TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Icon Stuffing
Volume Number:7
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:HyperChat

Related Info: Quickdraw Resource Manager

Icon Stuffing XCMD

By Steven Fuchs, Stony Brook, NY

iConjured Up

Last year at a meeting of LIMUG, the Long Island Mac Users Group I was introduced to a very useful utility stack called iConjurer by Tom Wimbish, which as the name would suggest is a tool for creating icons. What iConjuror provides is an environment from which the powerful painting tools contained in HyperCard can be used to create icon sized pictures as well as a convenient method of storing them. iConjuror’s shortcoming was that it provided no direct way to convert the pictures HyperCard created into ICON resources. The workaround for this was to copy the image of the icon onto the clipboard and then launch ResEdit, open the requested stack and paste the picture into ResEdits ICON editor, which would convert the first 32 pixels in each of the first 32 rows into an icon. Although once committed to muscular memory this process could be accomplished quickly, it was decidedly un-Mac like, in other words there had to be a better way. I decided that what was needed was an XCMD which could take the image of an icon and create an ICON resource, either in the current stack or in any desired stack. Hence the impetus behind the creation of the IconStuffer XCMD.

Working Overview

When a picture doesn’t tell a story

The first order of business was to make the data of the selected picture available to the XCMD. While some sleuthing into HyperCards inner workings probably could produce a direct method of obtaining the contents of the selection rectangle this is undesirable for some very good reasons. In general it is by far the more difficult task, and in any programming, Mac programming especially and XCMD programing even more so you should always look to avoid trouble. Secondly a method of this sort would almost certainly not work with a different version of HyperCard and may not even work between different machines. Therefore I chose to take the easier path and obtain this information from the clipboard, after forcing the user to copy the image of the icon. However easier does not mean easy, and accessing the clipboard for the icons image is no exception. The clipboard stores its images in the form of a ‘PICT’ resource, Inside Macintosh tells us that the format for a ‘PICT’ resource consists of the QuickDraw calls necessary to recreate the image. The ‘ICON’ resource is simply a series of 1024 bits, the ones and zeros of which represent the black and white pixels of the icons 32x32 rectangle. While much time could have been spent decoding the ins and outs of ‘PICT’ resources and learning how to convert these to icons, a much easier mechanism exists. All that is involved is pulling a bit of a fast one on the operating system and QuickDraw.

Now You See It

All QuickDraw drawing takes place into a data structure known as a GrafPort. When you create a window unbeknownst to you, you are creating a GrafPort. While the Mac OS allows for the creation of GrafPorts on their own it is rarely used, and I will not do that. What I do need to recreate is an important record of the GrafPort called portBits. The portBits record is a bitmap which is the destination of all drawing by the GrafPort.

This bitmap contains the ones and zeros which make up the black and white pixels of the GrafPort in question. It is this data which can easily be converted into an ‘ICON’ resource. The important record in the bitmap is the BufferAddr record, which is a pointer to the location at which the bits that make up the image begin. The QuickDraw sleight of hand I used was to create my own bitmap and fool the GrafPort into drawing into it. The data is now in a form suitable to my purposes and is ready to be made into an icon.

Step by Step

Take a picture, please

Before proceeding some error checking must be done, I know, boring,boring, boring. What must be, must be however and the first form of this takes place in the function FillIconPointer. Using the toolbox function GetScrap we will determine whether or not there is a ‘PICT’ resource on the clipboard at all. This is done by passing a handle of arbitrary size, and telling it I would like the available ‘PICT’ resource only. The function returns the size of the resource as well as resizing the handle and copying the ‘PICT’ resource into it.

If there was a ‘PICT’ resource in the scrap I need to allocate the memory necessary for the icon. Since I know an ‘ICON’ measures 32x32 I am spared the step of figuring out the size of the necessary bitmap. The space of the bitmap is allocated using the NewPointer function. Since NewPointer accepts its size parameter in bytes and not bits, and there are 8 bits in a byte, the size of the pointer should be 32x32/8 or 128. I allocate this into the pointer BufferAddress and in a fit of safety consciousness, check to be sure the allocation succeeded. Assuming that it did, I then assign the remaining records of the structure OffMap. Record 1 of a bitmap, baseAddr is a pointer to the address at which the bitmap image starts. Record 2 of a bitmap is rowBytes, or the number of bytes wide the image is to be. Since an ICON is a fixed size I know that this value will always be 32/8 or 4. In some other circumstance I would compute rowBytes by dividing the width of the bit image by 8. Also an important note is that the Mac operating system requires that all addresses be even, so to avoid a deadly crash the value for rowBytes must always be even. Finally we set bounds, which is the rectangle which encloses our bitmap or 32 x 4.

