TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Icon Stuffing
Volume Number:7
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:HyperChat

Related Info: Quickdraw Resource Manager

Icon Stuffing XCMD

By Steven Fuchs, Stony Brook, NY

iConjured Up

Last year at a meeting of LIMUG, the Long Island Mac Users Group I was introduced to a very useful utility stack called iConjurer by Tom Wimbish, which as the name would suggest is a tool for creating icons. What iConjuror provides is an environment from which the powerful painting tools contained in HyperCard can be used to create icon sized pictures as well as a convenient method of storing them. iConjuror’s shortcoming was that it provided no direct way to convert the pictures HyperCard created into ICON resources. The workaround for this was to copy the image of the icon onto the clipboard and then launch ResEdit, open the requested stack and paste the picture into ResEdits ICON editor, which would convert the first 32 pixels in each of the first 32 rows into an icon. Although once committed to muscular memory this process could be accomplished quickly, it was decidedly un-Mac like, in other words there had to be a better way. I decided that what was needed was an XCMD which could take the image of an icon and create an ICON resource, either in the current stack or in any desired stack. Hence the impetus behind the creation of the IconStuffer XCMD.

Working Overview

When a picture doesn’t tell a story

The first order of business was to make the data of the selected picture available to the XCMD. While some sleuthing into HyperCards inner workings probably could produce a direct method of obtaining the contents of the selection rectangle this is undesirable for some very good reasons. In general it is by far the more difficult task, and in any programming, Mac programming especially and XCMD programing even more so you should always look to avoid trouble. Secondly a method of this sort would almost certainly not work with a different version of HyperCard and may not even work between different machines. Therefore I chose to take the easier path and obtain this information from the clipboard, after forcing the user to copy the image of the icon. However easier does not mean easy, and accessing the clipboard for the icons image is no exception. The clipboard stores its images in the form of a ‘PICT’ resource, Inside Macintosh tells us that the format for a ‘PICT’ resource consists of the QuickDraw calls necessary to recreate the image. The ‘ICON’ resource is simply a series of 1024 bits, the ones and zeros of which represent the black and white pixels of the icons 32x32 rectangle. While much time could have been spent decoding the ins and outs of ‘PICT’ resources and learning how to convert these to icons, a much easier mechanism exists. All that is involved is pulling a bit of a fast one on the operating system and QuickDraw.

Now You See It

All QuickDraw drawing takes place into a data structure known as a GrafPort. When you create a window unbeknownst to you, you are creating a GrafPort. While the Mac OS allows for the creation of GrafPorts on their own it is rarely used, and I will not do that. What I do need to recreate is an important record of the GrafPort called portBits. The portBits record is a bitmap which is the destination of all drawing by the GrafPort.

This bitmap contains the ones and zeros which make up the black and white pixels of the GrafPort in question. It is this data which can easily be converted into an ‘ICON’ resource. The important record in the bitmap is the BufferAddr record, which is a pointer to the location at which the bits that make up the image begin. The QuickDraw sleight of hand I used was to create my own bitmap and fool the GrafPort into drawing into it. The data is now in a form suitable to my purposes and is ready to be made into an icon.

Step by Step

Take a picture, please

Before proceeding some error checking must be done, I know, boring,boring, boring. What must be, must be however and the first form of this takes place in the function FillIconPointer. Using the toolbox function GetScrap we will determine whether or not there is a ‘PICT’ resource on the clipboard at all. This is done by passing a handle of arbitrary size, and telling it I would like the available ‘PICT’ resource only. The function returns the size of the resource as well as resizing the handle and copying the ‘PICT’ resource into it.

