TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Teaching
Volume Number:3
Issue Number:12
Column Tag:Basic School

Games for Teaching Children

By Dave Kelly, MacTutor Editorial Board

Happy 3rd Birthday MacTutor!!! I can hardly believe that MacTutor has been around for a whole 3 years. The Macintosh has certainly come a long way in that time. All the way from a puny 128K RAM model to the gobs of memory available for the Macintosh II. Let’s celebrate!

Every celebration should not be complete with out friends. First I thank all of you readers that have supported MacTutor these past years. But all of this would not be possible if not for the vision of one special, although fictitious character, Professor Mac. For those of you that have not met the Professor, turn to your front cover and take a look just in front of the big ‘M’ in MacTutor. The Professor started out teaching you Apple II Pascal in the “Apple Shoppe” (also published by David Smith). Since that time we’ve seen him popping in and out of the covers of MacTutor. (see Best of MacTutor Vol 1, pg. 1, 8, 13, 61, 71, 92, 107, 313; Best of MacTutor Vol 2, pg. 2, 20, 42, 357, 371-375; not to mention the numerous times the Professor appears at the end of each and every MacTutor column.

A few days ago, the Professor reminded me that I haven’t written any games lately. So what should the game do? Well, my oldest son, who was 3 (now age 6) when we started up MacTutor, is now in first grade. Thanks to vol. 1 no. 1, Kevin now knows his ABC’s. (see Best of MacTutor Vol 1, pg. 298). I guess besides learning to read the next thing that first graders learn to do is count. So a counting game!!!

Last week Kevin brought home some homework that was just type of game I was looking for. The problems showed a price tag with a price. To solve the problem, he had to cut and paste pictures of coins under the price tag to equal the amount on the tag. So Professor Mac’s coin game was born. The object of the game is to click on the fewest possible number of coins to equal the amount of money shown in the price tag. If too many coins are selected the answer is not wrong, but the program lets you know that you could have done it with fewer coins. If you know that you have too many coins you may subtract coins by clicking the radio button named subtract and clicking on the coin you want to remove. The game does require some ability to read. Children that don’t know their numbers will have problems with this. At least it passed my kid test Kevin loved it.

Fig. 1 Our coin game display

On the technical side: the program doesn’t have any real surprizes technically. However, there are a few annoyances that appear to be ZBasic’s fault. In fact, sometimes I wish I was writing in Pascal or C. The blow by blow description follows:

There are four PICT resources, a quarter, a dime, a nickel, and a penny, which are used. These resources should be installed in the application itself in order to work. Creation of the coins was done via Thunderscan® by clipping the scanned pictures into a resource file using ResEdit. The “Get Coin Resources” subroutine gets the handles to the resources by using the ROM function GETNAMEDRESOURCE. Each resource is then loaded into memory (from the disk). Each coin is displayed on right side of the screen to give you something to click on to select the coins in the game. The ZBasic PICTURE statement will display the PICT resources by using the handle for the resource which was retrieved with GETNAMED RESOURCE. The active area to select each coin is marked by the Qrect, Drect, Nrect and Prect rectangles. Here is where the first problem shows up. The SETRECT call is used to set up the coordinates of each rectangle. But the SETRECT parameters are mixed up. Inside Macintosh shows SetRect parameters as being left, top, right, bottom in that order (see IM page I-174), but the ZBasic manual says the ZBasic parameters for SETRECT are Top, Left, Bottom, Right. The call (fortunately) works like IM; there is a typo in the ZBasic manual, pg. E-169.

The event loop is established using menu, dialog and mouse events in the same way that has been demonstrated in other programs. There are a few funnies that show up though. In earlier versions of the program, when I was still working on it, I used MOUSE ON, MOUSE OFF to control the About menu dialog. The problem was that when the About dialog was closed the screen erased itself just after the refresh routine did its refresh. This left a blank where the dialog window was. The screen had been updated, but something in ZBasic was trying to do its own refresh (I guess?). When I turned off all the event trapping for the About routine, the screen refreshed properly. This appears to be one of those little obscure bugs in ZBasic that nobody has fixed yet. This one problem turned what should have been a few minutes of programming into several hours trying to figure out what was going on. The GETMOUSE routine turned out to be just the solution. I get the feeling that I should be writing all my code using the toolbox calls and leave the ZBasic routines to the cockroaches (or other ‘bugs’).

