         dicttype
                         formname 
                         entry
                         &allow-other-keys)
;; Now, we can directly use each variable to query our dictionary
  (let ((dict (get-dictionary dictid dicttype)))
    (findAndTransmuteItem 
      dict
      entry :output-format :html-1))
  )

Replying

MacHTTP expects the Apple event reply’s direct parameter to contain an HTTP/1.0 header and HTML text that will be transmitted to the client. Hence, we have to construct an appropriate answer. The HTML/1.0 header will be built as a global variable:

;; Define the http 1.0 header (beware of crlf)
(defvar *crlf* 
  (format nil "~A~A" #\Linefeed #\Newline))
(defvar *http-10-header* 
  (format nil "HTTP/1.0 200 OK ~A~
               Server: MacHTTP ~A~
               MIME-Version: 1.0 ~A~
               Content-type: text/html ~A~A" 
          *crlf* *crlf* *crlf* *crlf* *crlf*))

The reply itself will be returned by the findAndTransmuteItem function. Hence, we just have to put the header and answer in the Apple event reply’s direct parameter with the ae-put-parameter-char function.

Listing 4:
wAlex.acgi 3/3 (MCL Application)

Defining and installing the Apple event handler

(defmethod my-ae-handler ((a application) 
                          theAppleEvent
                          reply
                          handlerRefcon)
;; We don’t use the handlerRefcon argument
  (declare (ignore handlerRefcon))
;; Just get the post parameter, decode it, handle it and reply
  (let* ((post-args 
           (create-keywords-from-args
             (ae-get-parameter-char theAppleEvent 
                                    :|post| t)))
         (the-answer 
          (apply #'get-walex-entry post-args)))
;; Build the reply and put it into the Apple event reply’s direct parameter
    (ae-put-parameter-char reply #$keyDirectObject 
                           (format nil "~A ~A"
                                   *http-10-header*
                                   the-answer))
))
(install-appleevent-handler :|WWW | :|sdoc| #'my-ae-handler)

An AppleScript Applet As Glue

In this second solution (Figure 5) we use an AppleScript applet to make the glue between MacHTTP and ALEX (MCL). As in the previous solution, the applet is named wAlex.acgi. It is now up to the applet to decode the argument passed by MacHTTP. This time the decoding is done thanks to several Scripting Extensions.

The Tokenize function allows you to transform a string with separating characters into a list. For example, from "A;list;of;word" you will get {"A" "list" "of" "words"} if you take ; as the separator. DePlus does the same, but with the + character (more specific and more efficient). Encoding a URL consists of replacing any problematic characters with their %xx counterpart (for example, the space is replaced by %20). Decoding a URL is the reverse process. DecodeURL_8bits does more by also handling the nightmarish problem of accents (and diacritics in general).

After being activated by MacHTTP, the wAlex.acgi applet calls specific AppleScript Programming Interface (ASPI) procedures of the dictionary server application ALEX (MCL).

Figure 5. MacHTTP communicates indirectly with ALEX through an AppleScript applet

The communication between MacHTTP and wAlex.acgi is asynchronous. This means that MacHTTP is not waiting for the script to reply. But the communication is synchronous between wAlexScript and ALEX. As we didn’t deal with time-out in our script, the default value of 60 seconds applies. ALEX has to reply within one minute (no user will stand a much longer delay anyway).

This solution is well adapted to our needs, as we would like to add more dictionaries that are not necessarily managed by our MCL application. With this solution, we need very little change to the AppleScript applet to integrate new tools.

The script

We use the POST method in our forms or in the links associated with the previous and next entries. In the entry point, the dispatching to the appropriate function is handled on the basis of the method argument.

Notice that for an AppleScript applet, when properties are set outside of the event handlers, they are “remembered” across launches. We want the script to be continuously open.