If there was a ‘PICT’ resource in the scrap I need to allocate the memory necessary for the icon. Since I know an ‘ICON’ measures 32x32 I am spared the step of figuring out the size of the necessary bitmap. The space of the bitmap is allocated using the NewPointer function. Since NewPointer accepts its size parameter in bytes and not bits, and there are 8 bits in a byte, the size of the pointer should be 32x32/8 or 128. I allocate this into the pointer BufferAddress and in a fit of safety consciousness, check to be sure the allocation succeeded. Assuming that it did, I then assign the remaining records of the structure OffMap. Record 1 of a bitmap, baseAddr is a pointer to the address at which the bitmap image starts. Record 2 of a bitmap is rowBytes, or the number of bytes wide the image is to be. Since an ICON is a fixed size I know that this value will always be 32/8 or 4. In some other circumstance I would compute rowBytes by dividing the width of the bit image by 8. Also an important note is that the Mac operating system requires that all addresses be even, so to avoid a deadly crash the value for rowBytes must always be even. Finally we set bounds, which is the rectangle which encloses our bitmap or 32 x 4.

Now that we are fully prepared to fool QuickDraw only a few more precautions remain. First and foremost is to remember the bitmap currently stored in portBits so as to return things to their original state upon completion, very important for the XCMD programmer. I obtain the existing portBits by calling GetPort and storing the value of portBits into the variable OldMap. Then I use the toolbox call SetPortBits to reassign any subsequent drawing in that GrafPort to my bitmap. I then call ClipRect to insure that the entire image is drawn and EraseRect in order to clear any existing bits from the BitMap. Then a simple call to DrawPicture will allow QuickDraw to fill in the proper pixels of my bitmap for me. Finally a call to SetPortBits again will restore the GrafPorts portBits, dispose of the handle to the PICT resource, and return as the result of FillIconPointer the address at which the bitmap image of the icon begins.

How a bitmap becomes an ICON

The path to creating an ICON resource now becomes very simple since I now have the data in the form I want it. Most of this remaining work takes place in the function CreateNewIcon . First I create a handle of size 128, the fixed size of an icon. A handle is necessary since the toolbox call AddResource demands a handle aand must be used to attach a resorce to the resource file. I then invoke the toolbox call BlockMove to copy the data from the bitmaps pointer to the handle. With the handle now prepared call AddResource which attaches the handle to the resource fork and WriteResource which makes it final by saving the resource to disk. Finally release the memory used by the icon. Congratulations! You have just made an icon.

Selective Stuffing

IconStuffer can act in one of two modes, simple and difficult. Simple mode is activated when IconStuffer is called with no parameters. It simply jams its new ICON resource into the current resource file, which in my case is the iConjuror stack. This is the default response and requires no additional action to bring about. The complex mode is induced when IconStuffer receives a parameter from HyperCard. IconStuffer expects this parameter to be the full pathname of a file. If a parameter is passed then the function SetResFile is called which accepts a file name and attempts to open a resource file with that name. If there is no file with that name one is created. SetResFile returns the new resource manager reference number. Finally the function CreateNewIcon is called which actually creates the ICON resource and places it in that file, the file is then closed and control returns to HyperCard.

Figure 1: Project File

The Final Steps

Compiling a code resource

For those readers new to the process of compiling a code resource I will provide a short description of this process which is also adequately explained in pages 156-158 of the THINK Users guide. The only items to insure that you use the DRVR runtime lib instead of the default runtime lib, and that the files HyperXCMD and HyperXCMD interface files are included in the project, as shown in Figure 1. The select “Set Project Type” from the project menu, and choose the Code Resource icon. Name the resource IconStuffer, give it any arbitrary number (1120 is used in my example), and set the type to “XCMD”. Now select build Code Resource from the menu and step back. If all goes well you have just created your first, (or yet another) XCMD for HyperCard.

The MenuField concept

My method of calling IconStuffer is through a device known as a MenuField (not my name), the script of which is in Figure 2 . A MenuField is a locked field which responds to mouseups within it depending upon the line clicked in. The first responsibility of a MenuField is to utilize the newfield message. The newfield message is passed to a field upon its being pasted . By trapping this and inserting text into itself the IconStuffer field insures that it will always contain the correct menu choices. Figure 2 contains the script for IconStuffer Field, the newfield handler will add the text “This Stack” into line 1, “Any Stack•” into line 2, and “Choose Stack” into line 3.

