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Macsbug Template
Volume Number:8
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:Debugging

Related Info: Time Manager Vert. Retrace Mgr

Macsbug Template Use

Accessing your globals in MacsBug

By David T. Roach, Austin, Texas

Note: Source code files accompanying article are located on MacTech CD-ROM or source code disks.

Introduction

When writing an application in C, high-level debuggers such as Think C’s Debugger and SADE eliminate quite a bit of pain from the development process since they are able to display references to variables by name.

Developers of lower-level code, such as INITs, drivers, control panel devices, code resources, plug-ins, XCMDs, etc., must use either MacsBug or TMON, neither of which accesses variables directly by name. This is because the global variables are referenced from the A5 register, or in some cases the A4 register, and the temporary variables are accessed via the A6 register.

On the other hand, MacsBug and TMON have no problem finding your routines by name, because each has a method for searching the current (target) heap zone for the presence of the function name immediately following the associated function. This facility has recently been updated to include function names longer than 8 characters, with support for this from the most popular compilers.

It is possible to trick MacsBug 6.2 (or higher) into believing that what it perceives as the first instruction in a named function is really a pointer or handle to a place in memory that contains your globals, which you can access by name. In order to do so, you must do several things you might not do otherwise:

Instead of using A5 or A4 to point to your globals under compiler control, you must allocate a Pointer or Handle and fill it in using a data structure which defines your globals explicitly.

You must store this pointer or handle in your main code segment. Technically this is self-modifying code. However you only modify the code once during initialization, and it remains unmodified after that. This is essentially the same method that a VBL or Time Manager (version 1) task uses to store a pointer to it’s globals, so this method should remain valid as long as Apple maintains support for programs written under the past and current versions of the Vertical Retrace Manager. This method has not varied since the introduction of the 128K Mac, which is a fairly good reason to believe that it will remain the same in the future (although not infallible).

Create a separate ‘.r’ text file which contains ‘mxbm’ (macro) and ‘mxwt’ (template) resource types which define your very own globals structure.

Use the MPW Rez tool or SARez (a precompiled version of the Rez tool included with Think C 5.0) to compile and merge these resources into your Debugger Prefs file in the system folder. MPW includes the Rez resource compiler tool, which is activated from command line input in MPW. Also included is a Commando interface for Rez, which is a dialog used to build a command line specific to Rez. SARez is a utility included with Think C 5 which is a double-clickable version of MPW’s commando interface to Rez. It also creates a command line, then parses it and executes it immediately. Unless stated otherwise, all further references to Rez in this article also refer to SARez.

While it’s possible to use ResEdit to perform this and the previous step, it’s slow and painful. Additionally, ResEdit cannot deal with really large templates.

In order for MacsBug to find it at startup time, the Debugger Prefs file must exist at the main level of your system folder, and not in any other folders such as Control Panels or Extensions. It would make sense for future versions of MacsBug to look in the Prefs Folder as well.

Reboot and enjoy debugging your variables by name. Each time you add a data element to your structure(s), you must also update the corresponding ‘.r’ file and recompile it using Rez. While this sounds like a pain (it is the first few times), the payback on the stability and integrity of your project is tremendous.

What It Takes

MacsBug 6.2 and Think C 5 or MPW C package v3.2, are required for implementing the symbolic display of variables under MacsBug, using the techniques described in this article. Other development environments and debuggers will have slightly different requirements, but shouldn’t present any serious obstacles to implementation. The techniques for dealing with this feature under MPW are somewhat different than those required by Think C 5, but the differences have been isolated into separate source files so that the remaining files can be run under either compiler.

Why It Works

MacsBug has been able to reference functions by name almost since the release of the first Macintoshes. More recently the ability to include user templates and macros, as well as logging to an output file, have been included. MacsBug names (officially known as Procedure Definitions) are documented on page 408 of the "MacsBug Reference and Debugging Guide for MacsBug version 6.2", which you’ll find on bookstore shelves next to the Inside Macintosh volumes if you don’t already have it. It’s the official documentation for MacsBug. MacsBug names can have a fixed size of 8 or 16 characters, or they can be of a variable length. MPW C or Think C 5 will generate these names optionally. In the case of the MPW Assembler, you are required to build the names into your code (which isn’t really so bad once you figure out how to do it).