‘Professor Mac’s Coin Game
‘By Dave Kelly
‘ ©MacTutor, DEC.1987
‘ For ZBasic™ version 4.0

WINDOW OFF
COORDINATE WINDOW
DEF MOUSE=-1
False=0:True=NOT False
DIM Qrect%(3), Drect%(3), Nrect%(3), Prect%(3),    Displayrect%(3)
DIM 63 A$(4)
Mousy=0:’Set up point record
Mousx=0:’for mouse location
WINDOW 1,””,(2,22)-(510,335),4
CALL SETRECT(Qrect(0),388,0,510,80)
CALL SETRECT(Drect(0),388,81,510,140)
CALL SETRECT(Nrect(0),388,141,510,215)
CALL SETRECT(Prect(0),388,216,510,310)
CALL SETRECT(Displayrect(0),0,140,385,250)
BUTTON 1,0,”Add Coins”,(300,80)-(375,100),2
BUTTON 2,0,”Subtract”,(300,110)-(375,130),2
APPLE MENU “About Professor Mac’s Coins ”
MENU 1,0,1,”File”
MENU 1,1,1,”New Amount/N”
MENU 1,2,1,”Quit/Q”
EDIT MENU 2
Amount!=0
GOSUB “Get Coin Resources”
GOSUB “Draw Page”
ON MENU GOSUB “MenuEvent”
ON DIALOG GOSUB “DialogEvent”
ON MOUSE GOSUB “MouseEvent”
MENU ON:DIALOG ON:MOUSE ON
DO
UNTIL TheEnd
MENU OFF:DIALOG OFF:MOUSE OFF
END

“MenuEvent”
Menunumber=MENU(0)
Menuitem=MENU(1)
MENU
SELECT Menunumber
 CASE 255
 GOSUB “AppleMenu”
 GOSUB “Display Amount”
 GOSUB “Draw Page”
 CASE 1
 GOSUB “FileMenu”
 CASE 2
END SELECT
RETURN

“AppleMenu”
WINDOW 2,””,(100,40)-(415,310),-2
TEXT 0,12
PRINT @(5,1)”Professor Mac’s Coin Game”
PRINT @(10,2)”by”
PRINT @(8,3)”Dave Kelly”
PRINT @(7,4)”©MacTutor, 1987"
PRINT @(7,5)”ZBasic version 4.0"
PRINT @(3,8)”Professor Mac’s MacTutor Store will”
PRINT @(3,9)”display prices on the price tag.”
PRINT @(3,10)”The object is to select (by clicking)”
PRINT @(3,11)”the fewest number of coins to equal”
PRINT @(3,12)”the price. Hopefully this may be of”
PRINT @(3,13)”assistance to children first learning”
PRINT @(3,14)”about money.”
DO
CALL GETMOUSE(Mousy)
outsiderect=(Mousx<0 OR Mousx>300 OR Mousy<0 OR Mousy>270)
UNTIL FN BUTTON AND NOT (outsiderect)
WINDOW CLOSE 2
RETURN

“FileMenu”
SELECT Menuitem
 CASE 1
 GOSUB “New”
 CASE 2
 GOSUB “Quit”
END SELECT
RETURN

“Quit”
‘Release all resource handles
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(QHndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(DHndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(NHndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(PHndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(THndl&)
CALL RELEASERESOURCE(MHndl&)
END

“New”
RANDOMIZE TIMER
Amount!=RND(100)*.01
Add=True
NumOfQ%=0
NumOfD%=0
NumOfN%=0
NumOfP%=0
Total!=0
GOSUB “Display Amount”
GOSUB “Display Total”
GOSUB “Draw Display”
BUTTON 1,2
BUTTON 2,1
RETURN