The real work is done in the mouseup handler which upon receiving a click determines the line clicked in a takes the proper action. Clicking in line 1 calls the simple mode of IconStuffer, adding the icon to the current stack. Clicking in line 3 pulls a bit of a trick on HyperCard. Sending HyperCard the message go to “the target stack” will cause HyperCard prompt the user for a stack with the prompt “Help find the target stack”.

This flawed logic however will break if the user has a stack named “the target stack”. By choosing a phrase the would not often be used for a stack name this HyperCard trick can be used with success. As a precaution before using this get the long name of the current stack, and afterwards check to be certain that they are not identical. If they are identical you should assume that the user clicked on the cancel button , not selecting a stack. In this case the Mac like thing to do is to abort the operation of the script in as graceful a method as possible.

If the stack names are different then return to the starting point bringing the long name of the target stack with you. This will be in the form of “stack “StartUp:HyperCard:Utilities:IconBox”” for a stack named IconBox. simply remove the word stack, and the opening and closing quotes, this information is ready for passing to IconStuffer. This is what occurs when a user clicks on line 3 of the MenuField or optionclicks on line 2. The different is that an optionclick in line 2 of the MenuField stores the long name of the target stack in line 10 of the field and the short name of the stack in line 2. Subsequent clicks in line 2 of the field will utilize line 10 to paste the icon into that specified file.

--1

on newfield
  Put "This Stack"&return&"Any Stack"&return&"Choose Stack" into me
end newfield

on mouseup
  Put trunc((item 2 of the clickloc-item 2 of the rect of me)¬
  /textheight of me)+1 into LineHit
  if LineHit is 1 then IconStuffer
  else if (the optionkey is down and LineHit is 2) or LineHit is 3 ¬
  or (line 10 of me is empty and LineHit is 2) then
    push card
    Lock Screen
    go to stack "the target stack"
    put the long name of this stack into LName
    delete word 1 of LName
    delete char 1 of LName
    delete last char of LName
    put the short name of this stack into SName
    pop card
    unlock screen
    IconStuffer(LName)
    if LineHit is 2 then
      Put SName into line 2 of me
      Put LName into line 10 of me
    end if
  else  IconStuffer(line 10 of me)
end mouseup

Figure 2: HyperTalk Script

In Closing

My sources close to the Heartbeat of Apple have informed me that HyperCard 2.0 would soon be out , and that it contains an icon editor that not only makes iConjuror obsolete, but makes the writing of IconStuffer a waste of time. As of the writing of this article HyperCard 2.0 had not come out and I have not seen its icon editor. Needless to say that if I had heeded the naysayers and not written IconStuffer I would not be using it today, and much the poorer for it. Let that be a lesson to you. Even with impending obsolescence from the belated HyperCard 2.0 (or 2.01, 2.02, 2.03 etc. ) IconStuffer remains a good guide for creating icons from common QuickDraw calls, and for creating offscreen bitmaps. Good Luck and use in Good Health. Hope you enjoy.

unit IconStufferUnit;
interface
 uses
  HyperXCmd;

 procedure MAIN (ParamPtr: XCmdPtr);
implementation

{FillIconPointer accepts no parameters and returns a }
{pointer to the icons bits. The operation is successful }
{if the clipboard contains a PICT resource and the }
{ memory necessary for the ICON can be obtained}
 function FillIconPointer: Ptr;
  var
   HldHandle: handle;
   IconRect: Rect;
   OldPort: GrafPtr;
   err, TheOffset: longint;
   OffMap, OldBits: BitMap;
   BufferAddress: ptr;
 begin
  BufferAddress := nil;
  HldHandle := NewHandle(2);
  err := GetScrap(HldHandle, 'PICT', TheOffset);
  if err > 0 then
   begin
{**The clipboard contained a PICT  **}
    SetRect(IconRect, 0, 0, 32, 32);
    OffsetRect(IconRect, 40, 40);
    BufferAddress := NewPtr(32 * 4);
    if BufferAddress <> nil then
 {**    Memory for the ICON present**}
     begin
 {**    Create offsreen bitmap**}
      OffMap.baseAddr := BufferAddress;
      OffMap.rowBytes := 4;
      OffMap.bounds := IconRect;
      GetPort(OldPort);
{**Store previous bitmap  **}
      OldBits := OldPort^.portbits;
{**Draw into our bitmap   **}
      SetPortBits(OffMap);
      ClipRect(IconRect);
      EraseRect(IconRect);
      DrawPicture(PicHandle(HldHandle), IconRect);
{**Restore previous bitmap**}
      SetPortBits(OldBits);
      ClipRect(OldPort^.portRect);
     end;
   end;
{**Dispose of our copy of the scrap**}
  DisposHandle(HldHandle);
{**Return data bits**}
  FillIconPointer := BufferAddress;
 end;