Listing 5:
wAlex.acgi (AppleScript Applet)

Properties and CGI entry point

-- This code comes from Jon Wiederspan and has been modified to fit our purposes.
-- Some properties are defined for making it easier to read.
property crlf : (ASCII character 13) & (ASCII character 10)
property http_10_header : "HTTP/1.0 200 OK" & crlf & "Server: MacHTTP" 
& crlf & "MIME-Version: 1.0" & crlf & "Content-type: text/html" & crlf 
& crlf

property theApp : application "Alex"

-- The main entry of our script.
on «event WWW sdoc» path_args ¬
 given «class kfor»:http_search_args, «class post»:post_args, «class 
meth»:method, «class addr»:client_address, «class user»:username, «class 
pass»:|password|, «class frmu»:from_user, «class svnm»:server_name, «class 
svpt»:server_port, «class scnm»:script_name, «class ctyp»:content_type

-- Decode the Post arguments.
 try
    -- Tokenizing our arguments means creating a list (or arguments) form a string
 set tokenized_pa to tokenize post_args with delimiters {"&"}

-- Save the original AppleScript text item delimiters.
 set oldDelim to AppleScript's text item delimiters

-- Use “=“ to delimit the pairs.
 set AppleScript's text item delimiters to {"="}

-- Retrieve our arguments (it is positional and thus not very nice).
 set theEntry to (Decode URL 
 (dePlus (last text item of item 1 of tokenized_pa)))
 set theBaseID to (Decode URL 
 (dePlus (last text item of item 3 of tokenized_pa)))

-- Restore the original AppleScript text item delimiters.
 set AppleScript's text item delimiters to oldDelim

-- Returns the result (we don’t use theFrom for simplicity)
 return http_10_header & 
 getAlexEntryWithID(theBaseID, theEntry, post_args)

-- Error handling (not detailed).
 on error msg number num 
  
 end try
end «event WWW sdoc»

For our purpose we consider only two arguments (although some others could be useful later on): the word to look up, and a reference to the dictionary. The entry is strictly the string given by the user. The base ID is strictly the selected option of the selected item (in the list of available dictionaries). You can see that in fact we pass the whole argument string along with the two decoded argument. We use this technique for handling optional arguments. In this case the string should be decoded by ALEX (exactly the same way it is done in our first solution). The value of post_args giving rise to Figure 2 is "ENTRY=apple&DictID=3". You can see from Figure 1 what settings in the form this refers to.

And the Winner Is...

The main advantage of the first solution is that the direct interaction between MacHTTP and MCL doesn’t make use of AppleScript. The integration is lighter, and thus there is better overall performance in speed and robustness. But you have to delve into the decoding of AppleEvents.

The second solution is technically simpler, and you can very easily change the Lisp interface without changing the overall processing. You can also use other applications to manage dictionaries accessible by the same form. The choice of the target application is done by the applet.

For our actual implementation we retained the second solution, but the choice depends on the goals you assign to your application.

One last question can arise: where we should decode the arguments. We have presented two radically different ways of decoding, with either MCL or the AppleScript applet doing the job. Actually, in the current version of our server, we used a mixture of the two approaches. The AppleScript is used, but decodes only certain arguments (the dictionary name), and always passes the whole argument string to MCL. Then, MCL itself decodes the string with the help of the code presented in listings 2 and 3.

ALEX

ALEX, the application that serves dictionary information, has been developed with MCL. This tool can be used as an end-user tool with a user interface, or can be remotely and facelessly controlled with AppleScript.

Overview: a small session

ALEX is a small tool allowing a user to open and browse dictionaries. The interface, although minimal, seems quite efficient for the assigned purpose. This tool has been developed as a part of research on the kind of interface needed (or desirable) for structured dictionaries.

The user can scroll through the entry list (not implemented with the list manager, which is limited to around 4000 items), or can make simple active lookups. By active lookup we mean that as the user enters characters into the text box at the top of the window the first entry starting with those characters is selected.

What makes ALEX somewhat different from other tools is that all the entries are kept structured and displayed on the fly, allowing the user to specify some filtering process. It is possible to ask for several kinds of formatting. Another aspect, still under investigation, is the complete scriptability of ALEX.