What we want to do is to use a MacsBug name to represent a pointer to all of our data rather than the entry point of a routine. To do this, we have to structure the program under development to always reference this pointer, rather than A5 or A4. In some cases it’s also useful to include values that would normally be stack-based and temporary in the globals allocation, so we can observe their value the last time that they were used. In doing so, we gain the advantage of being able to access more than 32k worth of global data. All the globals are all defined in a single ‘.h’ or ‘.a’ file, with a corresponding ‘.r’ containing exactly the same data structure(s) in MacsBug/Rez format.

The pointer to our data is embedded into one of our code segments as a fake function, with routines in the same segment which set or get the current value. It should only be necessary to initialize this pointer once. Calling StripAddress on the pointer before we set it and FlushInstructionCache after we set it will assure 32-bit addressing and 040 caching compatibility. The fake function (our pointer) and the routines which manipulate it are handled in an object-oriented style. The fake function is the object’s data field, and the routines are methods to manipulate or access the single data field. If Apple ever changes the way VBL tasks access their globals (thereby rendering this scheme useless), then these routines most probably can be modified to use the new method.

The fake function simply consists of a 4-byte pointer, an assembly language ‘RTS’ instruction, and the MacsBug name. Think C 5 requires some additional gymnastics to build this apparently simple piece of code. This is because Think C insists on mapping all function entry points via the main jump table, which is in turn referenced from A5 or A4. When referencing our pointer from the two routines which access it, we need PC-relative addressing. We get around this by declaring three different entry points into a single C function in Think C. Each of these individual functions can then reference each of the other two with PC-relative addressing. Of course, one of these three functions is the fake function. Any external references to this function will still be referenced via the jump table, so when using Think C you must use the two routines to manipulate the globals pointer. You will not be able to access it directly by name from anywhere else in the program, even though it may look like it’s compiling OK.

Under MPW, we create a ‘.a’ file in assembly language, which contains the pointer and the two routines. It’s simply linked into the project. Since MPW doesn’t insist on referencing each and every function through the jump table, the code will appear to be much more straightforward, although it is functionally identical. In other words, don’t look at the Think C code first if you want to understand how this works.

Once we’ve defined the data structure in C or MPW Assembler, then it’s time to define an identical structure in Rez format. MPW 3.1 shipped with some MacsBug-specific ‘.r’ files on the MacsBug distribution disk. For some mysterious reason, these files are not part of MPW 3.2. These ‘.r’ files defined the ‘mxwt’ and ‘mxbm’ templates in both MacsBug and ResEdit formats. The ‘TMPL’ resources are the ResEdit templates used in defining the ‘mxbm’ and ‘mxwt’ resources. The ‘mxwt’ resources are MacsBug data templates which are used by MacsBug to display various data types.

Built-in templates already included in Debugger Prefs include classics such as WindowPtr, GrafPtr, pstring, cstring, etc. An ‘mxwt’ template can reference a data type defined in another ‘mxwt’ template, since MacsBug is essentially interpretive in this regard. Templates can also be singly or doubly dereferenced, so if you have a handle or a pointer to a data structure, you can display the entire structure. If it contains a handle or a pointer to a structure, you can display that structure too, ad infinitum. The ability to deal with linked lists of structures is also included.

Macros created by the ‘mxbm’ resources or created directly by the MacsBug user can also reference any of these templates. So, if we define a template which corresponds directly to our program’s data structures and we are able to access the pointer to our data structures via name in MacsBug, then we have a mechanism to display all the data by name and value. Furthermore, if MacsBug’s logging option is enabled, everything gets stored to a disk file for later examination.