“DialogEvent”
Dilg=DIALOG(0)
SELECT Dilg
 CASE 5
 RefWin=DIALOG(5)
 ‘Get window to refresh
 WINDOW 1
 GOSUB “Display Amount”
 GOSUB “Draw Page”
 CASE 1
 Buttonpressed=DIALOG(1)
 BUTTON Buttonpressed,2
 LONG IF Buttonpressed=1
 BUTTON 2,1
 Add=True
 XELSE
 BUTTON 1,1
 Add=False
 END IF
END SELECT
RETURN

“Display Amount”
 TEXT 3,24,1,0
 PICTURE (60,50),THndl&
 CALL MOVETO (130,100)
 PRINT USING “$#.##”;Amount!;SPC(2)
RETURN

“Display Total”
 TEXT 2,12,1,0
 CALL MOVETO(5,285)
 PRINT NumOfQ;” Quarters, “; NumOfD;” Dimes, “;    NumOfN; “ Nickels, 
“; NumOfP;” Pennies”
 CALL MOVETO(5,300)
 PRINT “Total:”;USING “$#.##”;Total!
 ‘Check for winner
 IF Total!=Amount! AND Total!<>0 THEN GOSUB “WinDialog”

RETURN

“WinDialog”
Temp!=Amount!
CorrectNumOfQ%=Temp!/.25
Temp!=Temp!-CorrectNumOfQ%*.25
CorrectNumOfD%=Temp!/.1
Temp!=Temp!-CorrectNumOfD%*.1
CorrectNumOfN%=Temp!/.05
Temp!=Temp!-CorrectNumOfN%*.05
CorrectNumOfP%=Temp!*100
LONG IF NumOfQ%=CorrectNumOfQ% AND NumOfD%=        CorrectNumOfD% AND 
NumOfN%=  CorrectNumOfN% AND NumOfP%= CorrectNumOfP%
 A$(1)=”TA-DA!  You Did it!”
 A$(2)=”Select ‘New Amount’ to start again”
 A$(3)=””
 A$(4)=””
 CALL PARAMTEXT(A$(1),A$(2),A$(3),A$(4))
 Response%=FN ALERT(1,0)
XELSE
 A$(1)=”Nice Try!”
 A$(2)=”You have too many coins!”
 A$(3)=”You should have: “+ STR$(CorrectNumOfQ%)+ “ Quarters, “ +STR$(CorrectNumOfD%)+ 
“ Dimes,”
 A$(4)=STR$(CorrectNumOfN%)+” Nickels, “+   STR$(CorrectNumOfP%)+” Pennies”
 CALL PARAMTEXT(A$(1),A$(2),A$(3),A$(4))
 Response%=FN ALERT(1,0)
END IF
Amount!=0
BUTTON 1,0
BUTTON 2,0
RETURN

“TooMuchDialog”
 A$(1)=”Adding that coin will give you “+ USING  “$#.##”;Total!
 A$(2)=”Try a different coin!”
 A$(3)=” “
 A$(4)=” “
 CALL PARAMTEXT(A$(1),A$(2),A$(3),A$(4))
 Response%=FN ALERT(1,0)
RETURN

“No More Coins”
 A$(1)=”Sorry, You don’t have any more “+Coin$
 A$(2)=” “
 A$(3)=” “
 A$(4)=” “
 CALL PARAMTEXT(A$(1),A$(2),A$(3),A$(4))
 Response%=FN ALERT(1,0)
RETURN

“Get Coin Resources”
 QHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Quarter”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(QHndl&)
 DHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Dime”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(DHndl&)
 NHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Nickel”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(NHndl&)
 PHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Penny”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(PHndl&)
 THndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Tag”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(THndl&)
 MHndl&=FN GETNAMEDRESOURCE(  CVI(“PICT”),”Professor Mac”)
 CALL LOADRESOURCE(MHndl&)
RETURN

“Draw Page”
 PICTURE (400,0),QHndl&
 PICTURE (406,78),DHndl&
 PICTURE (400,138),NHndl&
 PICTURE (406,220),PHndl&
 CALL MOVETO(385,0)
 CALL PENSIZE(2,2)
 CALL LINETO(385,340)
 CALL MOVETO(0,135)
 CALL LINETO(385,135)
 CALL PENNORMAL
 PICTURE (0,0),MHndl&
 CALL MOVETO(60,40)
 TEXT 2,18,0,0
 PRINT “Professor Mac’s Coin Game”
“Draw Display”
 CALL ERASERECT(Displayrect(0))
 IF NumOfQ>0 THEN PICTURE (0,140),QHndl&
 IF NumOfD>0 THEN PICTURE (100,140),DHndl&
 IF NumOfN>0 THEN PICTURE (200,140),NHndl&
 IF NumOfP>0 THEN PICTURE (300,140),PHndl&
RETURN