Figure 6. An ALEX window displaying the entry “apple” of
the English-Malay dictionary

Architecture

The implementation of ALEX is based on several layers, all implemented with MCL. MCL relies on a Dictionary Object Protocol. This manager allows the developer to define multi-key dictionaries and manipulate them. The DOP itself is based on Wood, a persistent Object-Oriented Database developed by Bill St. Clair (ftp://ftp.digitool.com/pub/mcl/contrib/wood/). The persistency allows a minimal memory footprint - a dictionary is never completly loaded into memory. ALEX can be considered as a reduced user interface for the DOP, allowing remote control by AppleScript.

Figure 7. Layers of the actual implementation of ALEX.
The Wood layer stores the low-level format of the dictionary entry. The DOP dynamically decodes each entry in a
high-level format. From this high-level format,
ALEX produces any output format.

AppleScript Programming Interface (ASPI)

The do script AppleScript command is a universal command for controlling ALEX. This is very practical for debugging and trying new ideas; you just have to throw Lisp code at ALEX through AppleScript. The dark side is that anyone can do anything. In order for this to work, don’t forget to load the eval-server.lisp file located in the MCL Examples folder with a (require :eval-server) form.

We defined some AppleScript commands that can do specific actions: opening and closing a dictionary, looking up, inserting and deleting entries, etc. The two transmute functions are the ones used in the HTML code.

Listing 6:
ASPI

getAlexEntryWithID
-- Get the data in the HTML format with the id of the base.
on getAlexEntryWithID(id, entry, args)
 tell TheApp
 do script ("(get-alex-item (alex::base 
 (alex::get-dict-handler \"" & id & 
 "\"  :id)) " & "\"" & entry & "\"" & 
 " :output-format :html-1 & :args & "\"" args & "\")")
 end tell
end getAlexEntryWithID

As you can see, scripting our MCL application consists simply of building strings that, once given to the Lisp interpreter, will produce some effect. Yes, you can do Lisp from AppleScript! This is simple and neat. Of course, you cannot ask an end-user to write some Lisp code from AppleScript; this is why you have to provide what we call an AppleScript Programming Interface (ASPI). It is a set of AppleScript commands that will control your application. The getAlexEntryWithID function is one of the functions of ALEX’s ASPI.

Many of the functions come in two flavors, with dictionary access by ID or by name. For example, getAlexEntryWithID has its getAlexEntryWithName counterpart. Some of them are documented in Listing 7.

Listing 7:
Other ASPI Useful for ALEX

openAlexDictionary

-- Open a base from a given filename. Return an index dictionary or 0 in case of error.
on openAlexDictionary(filename)
 tell theApp
 return do script ¬
 ("(alex::open-object :alex-base :return-index t :file 
 (pathname \"" & filename & "\"))")
 end tell
end openAlexDictionary

getAlexDictionaryName
-- Return the dictionary name based on the dictionary id.
on getAlexDictionaryName(id)
 tell theApp
 return do script ("(alex:name (alex::base 
 (alex::get-dict-handler \"" & id & "\"  :id)))")
 end tell
end getAlexDictionaryName


deleteAlexEntryWithID
-- Deletes an entry (if defined) based on the dictionary id.
on deleteAlexEntryWithID(id, entry)
 tell theApp
 do script ("(delete-item (alex::base 
 (alex::get-dict-handler \"" & id & "\"  :id)) :key " 
 & "\"" & entry & "\"" & ")")
 end tell
end deleteAlexEntryWithID

Take some time to document your ASPI, and you have achieved the same result as developing your AppleEvents suite, but with less effort and time. One main difference from the more classical method is that your application has no AppleScript dictionary and you cannot use clauses.

Dictionary data structure

The entries are kept in a specific format in the dictionary. This format has been designed to compromise between file space and decoding time. For our dictionary a DOP base is linked to a text file which stands for a text buffer. The low-level format is basically a vector of index-length pairs pointing to this buffer. When an item is found, it is dynamically decoded into a high-level format (example in Listing 10).

The get-alex-item function of ALEX (called by getEntryWithID) basically retrieves one dictionary item and calls transmute-entry, which transforms the high-level format into any output format specifed by the developer. We take advantage of the generic function mechanism of CLOS (Common Lisp Object System) in MCL to have an easily extensible collection of specific formats. The selection of the appropriate method is done on the basis of specialised arguments of the function, basically the type of the current item and the desired output format (cf. Listing 9).