{GetNextEmptyID does just that while insuring that the  }
{ID's under 128 which are reserved are not used!**}
 function GetNextEmptyID: integer;
  var
   Answer: integer;
 begin
  Answer := 0;
  repeat
   Answer := UniqueID('ICON');
  until Answer > 128;
  GetNextEmptyID := Answer;
 end;

{**SetResFile accepts a string as a parameter and  }
{returns the resource manager reference number **}
 function SetResFile (TheName: str255): integer;
  var
   TheAns: integer;
 begin
  TheAns := OpenResFile(TheName);
  if TheAns = -1 then
   begin
    CreateResFile(TheName);
    TheAns := OpenResFile(TheName);
   end;
  SetResFile := TheAns;
 end;

{**CreateNewIcon accepts the data and the ID to }
{ be used and creates the ICON resource.Returning true  }
{if the operation was a success**}
 function CreateNewIcon (TheImage: Ptr; TheID: integer): Boolean;
  var
   TheHandle: handle;
 begin
  CreateNewIcon := false;
{**Allocate space for the ICON**}
  TheHandle := NewHandle(128);
  if TheHandle <> nil then
   begin
    HLock(TheHandle);
{**Copy bits from the pointer to the handle  **}
    BlockMove(TheImage, TheHandle^, 128);
    HUnLock(TheHandle);
{**Convert handle to a resource    **}
    AddResource(TheHandle, 'ICON', TheID, '');
    if ResError = noErr then
     begin
{**Test for success! **}
      CreateNewIcon := true;
{**Force a disk update    **}
      WriteResource(TheHandle);
     end;
   end;
 end;

{**MAIN brings the routines together **}
 procedure MAIN (ParamPtr: XCmdPtr);
  var
   TheData: Ptr;
   TheHandle: handle;
   TheID, OldRes, NewRes: integer;
   TheItem: str255;
 begin
  TheData := FillIconPointer;
  if TheData <> nil then
{**Could data for ICON be obtained **}
   begin
    OldRes := CurResFile;
    NewRes := 0;
    if ParamPtr^.paramCount > 0 then
     begin
{**Should a different file be used **}
      ZeroToPas(ParamPtr, ParamPtr^.params[1]^, TheItem);
      NewRes := SetResFile(TheItem);
{**If so use it  **}
      UseResFile(NewRes);
     end;
    if NewRes <> -1 then
     begin
{**If there was no file error **}
      TheID := GetNextEmptyID;
{**Do the work!  **}
      if not CreateNewIcon(TheData, TheID) then
       SendHCMessage(ParamPtr, 'Answer "Icon could not be created"');
{**Restore resource chain **}
      UseResFile(OldRes);
      if NewRes > 0 then
{**If a file was opened then close it**}
       CloseResFile(NewRes);
      DisposPtr(TheData);
     end
    else
     SendHCMessage(ParamPtr, 'Answer "File was not found"');
   end
  else
   SendHCMessage(ParamPtr, 'Answer "PICT could not be obtained"');
 end;
end.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