For instance, if we name our fake function ‘theGlobals’ and we have a template named ‘theTemplate’, then anytime we’re in MacsBug and the target heap contains our code we can type

dm theGlobals theTemplate

to view all of our data’s current values. We can even create a macro which types out this line for us, maybe with a name like ‘globs’. Then if we’d like, in the middle of any routine we can place a debugger call such as

/* 1 */

 DebugStr("\pglobs;g"); 

which will disable all the interrupts, display all the globals, re-enable the interrupts, and then go on running. Or we can break at a specific function and do the same thing in MacsBug by typing

 BR funcname ‘;globs;g’

Once over the learning hump, life becomes much easier. Various versions of the main data template can be created which only display a subset of data. It’s also possible to develop function-specific templates which display values on the stack when MacsBug breaks at a function entry point. This is useful in object-oriented programming where the pointer to the object is always at a certain position on the stack, and you can then break on any method and display the object’s variables.

Sanity checking

It always helps to be sure that what you’re looking at really is your data, and that your ‘mxwt’ template does in fact match your data structure. You can make life easier on yourself by storing your application’s OSType signature at both the beginning and end of your data structure. Fill in these fields immediately after initializing the pointer in the fake function. If you don’t have a signature, you can use something like ‘dBug’. By having the same 4 bytes at both the start and end of your data structure, you can easily see whether you’re looking at the right address (is the first OSType filled in correctly?), and if you are, whether the template matches the structure (is the last OSType filled in correctly?). Without these sanity checks in place, you can easily fall back into a questioning mindset (Grumble, grumble, is this really my data, or does it just look like it might be my data??).

Updating Debugger Prefs using SARez or the Rez Commando dialog

If you’re not familiar with Rez, then the prospect of compiling resources and merging them into your Debugger Prefs file can be a bit daunting. Until you’re confident of the methodology, it may be a good idea to drag a fresh copy of the Debugger Prefs file into your System Folder each time you plan to add new template and macro resources. Never work on your original of Debugger Prefs, only on a copy!

We need to specifically tell Rez where our source ‘.r’ file is, where Debugger Prefs is, and that we want to merge our resources into Debugger Prefs rather than blow the existing file away. Since all the templates and definitions we need to compile our file are actually in the file already, there is no need for search paths or any additional description files. If we ask for progress information, then we get a listing which includes any errors made during compilation. This is one of the few places in this cycle that you’ll get any kind of specific error messages, so make sure that you don’t have any.

If you’re an MPW script monger, then you can probably sit down and type out the command line. Otherwise, it’s probably easier to use the Commando interface the first time and copy the command line into MPW for future use. SARez users will need to remember to do the same things in the commando dialog each time you compile the file.

Referring to the dialog, note that ‘Progress Information’ is checked, and that the ‘Merge resources into resource file’ radio button is selected. Click on the ‘Description Files ’ push button to determine which file to compile, and click on the ‘Resource Output File’ popup menu to select the destination file. Since we want to modify Debugger Prefs, we ‘Select an existing output file ’. Everything else in this dialog is unused.

If you’re using MPW, now’s the time to select the Command Line and copy it, then Cancel Rez and paste the line into the MPW worksheet, select it, hit enter, and off you go. You can now use this over and over again without calling up the Commando interface. Of course, if you rename your hard disk or any of the folders, then it stops working.

It’s a good idea to make an alias of Debugger Prefs and put it in your project’s folder. If you’re using SARez you won’t regret moving the working copy of SARez into your project folder. An alias won’t do the trick here, regretfully. Also, don’t try dragging your ‘.r’ file onto SARez in the Finder and hope that it will launch, it just bombs instead.

Resource Management in Debugger Prefs

Make sure that you always operate on a copy of Debugger Prefs. Rez and SARez will wreak havoc on this file if the settings are wrong. It’s best to think through the resource numbering scheme used in Debugger Prefs before compiling your ‘.r’ file. ‘mxwt’ resources have both a name and a number. Each ‘mxwt’ resource can contain up to 32768 templates. Debugger Prefs can contain up to 32768 ‘mxwt’ resources, although the lowest numbers are reserved by Apple and are used to define quite a few OS templates.

The template name is how MacsBug references the template. If you have two differently numbered resources which each contain a template of the same name, only one template will win out in the end. Which one to use is determined by the resource’s position in the Debugger Prefs resource map, which is determined by the order in which the resources were compiled. This is obviously something you can’t rely on, so make sure that you have only one occurrence of each template name.