Listing 8:
Two CLOS Headers for Plain Text and HTML Formatting

transmute-entry 
First method for of text output (code not detailed).
(defmethod transmute-entry(entry
  (entry-type (eql :en-entry))
  (output-format (eql :text)) )
  )

Second method for one kind of HTML output (code not detailed).
(defmethod transmute-entry(entry
  (entry-type (eql :en-entry))
  (output-format (eql :html-1)) )
  )

Listing 9:
High-level Format of ALEX Items

High-level format for “apple”

The high level format of ALEX is a (kind of) property list. The first item is always the type of the entry. The 
rest of the structure is made of an open list composed of a type and one or several string values.
(:EM-ENTRY (:ENTRY "apple") (:C "n") (:N "1") (:G "(tree)") (:ME "pokok 
epal") (:N "2") (:G "(fruit)") (:ME "(buah) epal") (:P "an apple") (:P 
"the apple") (:P "bad apple") (:P "rotten apple") (:MPE "orang yg tdk 
baik") (:P "an apple for the teacher") (:MPE "sogokan") (:MPE "tumbuk 
rusuk") (:P "an apple of discord") (:P "the apple of discord") (:MPE 
"punca perselisihan") (:MPE "punca pergaduhan") (:MPE "punca perkelahian") 
(:P "the apple of o's eye") (:MPE "kesayangan sso") (:MPE "buah hati."))

Requested output format

The code produced by ALEX for the entry “apple” is given in listing 10 (the code has been slightly edited for readability). Besides the cosmetic features of the page, the most interesting part of the listing is the handling of the “previous” and “next” entries.

Listing 10:
Source of Figure 2

HTML “apple”

Beginning of the header of the page and control part for access to the previous and next entries.
<TABLE CELLPADDING=0 WIDTH="100%"><TD><IMG SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/walex-vert.GIF" 
width=10> <IMG ALIGN=Bottom SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/stack.GIF"><b><FONT 
SIZE = +6> apple </FONT></B> <TD ALIGN=Right><TABLE border=0> 

The left arrow and the previous word. Here (and only here) the GET method is used in the urls (notice the 
? character).
<TD VALIGN=CENTE>R
<A HREF="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/wALEXScript.acgi?ENTRY=applause&FORMNAME=web-generic-ds.html&DICTID=3"><IMG 
SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/left-arrow.GIF" BORDER=0></A></TD>
<TD VALIGN=CENTE>R<A HREF="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/wALEXScript.acgi?ENTRY=applause&FORMNAME=web-generic-ds.html&DICTID=3"> 
applause</A>
</TD>

The link back to the form.
<TD VALIGN=CENTE>R | <A HREF="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Forms/web-generic-ds.html">back 
to form</A> | </TD> 

The right arrow and the next word.
<TD VALIGN=CENTE>R<A HREF="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/wALEXScript.acgi?ENTRY=apple+brandy&FORMNAME=web-generic-ds.html&DICTID=3">apple 
brandy</A></TD> 
<TD VALIGN=CENTE>R<A HREF="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/wALEXScript.acgi?ENTRY=apple+brandy&FORMNAME=web-generic-ds.html&DICTID=3"><IMG 
SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/right-arrow.GIF" BORDER=0></A></TD></TABLE></TABLE>

The informative part of this page.
<HR SIZE=4><DL COMPACT>
<DT><B>apple</B> 
<DD><I>n</I><IMG HSPACE=8 SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/space.GIF"> 
<IMG HSPACE=6 SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/red-diamond.GIF">
<B>1</B> -  (tree); <IMG SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/cyan-diamond.GIF"> 
pokok epal <IMG HSPACE=6 SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/red-diamond.GIF">
<B>2</B> - (fruit); <IMG SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/cyan-diamond.GIF"> 
(buah) epal  rotten apple, bad apple, the apple, an apple; <IMG SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/cyan-diamond.GIF"> 
orang yg tdk baik  an apple for the teacher; <IMG SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/cyan-diamond.GIF"> 
tumbuk rusuk, sogokan  the apple of discord, an apple of discord; <IMG SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/cyan-diamond.GIF"> 
punca perkelahian, punca pergaduhan, punca perselisihan  the apple of o's eye; <IMG SRC="http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/ALEX/Gifs/cyan-diamond.GIF"> 
buah hati., kesayangan sso.</DL>