Now that we are fully prepared to fool QuickDraw only a few more precautions remain. First and foremost is to remember the bitmap currently stored in portBits so as to return things to their original state upon completion, very important for the XCMD programmer. I obtain the existing portBits by calling GetPort and storing the value of portBits into the variable OldMap. Then I use the toolbox call SetPortBits to reassign any subsequent drawing in that GrafPort to my bitmap. I then call ClipRect to insure that the entire image is drawn and EraseRect in order to clear any existing bits from the BitMap. Then a simple call to DrawPicture will allow QuickDraw to fill in the proper pixels of my bitmap for me. Finally a call to SetPortBits again will restore the GrafPorts portBits, dispose of the handle to the PICT resource, and return as the result of FillIconPointer the address at which the bitmap image of the icon begins.

How a bitmap becomes an ICON

The path to creating an ICON resource now becomes very simple since I now have the data in the form I want it. Most of this remaining work takes place in the function CreateNewIcon . First I create a handle of size 128, the fixed size of an icon. A handle is necessary since the toolbox call AddResource demands a handle aand must be used to attach a resorce to the resource file. I then invoke the toolbox call BlockMove to copy the data from the bitmaps pointer to the handle. With the handle now prepared call AddResource which attaches the handle to the resource fork and WriteResource which makes it final by saving the resource to disk. Finally release the memory used by the icon. Congratulations! You have just made an icon.

Selective Stuffing

IconStuffer can act in one of two modes, simple and difficult. Simple mode is activated when IconStuffer is called with no parameters. It simply jams its new ICON resource into the current resource file, which in my case is the iConjuror stack. This is the default response and requires no additional action to bring about. The complex mode is induced when IconStuffer receives a parameter from HyperCard. IconStuffer expects this parameter to be the full pathname of a file. If a parameter is passed then the function SetResFile is called which accepts a file name and attempts to open a resource file with that name. If there is no file with that name one is created. SetResFile returns the new resource manager reference number. Finally the function CreateNewIcon is called which actually creates the ICON resource and places it in that file, the file is then closed and control returns to HyperCard.

Figure 1: Project File

The Final Steps

Compiling a code resource

For those readers new to the process of compiling a code resource I will provide a short description of this process which is also adequately explained in pages 156-158 of the THINK Users guide. The only items to insure that you use the DRVR runtime lib instead of the default runtime lib, and that the files HyperXCMD and HyperXCMD interface files are included in the project, as shown in Figure 1. The select “Set Project Type” from the project menu, and choose the Code Resource icon. Name the resource IconStuffer, give it any arbitrary number (1120 is used in my example), and set the type to “XCMD”. Now select build Code Resource from the menu and step back. If all goes well you have just created your first, (or yet another) XCMD for HyperCard.

The MenuField concept

My method of calling IconStuffer is through a device known as a MenuField (not my name), the script of which is in Figure 2 . A MenuField is a locked field which responds to mouseups within it depending upon the line clicked in. The first responsibility of a MenuField is to utilize the newfield message. The newfield message is passed to a field upon its being pasted . By trapping this and inserting text into itself the IconStuffer field insures that it will always contain the correct menu choices. Figure 2 contains the script for IconStuffer Field, the newfield handler will add the text “This Stack” into line 1, “Any Stack•” into line 2, and “Choose Stack” into line 3.

The real work is done in the mouseup handler which upon receiving a click determines the line clicked in a takes the proper action. Clicking in line 1 calls the simple mode of IconStuffer, adding the icon to the current stack. Clicking in line 3 pulls a bit of a trick on HyperCard. Sending HyperCard the message go to “the target stack” will cause HyperCard prompt the user for a stack with the prompt “Help find the target stack”.

This flawed logic however will break if the user has a stack named “the target stack”. By choosing a phrase the would not often be used for a stack name this HyperCard trick can be used with success. As a precaution before using this get the long name of the current stack, and afterwards check to be certain that they are not identical. If they are identical you should assume that the user clicked on the cancel button , not selecting a stack. In this case the Mac like thing to do is to abort the operation of the script in as graceful a method as possible.