The ‘mxbm’ macro definition resource works the same way. Up to 32K macros can be in one resource, and up to 32K resources can exist in Debugger Prefs, with the lower numbers reserved by Apple. The same holds true here, try to avoid any duplication of names. Be especially careful of resources that were merged into Debugger Prefs during a previous project which used this debugging technique.

Caveats

You must verify each and every macro that you write. The only way to do this is to compile it into Debugger Prefs and then restart. What you’re looking for is whether the macro can expand fully. Apparently if the macro length is greater than the length of the command line at the bottom of the MacsBug screen, then it can’t expand. This seems like a pretty stupid limitation to me, and has caused me more grief than any other shortcoming, since the debug/test cycle involves a reboot. Right now, a tester has to type 6 to 10 different commands to execute all the macros which I, the programmer, would like to see in case of a crash. If the macro expansion was longer in length, this could be accomplished by a single command which would open the log file, log all the macros, and then close the log file. Hopefully future versions of MacsBug will address this.

You must maintain the ‘.r’ file’s one to one correspondence with the data structure in the ‘.h’ file religiously. It’s easy to find out if you’re out of sync by looking at the id’s that you placed at the beginning and end of your data structure. A good technique for maintaining the ‘.r’ and ‘.h’ files together is to place them on the screen side by side. Make sure there are just as many blank lines in each file, so that the names of the variables line up next to each other. Then when you page down in one, you can page down exactly the same amount in the other and they’ll still line up. This technique forces any data elements that are out of sync to show up immediately.

If you use SetUpA4() or SetUpA5(), consider switching to this method so that you’re not storing two different variables into your code segment. Changing one 32-bit long in one place in one code segment only one time during initialization should be the maximum extent of self-modification, and will correspondingly affect the operating system minimally.

If you’re on a LocalTalk network, don’t stay in MacsBug for a long period of time. After a while, the network will time out and your machine will appear to be frozen. If you wait long enough (5 to 10 minutes), it will time out again and come back to life. If you can’t afford to wait that long, then it’s time to reach for the programmer’s switch (or the OFF/ON switch on LC class machines, ow!). Maybe MacsBug 6.3 will fix this.

Special Requests

For the MPW team or some well-meaning hacker to create a Rez-like tool which compiles ‘mxwt’ resources directly from C structures defined in a ‘.h’ file and inserts them directly into Debugger Prefs, as well as managing name and numbering conflicts.

Credits

Thanks to Tim Morgan and Daniel Schwarz of Articulate Systems for refinements and feature requests, and to David Zicarelli for arcane Mac OS and Think C knowledge.

Listing:  globals.h
// globals.h -- prototypes for low level functions to
// manipulate globals pointer
// Copyright ©1992, David T. Roach, All Rights Reserved

#ifndef __globals__
#define __globals__

#ifndef __TYPES__
#include<Types.h>
#endif  __TYPES__

#ifndef __TRAPS__
#include<Traps.h>
#endif  __TRAPS__

// unused C function which has three more entry points
void dummy(void);
// where we store the pointer
void GlobPtr(void);
// how we set the pointer
OSErr SetGlobPtr(Ptr globalsPtr);
// how we access the pointer
OSErr GetGlobPtr(Ptr * globalsPtr);

// application defined OSErrs

// returned if globalsPtr is odd or NIL
#define BadPointer 10000

// defined in MPW’s traps.a, but not traps.h
#ifndef _FlushInstructionCache 
#define _FlushInstructionCacheMOVEQ#1,D0   \
 DC.W   _HWPriv
#endif

#endif  __globals__

Listing:  project.h
// project.h -- C-language structure definitions
// for test project
// Copyright ©1992, David T. Roach, All Rights Reserved

#ifndef __project__
#define __project__

#ifndef __globals__
#include"globals.h"
#endif  __globals__
#define AppSignature ’main’