Information to remind the user in which dictionary he is looking.
<H>R<FONT SIZE=1>from English-Malay</FONT>

Note that the space character in “apple Brandy” has been replaced by a '+'. This has been done at the HTML page production level. Leaving the space would have led to strange and unpleasant results.

By the way, there is a bug (or, say, a slight but unpleasant defect) in this HTML page; can you figure it out? Looking attentively at Figure 2 might help.

Alternative Solutions, Shortcomings And Future Works

There are many unsatisfactory details in the solution we present here, either for the user experience or the developer’s technical investment. We are working to fix or bypass some, but many remain beyond our reach, as we do not control the technology.

Filtering

Alternative forms (accessible from the page of Figure 1) allow some filtering on a French-English-Malay dictionary. As the kind of filtering is dependent on the selected dictionary, it was impossible to provide a single interface giving simultaneously the dictionary choice and the filtering options.

Diacritics

A common problem is encountered with diacritics. To properly produce HTML pages, it is compulsory to process each string of the dictionary item and to replace dubious characters by HTML codes. The little bug of Listing 10 is contained in “the apple of o’s eye”. The closing single smart quote character is not a valid one in HTML, resulting in poor formatting in Figure 2.

Speech

We are considering giving speech output to some information associated with an entry of our dictionary. On the Web server, a Text-To-Speech system could be installed and produce sound files to be downloaded by the client. But that’s another story.

Conclusion

Technology integration is difficult for many reasons: you have to be reasonably knowledgeable in the different technologies you deal with, you have to compromise between many factors, and the whole thing is often hairy to debug.

As stated by Apple, AppleScript is the way to integrate technologies on Mac OS; but lots of people find it difficult to develop AppleScript-aware applications. With Macintosh Common Lisp, AppleScript awareness is given for free (the do script command). You can come up with a functional result quickly, satisfy your customers, and have a great tool to experiment with ideas and automated tasks.

Acknowledgments

We would like to thank all the people who participated in the development of the tools mentioned in this paper: Apple and Digitool, of course, but also Jon Wiederspan for his CGI-aware script samples. Thank you, Bill, for the tremendous support to MCL and Wood. We would also not wish to forget all the people involved in our French-English-Malay Dictionary, the staff of the UTMK laboratory in Penang, the French Embassy in Malaysia, the DBDP in Kuala Lumpur, and the GETA in Grenoble, France.

[If you’re curious about the authors and their work (and surroundings), start with the following Web pages, which I uncovered by guesswork (no word-searching necessary). You may need to brush up on your French first! - man]