If the stack names are different then return to the starting point bringing the long name of the target stack with you. This will be in the form of “stack “StartUp:HyperCard:Utilities:IconBox”” for a stack named IconBox. simply remove the word stack, and the opening and closing quotes, this information is ready for passing to IconStuffer. This is what occurs when a user clicks on line 3 of the MenuField or optionclicks on line 2. The different is that an optionclick in line 2 of the MenuField stores the long name of the target stack in line 10 of the field and the short name of the stack in line 2. Subsequent clicks in line 2 of the field will utilize line 10 to paste the icon into that specified file.

--1

on newfield
  Put "This Stack"&return&"Any Stack"&return&"Choose Stack" into me
end newfield

on mouseup
  Put trunc((item 2 of the clickloc-item 2 of the rect of me)¬
  /textheight of me)+1 into LineHit
  if LineHit is 1 then IconStuffer
  else if (the optionkey is down and LineHit is 2) or LineHit is 3 ¬
  or (line 10 of me is empty and LineHit is 2) then
    push card
    Lock Screen
    go to stack "the target stack"
    put the long name of this stack into LName
    delete word 1 of LName
    delete char 1 of LName
    delete last char of LName
    put the short name of this stack into SName
    pop card
    unlock screen
    IconStuffer(LName)
    if LineHit is 2 then
      Put SName into line 2 of me
      Put LName into line 10 of me
    end if
  else  IconStuffer(line 10 of me)
end mouseup

Figure 2: HyperTalk Script

In Closing

My sources close to the Heartbeat of Apple have informed me that HyperCard 2.0 would soon be out , and that it contains an icon editor that not only makes iConjuror obsolete, but makes the writing of IconStuffer a waste of time. As of the writing of this article HyperCard 2.0 had not come out and I have not seen its icon editor. Needless to say that if I had heeded the naysayers and not written IconStuffer I would not be using it today, and much the poorer for it. Let that be a lesson to you. Even with impending obsolescence from the belated HyperCard 2.0 (or 2.01, 2.02, 2.03 etc. ) IconStuffer remains a good guide for creating icons from common QuickDraw calls, and for creating offscreen bitmaps. Good Luck and use in Good Health. Hope you enjoy.

unit IconStufferUnit;
interface
 uses
  HyperXCmd;

 procedure MAIN (ParamPtr: XCmdPtr);
implementation

{FillIconPointer accepts no parameters and returns a }
{pointer to the icons bits. The operation is successful }
{if the clipboard contains a PICT resource and the }
{ memory necessary for the ICON can be obtained}
 function FillIconPointer: Ptr;
  var
   HldHandle: handle;
   IconRect: Rect;
   OldPort: GrafPtr;
   err, TheOffset: longint;
   OffMap, OldBits: BitMap;
   BufferAddress: ptr;
 begin
  BufferAddress := nil;
  HldHandle := NewHandle(2);
  err := GetScrap(HldHandle, 'PICT', TheOffset);
  if err > 0 then
   begin
{**The clipboard contained a PICT  **}
    SetRect(IconRect, 0, 0, 32, 32);
    OffsetRect(IconRect, 40, 40);
    BufferAddress := NewPtr(32 * 4);
    if BufferAddress <> nil then
 {**    Memory for the ICON present**}
     begin
 {**    Create offsreen bitmap**}
      OffMap.baseAddr := BufferAddress;
      OffMap.rowBytes := 4;
      OffMap.bounds := IconRect;
      GetPort(OldPort);
{**Store previous bitmap  **}
      OldBits := OldPort^.portbits;
{**Draw into our bitmap   **}
      SetPortBits(OffMap);
      ClipRect(IconRect);
      EraseRect(IconRect);
      DrawPicture(PicHandle(HldHandle), IconRect);
{**Restore previous bitmap**}
      SetPortBits(OldBits);
      ClipRect(OldPort^.portRect);
     end;
   end;
{**Dispose of our copy of the scrap**}
  DisposHandle(HldHandle);
{**Return data bits**}
  FillIconPointer := BufferAddress;
 end;

{GetNextEmptyID does just that while insuring that the  }
{ID's under 128 which are reserved are not used!**}
 function GetNextEmptyID: integer;
  var
   Answer: integer;
 begin
  Answer := 0;
  repeat
   Answer := UniqueID('ICON');
  until Answer > 128;
  GetNextEmptyID := Answer;
 end;

{**SetResFile accepts a string as a parameter and  }
{returns the resource manager reference number **}
 function SetResFile (TheName: str255): integer;
  var
   TheAns: integer;
 begin
  TheAns := OpenResFile(TheName);
  if TheAns = -1 then
   begin
    CreateResFile(TheName);
    TheAns := OpenResFile(TheName);
   end;
  SetResFile := TheAns;
 end;