// PROJECT SPECIFIC DEFINES

#define ArraySize1 3
#define ArraySize2 2

// PROJECT SPECIFIC STRUCTURES

typedef struct
{
 short  m[ArraySize2];
}
AnotherStruct,*AnotherStructPtr;

typedef struct
{
 Booleana;
 Byte   b;
 short  c;
 long   d;
 Str255 e;
 AnotherStruct f;
}
OtherStruct,*OtherStructPtr;

typedef struct
{
 OSType id1;
 long   long_hex;
 long   long_unsigned;
 long   long_signed;
 short  short_hex;
 short  short_unsigned;
 short  short_signed;
 Byte   byte_hex;
 Booleanbool;
 OtherStructPtr  other[ArraySize1];
 OSType id2;
}
GlobStruct,*GlobStructPtr;

#endif  __project__

Listing: main.c
// main.c -- project to test symbolic variable listing in 
// Macsbug
// Copyright ©1992, David T. Roach, All Rights Reserved

#include  <stdio.h>

#ifndef __MEMORY__
#include  <memory.h>
#endif  __MEMORY__

#ifndef __project__
#include"project.h"
#endif  __project__

// prototypes
void main(void);
OSErr SetupGlobals(void);
GlobStructPtr FetchGlobals(void);

void main(void)
{
 register OSErr err;
 register short i;
 register short j;
 register GlobStructPtr g;
 register unsigned char * s;
 
 if (err = SetupGlobals()) {
 printf("error in setting up globals");
 }
 else { 
 // put some values in the globals
 g = FetchGlobals();
 
 g->long_hex = 0x12345678;
 g->long_unsigned = 0x90000000;
 g->long_signed = -1L;
 g->short_hex = 0x1234;
 g->short_unsigned = 0x9000;
 g->short_signed = -1;
 g->byte_hex = 0xFF;
 g->bool = true;
 
 for (i=0;i<ArraySize1;i++) {
 g->other[i] = (OtherStructPtr)
 NewPtrClear(sizeof(OtherStruct));
 if (g->other[i]) {
 g->other[i]->a = false;  // Boolean
 g->other[i]->b = 0x80;   // Byte
 g->other[i]->c = 0x8000; // short
 g->other[i]->d = 0x80000000; // long
 s = &g->other[i]->e[0];
 *s++  =  3;// pstring length
 *s++  = ‘x’;    // char in pstring
 *s++  = ‘y’;    // char in pstring
 *s++  = ‘z’;    // char in pstring
 for (j=0;j<ArraySize2;j++) {
 g->other[i]->f.m[j] = j+i; // array of short
 }
 }
 }
 DebugStr("\p;dump");
 }
}

// intermediate layer of calls to set or get globals
// handles and checks application specific info

OSErr SetupGlobals(void)
{
 OSErr err;
 register GlobStructPtr x;

 x = (GlobStructPtr)NewPtrClear((long)sizeof(GlobStruct));
 
 if (err = SetGlobPtr((Ptr)x)) {
 return(err);
 }
 else {
 x->id1 = AppSignature;
 x->id2 = AppSignature;
 }
 return(noErr);
}

GlobStructPtr FetchGlobals(void)
{
 GlobStructPtr x;
 OSErr err;
 
 // returns NIL if error encountered during GetGlobPtr
 
 if(err = GetGlobPtr((Ptr *)&x)) {
 return(0L);
 }
 
 // test that our signature is at the beginning and end of
 // our structure
 
 if ((AppSignature != x->id1) || (AppSignature != x->id2)) {
 return(0L);
 }
 
 // our structure checks out OK
 return(x);
}

Listing:  globals.a
*-----------------------------------------------------------
* NAME
*globals.a -- routines to store and access a pointer to *      
 our private globals
*
* DESCRIPTION
*port of Dragon Systems TMS32010 code to 680x0 
*environment
*
* COPYRIGHT
*©1992, David T. Roach
*All rights reserved.
*-----------------------------------------------------------

CASE    ON
INCLUDE ‘SysEqu.a’
INCLUDE ‘Traps.a’

ENTRY GetGlobPtr : CODE
ENTRY SetGlobPtr : CODE

* heh-heh, this really isn’t code, but where we
* store our ptr to globals
ENTRY GlobPtr    : CODE 