http://clips.imag.fr/

http://www.imag.fr/IMAG/IMAG.html

http://www-clips.imag.fr/geta/

http://www-clips.imag.fr/geta/gilles.serasset/

http://www.usm.my/

http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/sambre-welcome-us.html

http://161.142.8.195/wSambre-us/Staff/ML-us.html

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

FotoMagico 6.2.2 - Powerful slideshow cr...
FotoMagico lets you create professional slideshows from your photos and music with just a few, simple mouse clicks. It sports a very clean and intuitive yet powerful user interface. High image... Read more
Default Folder X 5.7 - Enhances Open and...
Default Folder X attaches a toolbar to the right side of the Open and Save dialogs in any OS X-native application. The toolbar gives you fast access to various folders and commands. You just click on... Read more
f.lux 42.1 - Adjusts the color of your d...
f.lux makes the color of your computer's display adapt to the time of day, warm at night and like sunlight during the day. Ever notice how people texting at night have that eerie blue glow? Or wake... Read more
Spotify 1.1.94.872 - Stream music, creat...
Spotify is a streaming music service that gives you on-demand access to millions of songs. Whether you like driving rock, silky R&B, or grandiose classical music, Spotify's massive catalogue puts... Read more
Vitamin-R 4.15 - Personal productivity t...
Vitamin-R creates the optimal conditions for your brain to work at its best by structuring your work into short bursts of distraction-free, highly focused activity alternating with opportunities for... Read more
OfficeTime 2.0.628 - Easy time and expen...
OfficeTime is time and expense tracking that is easy, elegant and focused. Other time keepers are clumsy or oversimplified. OfficeTime balances features and ease of use, allowing you to easily track... Read more
Slack 4.28.182 - Collaborative communica...
Slack brings team communication and collaboration into one place so you can get more work done, whether you belong to a large enterprise or a small business. Check off your to-do list and move your... Read more
DEVONthink Pro 3.8.6 - Knowledge base, i...
DEVONthink is DEVONtechnologies' document and information management solution. It supports a large variety of file formats and stores them in a database enhanced by artificial intelligence (AI). Many... Read more
FileMaker Pro 19.5.4 - Quickly build cus...
FileMaker Pro is the tool you use to create a custom app. You also use FileMaker Pro to access your app on a computer. Start by importing data from a spreadsheet or using a built-in Starter app to... Read more
Backblaze 8.5.0.628 - Online backup serv...
Backblaze is an online backup service designed from the ground-up for the Mac. With unlimited storage available for $6 per month, as well as a free 15-day trial, peace of mind is within reach with... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

‘Oxenfree: Netflix Edition’ Is Out Now o...
Over the weekend, Netflix and Nightschool Studio announced and released Oxenfree: Netflix Edition (Free) worldwide on iOS and Android. This new version of Oxenfree: Netflix Edition is a separate release, and the prior version that I own, is no... | Read more »
‘Genshin Impact’ Version 3.1 Update Pre-...
Genshin Impact (Free) version 3.1 ‘King Deshret and the Three Magi’ goes live in a few days across iOS, Android, PC, PS5, and PS4. As with prior updates, pre-installation for the upcate has just gone live a few days before release. | Read more »
We’re Digging ‘Shovel Knight Dig’ – The...
We spend the bulk of this week’s podcast talking about the new iPhone 14. Specifically, the iPhone 14 Pro Max which both Eli and myself picked up. The consensus seems to be: They’re great! They’re iPhones! We do lay down our hot takes on all the new... | Read more »
TouchArcade Game of the Week: ‘Loose Noz...
There aren’t a lot of stories like that of the development of Loose Nozzles, and of those games that do have an interesting development story, even fewer are actually decent games to play. Loose Nozzles nails both, though. The way it was created is... | Read more »
SwitchArcade Round-Up: ‘Shovel Knight Di...
Hello gentle readers, and welcome to the SwitchArcade Round-Up for September 23rd, 2022. In today’s article, we’ve got the rest of this week’s releases to look at. There are actually a few big games today, including the hot-hot-hot Shovel Knight Dig... | Read more »
‘Gubbins’ is a Way Too Adorable Word Gam...
There are games whose art style, sounds, and overall vibe just make me smile ear to ear. Games like Hidden Folks, Krispee Street, or Tiny Wings. There’s just something so cool about being able to literally feel the heart that goes into a game. Now... | Read more »
Based on the Baking Reality Show, ‘Naile...
Fans of Netflix’s reality baking show Nailed It! have a new holiday-themed season to look forward to next month when Nailed It! Halloween launches on October 5th, but the fun doesn’t stop there because the show is also arriving as a mobile game the... | Read more »
Cookie Run: Kingdom announces collaborat...
In news sure to excite fans of biscuits or K-Pop music, the Korean sensations BTS have teamed up with Cookie Run: Kingdom for a series of events. After some warm-up episodes, the collaboration will culminate in a BTS in-game concert, so if anyone'... | Read more »
‘Shovel Knight Dig’ From Nitrome and Yac...
Shovel Knight Dig () from Nitrome and Yacht Club Games is this week’s new Apple Arcade release. It is definitely one of my favorite additions to the service ever, and a fantastic game overall. I played it a few hours ago when it started rolling out... | Read more »
SwitchArcade Round-Up: ‘Mario Strikers’...
Hello gentle readers, and welcome to the SwitchArcade Round-Up for September 22nd, 2022. Hunh, lots of twos in the date today. Nifty. As those who read yesterday’s article may remember, I got a vaccine shot about twenty four hours ago and it is... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