{**CreateNewIcon accepts the data and the ID to }
{ be used and creates the ICON resource.Returning true  }
{if the operation was a success**}
 function CreateNewIcon (TheImage: Ptr; TheID: integer): Boolean;
  var
   TheHandle: handle;
 begin
  CreateNewIcon := false;
{**Allocate space for the ICON**}
  TheHandle := NewHandle(128);
  if TheHandle <> nil then
   begin
    HLock(TheHandle);
{**Copy bits from the pointer to the handle  **}
    BlockMove(TheImage, TheHandle^, 128);
    HUnLock(TheHandle);
{**Convert handle to a resource    **}
    AddResource(TheHandle, 'ICON', TheID, '');
    if ResError = noErr then
     begin
{**Test for success! **}
      CreateNewIcon := true;
{**Force a disk update    **}
      WriteResource(TheHandle);
     end;
   end;
 end;

{**MAIN brings the routines together **}
 procedure MAIN (ParamPtr: XCmdPtr);
  var
   TheData: Ptr;
   TheHandle: handle;
   TheID, OldRes, NewRes: integer;
   TheItem: str255;
 begin
  TheData := FillIconPointer;
  if TheData <> nil then
{**Could data for ICON be obtained **}
   begin
    OldRes := CurResFile;
    NewRes := 0;
    if ParamPtr^.paramCount > 0 then
     begin
{**Should a different file be used **}
      ZeroToPas(ParamPtr, ParamPtr^.params[1]^, TheItem);
      NewRes := SetResFile(TheItem);
{**If so use it  **}
      UseResFile(NewRes);
     end;
    if NewRes <> -1 then
     begin
{**If there was no file error **}
      TheID := GetNextEmptyID;
{**Do the work!  **}
      if not CreateNewIcon(TheData, TheID) then
       SendHCMessage(ParamPtr, 'Answer "Icon could not be created"');
{**Restore resource chain **}
      UseResFile(OldRes);
      if NewRes > 0 then
{**If a file was opened then close it**}
       CloseResFile(NewRes);
      DisposPtr(TheData);
     end
    else
     SendHCMessage(ParamPtr, 'Answer "File was not found"');
   end
  else
   SendHCMessage(ParamPtr, 'Answer "PICT could not be obtained"');
 end;
end.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Pack a magnifying glass and practice you...
Somehow it has already been a year since Torchlight: Infinite launched, and XD Games is celebrating by blending in what sounds like a truly fantastic new update. Fans of Cthulhu rejoice, as Whispering Mist brings some horror elements, and tests... | Read more »
Summon your guild and prepare for war in...
Netmarble is making some pretty big moves with their latest update for Seven Knights Idle Adventure, with a bunch of interesting additions. Two new heroes enter the battle, there are events and bosses abound, and perhaps most interesting, a huge... | Read more »
Make the passage of time your plaything...
While some of us are still waiting for a chance to get our hands on Ash Prime - yes, don’t remind me I could currently buy him this month I’m barely hanging on - Digital Extremes has announced its next anticipated Prime Form for Warframe. Starting... | Read more »
If you can find it and fit through the d...
The holy trinity of amazing company names have come together, to release their equally amazing and adorable mobile game, Hamster Inn. Published by HyperBeard Games, and co-developed by Mum Not Proud and Little Sasquatch Studios, it's time to... | Read more »
Amikin Survival opens for pre-orders on...
Join me on the wonderful trip down the inspiration rabbit hole; much as Palworld seemingly “borrowed” many aspects from the hit Pokemon franchise, it is time for the heavily armed animal survival to also spawn some illegitimate children as Helio... | Read more »
PUBG Mobile teams up with global phenome...
Since launching in 2019, SpyxFamily has exploded to damn near catastrophic popularity, so it was only a matter of time before a mobile game snapped up a collaboration. Enter PUBG Mobile. Until May 12th, players will be able to collect a host of... | Read more »
Embark into the frozen tundra of certain...
Chucklefish, developers of hit action-adventure sandbox game Starbound and owner of one of the cutest logos in gaming, has released their roguelike deck-builder Wildfrost. Created alongside developers Gaziter and Deadpan Games, Wildfrost will... | Read more »
MoreFun Studios has announced Season 4,...
Tension has escalated in the ever-volatile world of Arena Breakout, as your old pal Randall Fisher and bosses Fred and Perrero continue to lob insults and explosives at each other, bringing us to a new phase of warfare. Season 4, Into The Fog of... | Read more »