EXPORT  GetGlobPtr
EXPORT  SetGlobPtr

STRING  PASCAL

* returned if globalsPtr is odd or NIL
BadPointerEQU  10000
************************************************************
* OSErr SetGlobPtr(Ptr globalsPtr)
*
* see prototype for arguments & return type
* routine to setup the global pointer
* called only once at init time
* modifies A0 and returns w/ OSErr in D0
*  
* unlike using SetUpA5, it shouldn’t make any 
* difference if you’re at interrupt level
* or application level when you call this 
* function to set up your global pointer
* as long as you’re sure the handle or pointer 
* you’re passing in is valid 

SetGlobPtrPROC   ; pass in A3 set to GlobPtr
* get globals ptr off stack

MOVE.L  4(A7),D0 

* branch if not NIL, error if NIL

BNE.S   @TestForOdd


MOVE.L  #BadPointer,D0    
RTS

@TestForOdd

BTST    #1,D0

* branch if even address, error if odd

BEQ.S   @DoStripAddress

MOVE.L  #BadPointer,D0    
RTS

@DoStripAddress
* we should perform a strip address to zero out 
* the most significant byte of our globalsPtr
* in a 24-bit addressing world, so that 
* we are not caught with our pants down 
* if we’re called during an interrupt when
* a Nubus card’s DRVR has switched the call 
* SwapMMUMode in order to 
* address more than 1 meg of Nubus space, .
* 
* IM Vols V & IV both document StripAddress 
* incorrectly. See TechNote #213 for correct 
* documentation.
* 
* _StripAddress was first implemented on MacII
* System 4.x. You can probably count on the 
* fact that it always exists, but those of us
* that are really safety conscious should 
* check it w/ TrapAvailable()

_StripAddress

* save A0 on the stack so we don’t trash it

MOVEM.L A0,-(A7)

* now get the address of our globals ptr storage
* (which is the address of the fake function)
* this forces ThinkC to use PC relative addressing 
* because GlobPtr is within the same C routine

LEAGlobPtr,A0    
MOVE.L  D0,(A0)

* now restore A0

MOVEM.L (A7)+,A0

* we only set ‘GlobPtr’ once during initialization,
* but Tech Note #261 (updated April 1992) 
* is very clear that you should flush the cache 
* anytime you change a value that’s stored in 
* a code segment
* 
* safety note from TN261: Before you call any of 
* these [cache] routines, make sure that the
* _HWPriv ($A198) trap is implemented, or 
* your program will crash. _HWPriv
* is implemented in the Macintosh IIx ROMs 
* and later, as well as System 6.0.3 
* and later. The correct way to check for the 
* trap is using the TrapAvailable 
* function documented in Inside Macintosh 
* Volume VI (pages 3-7 to 3-9)

_FlushInstructionCache

* return noErr
MOVEQ   #0,D0    
RTS

* macsbug symbol

DC.B  $80
DC.B  ’SetGlobPtr’

* constants used in this routine

DC.W  0

ENDPROC ; SetGlobPtr

************************************************************
* OSErr GetGlobPtr(Ptr * globalsPtr);
* routine to access the global pointer
* may be called at any time
* 
GetGlobPtr PROC

* get the address in which we want to
* return the globals pointer

MOVE.L  4(A7),D0

* save A0 on the stack so we don’t trash it

MOVEM.L A0,-(A7)
MOVEM.L D1,-(A7)

* now get the address of our globals ptr storage
* (which is the address of the fake function)
* this forces ThinkC to use PC relative addressing 
* because GlobPtr is within the same C routine

LEAGlobPtr,A0
MOVE.L  (A0),D1
BNE.S   @TestEven

* restore all registers and return
* with BadPointer error in D0

MOVEM.L (A7)+,D1 
MOVEM.L (A7)+,A0 
MOVE.L  #BadPointer,D0    
RTS

@TestEven

BTST    #0,D1
BEQ.S   @DoGlobals

* restore all registers and return
* with BadPointer error in D0

MOVEM.L (A7)+,D1
MOVEM.L (A7)+,A0
MOVE.L  #BadPointer,D0
RTS

@DoGlobals

MOVEA.L D0,A0
MOVE.L  D1,(A0)