New today at Apple: 13-inch M2 MacBook Pros f...
Apple 13″ MacBook Pros with M2 CPUs in stock and available today starting at $1169, Certified Refurbished, and ranging up to $150 off original MSRP. These are the cheapest 13″ M2 MacBook Pros for... Read more
Sunday Sale: 13″ Apple M1 MacBook Air availab...
Amazon has Space Gray Apple 13″ M1 MacBook Airs on sale for $690.95 for an extremely limited time. Other models are on sale for $849. Their price for the Space Gray model is the cheapest we’ve ever... Read more
Use our exclusive Apple Price Trackers to fin...
Our Apple award-winning price trackers are the best place to look for the lowest prices and latest sales on all the latest Apple gear this season. Scan our price trackers for the latest information... Read more
New promo at Verizon: Get Apple Watch Series...
Purchase a new iPhone 14 at Verizon, and get an Apple Watch Series 8 for as low as $5 per month. $120 in promo credits for the Watch are spread over a 36 month term, reducing the price of the Watch... Read more
Visible drops prices on Apple iPhone 13 model...
Verizon’s low-cost wireless cell service, Visible has dropped prices on iPhone 13 models to new low prices starting at $599: – iPhone 13 Pro Max: starting at $980 + free $200 gift card – iPhone 13... Read more
Back in stock! 14″ MacBook Pros with Apple M1...
Amazon has restocked 14″ MacBook Pros M1 Pro CPUs for $400 off MSRP, starting at only $1599. Shipping is free. Be sure to make your purchase from Amazon rather than a third-party seller. Their prices... Read more
This is the final week to take advantage of A...
Apple’s Back to School promotion for 2022 ends on September 26, 2022. As part of this promotion, Apple will include a free $150 Apple Gift Card with the purchase of any MacBook Air, MacBook Pro, or... Read more
Mac Studio with M1 Max CPU back in stock toda...
Apple has the base standard-configuration Mac Studio available again in their Certified Refurbished section for $1799, and it’s in stock today. Each Mac Studio comes with Apple’s one-year warranty,... Read more
Apple MagSafe iPhone battery on sale for $84,...
Amazon has Apple’s MagSafe Battery on sale for $84 today. Shipping is free. That’s $15 off Apple’s MSRP, and it’s the lowest price for one of these MagSafe batteries among the Apple retailers we... Read more
24-inch M1-powered iMacs available today at A...
Apple has a full range of 24-inch M1 iMacs available today in their Certified Refurbished store. Models are available starting at only $1099 and range up to $260 off original MSRP. Each iMac is in... Read more

Jobs Board

Physician Assistant, Primary Care, *Apple*...
Physician Assistant, Primary Care, Apple Valley (1.07FTE) + Job ID: 65766 + Department: AV Primary Care + City: Apple Valley, MN + Location: HP - Apple Read more
Operations Manager - Mac/ *Apple* Engineerin...
…Responsible for the day-to-day activities relating to the engineering of Apple Macs in a complex, multi-platform environment. Demonstrates strong leadership, Read more
Lead Developer - *Apple* tvOS - Rumble (Uni...
…earnings, and positive sentiment About the role: We are looking for a Lead Apple tvOS Developer to join our application engineering team to expand our video centric Read more
Systems Administrator - *Apple* Devices / J...
…Administration **Duties and Responsibilities** + Configure and maintain the client's Apple Device Management (ADM) solution. The current solution is JAMF supporting Read more
Sr Product Manager, *Apple* TV Platforms -...
…an experienced senior product manager to drive the strategy and requirements for our Apple TV devices, acting as the champion and owner of the holistic experience in Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.