Top Mobile Game Discounts
Every day, we pick out a curated list of the best mobile discounts on the App Store and post them here. This list won't be comprehensive, but it every game on it is recommended. Feel free to check out the coverage we did on them in the links below... | Read more »
Marvel Future Fight celebrates nine year...
Announced alongside an advertising image I can only assume was aimed squarely at myself with the prominent Deadpool and Odin featured on it, Netmarble has revealed their celebrations for the 9th anniversary of Marvel Future Fight. The Countdown... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Every model of Apple’s 13-inch M3 MacBook Air...
Best Buy has Apple 13″ MacBook Airs with M3 CPUs in stock and on sale today for $100 off MSRP. Prices start at $999. Their prices are the lowest currently available for new 13″ M3 MacBook Airs among... Read more
Sunday Sale: Apple iPad Magic Keyboards for 1...
Walmart has Apple Magic Keyboards for 12.9″ iPad Pros, in Black, on sale for $150 off MSRP on their online store. Sale price for online orders only, in-store price may vary. Order online and choose... Read more
Apple Watch Ultra 2 now available at Apple fo...
Apple has, for the first time, begun offering Certified Refurbished Apple Watch Ultra 2 models in their online store for $679, or $120 off MSRP. Each Watch includes Apple’s standard one-year warranty... Read more
AT&T has the iPhone 14 on sale for only $...
AT&T has the 128GB Apple iPhone 14 available for only $5.99 per month for new and existing customers when you activate unlimited service and use AT&T’s 36 month installment plan. The fine... Read more
Amazon is offering a $100 discount on every M...
Amazon is offering a $100 instant discount on each configuration of Apple’s new 13″ M3 MacBook Air, in Midnight, this weekend. These are the lowest prices currently available for new 13″ M3 MacBook... Read more
You can save $300-$480 on a 14-inch M3 Pro/Ma...
Apple has 14″ M3 Pro and M3 Max MacBook Pros in stock today and available, Certified Refurbished, starting at $1699 and ranging up to $480 off MSRP. Each model features a new outer case, shipping is... Read more
24-inch M1 iMacs available at Apple starting...
Apple has clearance M1 iMacs available in their Certified Refurbished store starting at $1049 and ranging up to $300 off original MSRP. Each iMac is in like-new condition and comes with Apple’s... Read more
Walmart continues to offer $699 13-inch M1 Ma...
Walmart continues to offer new Apple 13″ M1 MacBook Airs (8GB RAM, 256GB SSD) online for $699, $300 off original MSRP, in Space Gray, Silver, and Gold colors. These are new MacBook for sale by... Read more
B&H has 13-inch M2 MacBook Airs with 16GB...
B&H Photo has 13″ MacBook Airs with M2 CPUs, 16GB of memory, and 256GB of storage in stock and on sale for $1099, $100 off Apple’s MSRP for this configuration. Free 1-2 day delivery is available... Read more
14-inch M3 MacBook Pro with 16GB of RAM avail...
Apple has the 14″ M3 MacBook Pro with 16GB of RAM and 1TB of storage, Certified Refurbished, available for $300 off MSRP. Each MacBook Pro features a new outer case, shipping is free, and an Apple 1-... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Systems Administrator - JAMF - Activ...
…**Public Trust/Other Required:** None **Job Family:** Systems Administration **Skills:** Apple Platforms,Computer Servers,Jamf Pro **Experience:** 3 + years of Read more
IT Systems Engineer ( *Apple* Platforms) - S...
IT Systems Engineer ( Apple Platforms) at SpaceX Hawthorne, CA SpaceX was founded under the belief that a future where humanity is out exploring the stars is Read more
Nurse Anesthetist - *Apple* Hill Surgery Ce...
Nurse Anesthetist - Apple Hill Surgery Center Location: WellSpan Medical Group, York, PA Schedule: Full Time Sign-On Bonus Eligible Remote/Hybrid Regular Apply Now Read more
Housekeeper, *Apple* Valley Village - Cassi...
Apple Valley Village Health Care Center, a senior care campus, is hiring a Part-Time Housekeeper to join our team! We will train you for this position! In this role, Read more
Sublease Associate Optometrist- *Apple* Val...
Sublease Associate Optometrist- Apple Valley, CA- Target Optical Date: Apr 20, 2024 Brand: Target Optical Location: Apple Valley, CA, US, 92307 **Requisition Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.