* restore registers

MOVEM.L (A7)+,D1 
MOVEM.L (A7)+,A0

* return noErr

MOVEQ   #0,D0
RTS

* macsbug symbol

DC.B  $80
DC.B  ’GetGlobPtr’

* constants used in this routine

DC.W  0

ENDPROC ; GetGlobPtr

************************************************************
* turn off optimization so our DC.L 0 doesn’t disappear
OPTNONE

* this isn’t really a proc, but we need to link
* to this address
GlobPtr PROC
* to put our globals here during the init call
* we always get our globals back from here, no matter
* where we came in
DC.L  $00000000
RTS

* variable-length macsbug symbol

DC.B  $80
DC.B  ’GlobPtr’

* constants used in this routine

DC.W  0

ENDPROC ; GlobPtr

OPTALL
************************************************************

END
 

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OmniOutliner Essentials (was OmniOutliner) is a flexible program for creating, collecting, and organizing information. Give your creativity a kick start by using an application that's actually... Read more
QuickBooks 19.0.11.984 - Financial manag...
QuickBooks helps you manage your business easily and efficiently. Organize your finances all in one place, track money going in and out of your business, and spot areas where you can save. Built for... Read more

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The Best Wordle Clone in Town – The Touc...
In this week’s episode of The TouchArcade Show we dig into the drama of the moment which is the cloning and subsequent gloating about the cloning of the lovely little free word game Wordle. This leads into some additional drama about how PUGB Mobile... | Read more »
TouchArcade Game of the Week: ‘Cards Inf...
There’s nothing I love more than a perfect mobile game. What do I mean by that? Well, no game is actually perfect, but there’s something special about a game you know you can just whip out at a moment’s notice and dive into, and you know it will... | Read more »
‘Micro RPG’ Bringing Streamlined RPG Goo...
Originally announced on our forums more than 3 years ago, Micro RPG is an upcoming mobile game from a two-person studio that goes by the name JoliYeti Games and, as the title implies, it looks to offer all the fun of an RPG but in a more condensed... | Read more »
SwitchArcade Round-Up: ‘Kensei: The Seco...
Hello gentle readers, and welcome to the SwitchArcade Round-Up for January 14th, 2022. Yesterday was a big day, but today shows that we’re still warming up the engines for this year. There are a handful of new releases, but nothing nearly as... | Read more »
Mobile MMORPG Shooter ‘Avatar: Reckoning...
Archosaur Games, Tencent, Lightstorm Entertainment, and Disney have just revealed a mobile MMORPG shooter Avatar: Reckoning. Avatar: Reckoning will be published by Level Infinite when it hits iOS and Android. It is an official Avatar game developed... | Read more »
‘Crashlands+’ Is Out Now on Apple Arcade...
The brilliant Crashlands from Butterscotch Shenanigans was confirmed to arrive on Apple Arcade as an App Store Great in the form of Crashlands+ () a little while ago and it has just released worldwide. If it isn’t live yet, it should roll out in... | Read more »
SwitchArcade Round-Up: ‘Eschatos’, ‘To B...
Hello gentle readers, and welcome to the SwitchArcade Round-Up for January 13th, 2022. It’s a Thursday, and we’ve got a pretty hefty bag of new releases to dig into. There are always some fun surprises, and this week that came in the form of SNK Vs... | Read more »
‘Crush the Castle Legacy Collection’ Lau...
Ever since Angry Birds broke into the mainstream and became a household name more than a decade ago, there’s always been a small niche of people on the sidelines who would pipe up to remind everybody that “Crush the Castle did it first!" Indeed, the... | Read more »
Non-Violent Stealth Game ‘El Hijo – A Wi...
Over a year ago, Handy Games brought the non-violent stealth game El Hijo – A Wild West Tale to Switch, PS4, Xbox, PC, and Stadia. El Hijo – A Wild West Tale has been developed by Honig Studios and Quantumfrog. You play as El Hijo, a six year old,... | Read more »
‘ZED BLADE’ from SNK and Hamster Is Out...