MacCleanse 9.0 - $29.95
MacCleanse is the product of thousands of hours of intense research and development. It meticulously scans all of the nooks and crannies of a computer for unnecessary junk that can take up huge... Read more
MacPilot 12.0 - $15.96
MacPilot gives you the power of UNIX and the simplicity of Macintosh, which means a phenomenal amount of untapped power in your hands! Use MacPilot to unlock over 1,200 features, and access them all... Read more
NetNewsWire 5.1 - RSS and Atom news read...
NetNewsWire is the best way to keep up with the sites and authors you read most regularly. Let NetNewsWire pull down the latest articles, and read them in a distraction-free and Mac-like way. Native... Read more
FontExplorer X Pro 7.1.3 - Font manageme...
FontExplorer X Pro is optimized for professional use; it's the solution that gives you the power you need to manage all your fonts. Now you can more easily manage, activate and organize your... Read more
DiskCatalogMaker 8.2.5 - Catalog your di...
DiskCatalogMaker is a simple disk management tool which catalogs disks. Simple, light-weight, and fast Finder-like intuitive look and feel Super-fast search algorithm Can compress catalog data for... Read more
Skim 1.5.12 - PDF reader and note-taker...
Skim is a PDF reader and note-taker for OS X. It is designed to help you read and annotate scientific papers in PDF, but is also great for viewing any PDF file. Skim includes many features and has a... Read more
rekordbox 6.1.0.0030 - Professional DJ m...
rekordbox is the best way of preparing and managing your tracks, be it at home, in the studio, or even on the plane! It allows you to import music from other music-management software using the... Read more
iExplorer 4.4.0 - View and transfer file...
iExplorer is an iPhone browser for Mac lets you view the files on your iOS device. By using a drag and drop interface, you can quickly copy files and folders between your Mac and your iPhone or... Read more
OmniGraffle 7.17.5 - Create diagrams, fl...
OmniGraffle helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use Graffle to... Read more
Apple Configurator 2.13.1 - Configure an...
Apple Configurator makes it easy to deploy iPad, iPhone, iPod touch, and Apple TV devices in your school or business. Use Apple Configurator to quickly configure large numbers of devices connected to... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Steam Link Spotlight - Hades
Steam Link Spotlight is a feature where we look at PC games that play exceptionally well using the Steam Link app. Our last entry was on Disco Elysium. Read about how it plays using Steam Link over here. | Read more »
Microsoft has acquired ZeniMax Media and...
In the latest of a series of blockbuster moves, Microsoft has now acquired Zenimax Media and its subsidiary, Bethesda Softworks, for $7.5 billion. [Read more] | Read more »
Infinity Mechs is an upcoming idle game...
Indie developer SkullStar studio has announced an upcoming idle mech game called Infinity Mechs. It draws inspiration from the mobile game Iron Saga and has been officially licensed by Game Duchy. It's set to launch for both iOS and Android on... | Read more »
PUBG Mobile Lite's latest update se...
PUBG Mobile Lite, the streamlined version of the popular battle royale that's designed to work on less powerful devices, sees the return of a popular game variant today, Survive Till Dawn mode. It arrives as part of the 0.19.0 content update. [... | Read more »
Matchy Catch, Jyamma Games’ new hyper-ca...
Matchy Catch is a new hyper-casual puzzler from Jyamma Games, the Italian studio behind the Pong-inspired puzzle-adventure Hi-Ball Rush. It’s only the developer’s second game for iOS and Android devices, but it promises to be every bit as fun and... | Read more »
Among Us! Imposter Guide - How to be a s...
Among Us! continues to be getting a lot of play in these parts, and since our first guide we've learned a thing or two about the game. This is especially true regarding the imposter role, as its a relatively rare opportunity that we've now put... | Read more »
Paladin's Story is an upcoming fant...
Paladin's Story is an upcoming fantasy RPG with an off-kilter sense of humour that's heading for iOS and Android. It will officially launch for both on September 16th though the game is already available on Google Play in Early Access. [Read more... | Read more »
Among Us! Guide - Tips for the uninitiat...
| Read more »
A Pretty Odd Bunny is a stealth-platform...
A Pretty Odd Bunny is a stealth-platformer from two-man team AJ Ordaz and René Rivera. It follows the story of a red-eyed rabbit who is allergic to carrots and instead has a penchant for devouring pigs. It's available now for Android devices. [... | Read more »
Apple Arcade: Ranked - Top 25 [Updated 9...
In case you missed it, I am on a quest to rank every Apple Arcade game there is. [Read more] | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