After a bit of a break likely due to the holiday season, we’ve gotten a new title in the ACA NeoGeo series on iOS and Android. SNK and Hamster originally brought the series to mobile with Samurai Shodown IV, Alpha Mission II, and Metal Slug 5.... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Get an Apple Watch Series 7 for $50 off MSRP,...
Amazon has Apple Watch Series 7 models on sale for $50 off MSRP including free shipping. Their prices are the lowest available for Apple Watch Series 7 models today: – 41mm Apple Watch Series 7 GPS... Read more
Here are the details of Apple’s 2022 Educatio...
Need a new Apple Mac or iPad for school? Whether you’re a student, teacher, or staff member, you can use your .edu email address when ordering at Apple Education to take up to $400 off the price of a... Read more
Amazon is blowing out 2020 21″ iMacs for only...
Amazon has clearance 2020 21″ iMacs (2.3GHz Dual-Core i5, 8GB RAM, 256GB SSD) on sale right now for $599.99 including free shipping. Original MSRP for this model was $1099. Amazon expects delivery in... Read more
Find the best deal on an Apple MacBook using...
In the market for a new 13″ MacBook Air, 13″ MacBook Pro, 14″ MacBook Pro, or 16″ MacBook Pro with M1, M1 Pro, or M1 Max Apple Silicon? Use our Apple award-winning and exclusive price trackers to... Read more
Red Pocket Mobile is offering the Apple iPhon...
Switch to Red Pocket Mobile and get an Apple iPhone 13 Pro for $50 off MSRP, plus get free 6 months of Unlimited nationwide 5G service with the purchase of any iPhone 13. Red Pocket Mobile is a... Read more
24″ M1 iMacs on sale for $1249, $50 off Apple...
Amazon has base 24″ M1 iMacs (8-Core CPU/7-Core GPU/8GB RAM/256GB SSD) on sale today for $1249 shipped. Their price is $50 off Apple’s MSRP, and it’s the lowest price available for a new 24″ M1 iMac... Read more
Open-Box 16″ M1 Pro MacBook Pros available fo...
QuickShip Electronics has open-box return 16″ M1 Pro MacBook Pros in stock and on sale for $200-$300 off MSRP on their eBay store right now with free express delivery. According to QuickShip, “The... Read more
Stock Alert! Order a new 16″ M1 Pro MacBook P...
New 16″ MacBook Pros with Apple’s M1 Pro and M1 Max CPUs have been very hard to find, largely due to current global supply constraints. However, B&H Photo is reporting stock of Space Gray... Read more
Apple has maxed-out 13″ M1 MacBook Airs (16GB...
Save $250 on maxed-out 13″ M1 MacBook Airs today at Apple (16GB RAM/1TB SSD) with Certified Refurbished models available for $1399 in Space Gray and Gold colors. Regular price for this configuration... Read more
New promo at Xfinity Mobile: $400 off any App...
Xfinity Mobile is offering any new Apple iPhone for $400 off MSRP for new customers. This includes the iPhone 13. Price for the phone, including the discount, is spread monthly over a 24 month term... Read more

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Registered Nurse (RN) Employee Health PSJH -...
…is calling for a Registered Nurse (RN) Employee Health PSJH to our location in Apple Valley, CA.** We are seeking a Registered Nurse (RN) Employee Health PSJH to be Read more
Systems Administrator - Pearson (United State...
…and troubleshoot Windows operating systems (workstation and server), laptop computers, Apple iPads, Chromebooks and printers** + **Administer and troubleshoot all Read more
IT Assistant Level 1- IT Desktop Support Anal...
…providing tier-1 or better IT help desk support in a large Windows and Apple environment * Experience using IT Service Desk Management Software * Knowledge of IT Read more
Human Resources Business Partner PSJH - Provi...
…**is calling a** **Human Resources Business Partner, PSJH** **to our location in Apple Valley, CA.** **Applicants that meet qualifications will receive a text with Read more
Manager Community Health Investment Programs...
…is calling a Manager Community Health Investment Programs PSJH to our location in Apple Valley, CA.** **Qualified candidates will be invited to do a self-paced video Read more
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