The cheapest Macs are back in stock today at...
Apple has restocked clearance, previous-generation, Certified Refurbished Mac minis starting at only $599. Each mini comes with free shipping plus Apple’s standard one-year warranty. These are the... Read more
Sale! Amazon has 2020 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pros...
Amazon has 2020 13″ MacBook Pros with 10th generation Intel CPUs back in stock on sale again today for $150-$200 off Apple’s MSRP. Shipping is free. Be sure to purchase the MacBook Pro from Amazon,... Read more
Base 13″ 1.4GHz Apple MacBook Pros on sale fo...
Apple reseller Expercom is offering a $65-$75 discount on new 2020 13″ 1.4GHz MacBook Pros, depending on configuration. Shipping is free. Expercom estimates shipping in 3-5 days, as stock of Apple’s... Read more
Price drop! Get a 44mm Apple Watch Series 5 G...
Amazon has dropped their price on the 44mm Apple Watch Series 5 GPS + Cellular by $100 to $429 shipped. That’s $100 off Apple’s original MSRP for this model. For the latest prices and sales, see our... Read more
Verizon offers $200 discount on new Apple Wat...
Verizon will take up to $200 off the purchase of a new GPS + Cellular Apple Watch Series 6 or Apple Watch SE with select trade-in and the purchase of a new iPhone with service. The fine print: “Get... Read more
Verizon offers $250 discount on new 8th gener...
Verizon will take up to $250 off the price of an 8th generation 2020 Apple Cellular iPad with select trade-ins and a new iPhone purchase. Plus get Apple News+ free for 6 months. The fine print: “Save... Read more
Apple’s Implementation Of COVID-19 Exposure...
NEWS: 09.18.20 – The latest effort by Apple to embed exposure notifications for COVID-19 contact tracing right into its mobile operating system has some iPhone users weary of being exposed to... Read more
Here’s how to get a 16″ MacBook Pro for $300...
B&H Photo has new 16″ MacBook Pros on sale today for $250-$300 off Apple’s MSRP, starting at $2099. Expedited shipping is free to many addresses in the US: – 2019 16″ 2.6GHz 6-Core MacBook Pro... Read more
Apple has Certified Refurbished 16″ MacBook P...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2019 16″ MacBook Pros available for up to $420 off the cost of new models, starting at $2039. Each model features a new outer case, shipping is free, and an Apple 1-... Read more
Price drops! Apple reseller B&H drops App...
B&H Photo has dropped prices on Apple Watch Series 5 models by $50-$70 off Apple’s original MSRP. Shipping is free. These are the same Apple Watch models sold by Apple in their retail and online... Read more

Jobs Board

Security Officer ($23.00/Hourly) - *Apple*...
**Security Officer \($23\.00/Hourly\) \- Apple Store** **Description** About NMS Built on a culture of safety and integrity, NMSdelivers award\-winning, integrated Read more
Security Officer ($23.00/Hourly) - *Apple*...
**Security Officer \($23\.00/Hourly\) \- Apple Store** **Description** About NMS Built on a culture of safety and integrity, NMSdelivers award\-winning, integrated Read more
Platform - Workplace Eng - *Apple* Enterpri...
MORE ABOUT THIS JOB We are looking for an Apple Platform Engineer who will bring a unique engineering skill set, support, clarity, organization and above all else, Read more
*Apple* Certified Repair Technician - Utah S...
…selected candidate will work in the USU Campus Store Tech Department as an Apple Certified Repair Technician and floor associate. This position is for both summer Read more
Senior Data Engineer - *Apple* - Theorem, L...
Job Summary Apple is seeking an experienced, detail-minded data engineeringconsultant to join our worldwide business development and strategy team. If you are Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.