“MouseEvent”
IF Amount!=0 THEN FLUSHEVENTS:RETURN
CALL GETMOUSE(Mousy)
LONG IF (FN PTINRECT(Mousy,Qrect%(0)))
 LONG IF Add=True
 Total!=Total!+.25
 NumOfQ=NumOfQ+1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 XELSE
 LONG IF NumOfQ-1<0
 Coin$=”Quarters!”
 GOSUB “No More Coins”
 XELSE
 NumOfQ=NumOfQ-1
 Total!=Total!-.25
 IF Total!<0 THEN Total!=Total!+.25
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 END IF
 END IF
 LONG IF Total!>Amount! 
 GOSUB “TooMuchDialog”
 Total!=Total!-.25
 NumOfQ=NumOfQ-1
 END IF
 GOSUB “Display Total”
END IF
LONG IF FN PTINRECT(Mousy,Drect(0))
 LONG IF Add=True
 Total!=Total!+.1
 NumOfD=NumOfD+1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 XELSE
 LONG IF NumOfD-1<0
 Coin$=”Dimes!”
 GOSUB “No More Coins”
 XELSE
 NumOfD=NumOfD-1
 Total!=Total!-.1
 IF Total!<0 THEN Total!=Total!+.1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 END IF
 END IF
 LONG IF Total!>Amount! 
 GOSUB “TooMuchDialog”
 Total!=Total!-.1
 NumOfD=NumOfD-1
 END IF
 GOSUB “Display Total”
END IF
LONG IF FN PTINRECT(Mousy,Nrect(0))
 LONG IF Add=True
 Total!=Total!+.05
 NumOfN=NumOfN+1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 XELSE
 LONG IF NumOfN-1<0
 Coin$=”Nickels!”
 GOSUB “No More Coins”
 XELSE
 NumOfN=NumOfN-1
 Total!=Total!-.05
 IF Total!<0 THEN Total!=Total!+.05
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 END IF
 END IF
 LONG IF Total!>Amount! 
 GOSUB “TooMuchDialog”
 Total!=Total!-.05
 NumOfN=NumOfN-1
 END IF
 GOSUB “Display Total”
END IF
LONG IF FN PTINRECT(Mousy,Prect(0))
 LONG IF Add=True
 Total!=Total!+.01
 NumOfP=NumOfP+1
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 XELSE
 LONG IF NumOfP-1<0
 Coin$=”Pennies!”
 GOSUB “No More Coins”
 XELSE
 NumOfP=NumOfP-1
 Total!=Total!-.01
 IF Total!<0 THEN Total!=Total!+.01
 GOSUB “Draw Display”
 END IF
 END IF
 LONG IF Total!>Amount! 
 GOSUB “TooMuchDialog”
 Total!=Total!-.01
 NumOfP=NumOfP-1
 END IF
 GOSUB “Display Total”
END IF
DO:UNTIL NOT (FN BUTTON)
FLUSHEVENTS
RETURN

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

iTubeDownloader 6.5.13 - Easily download...
iTubeDownloader is a powerful-yet-simple YouTube downloader for the masses. Because it contains a proprietary browser, you can browse YouTube like you normally would. When you see something you want... Read more
FileZilla 3.47.0 - Fast and reliable FTP...
FileZilla (ported from Windows) is a fast and reliable FTP client and server with lots of useful features and an intuitive interface. Version 3.47.0: Fixed regression loading advanced site... Read more
Transmit 5.6.3 - Excellent FTP/SFTP clie...
Transmit is an excellent FTP (file transfer protocol), SFTP, S3 (Amazon.com file hosting) and iDisk/WebDAV client that allows you to upload, download, and delete files over the internet. With the... Read more
Doomsday 2.2.2 - Play classic Doom on mo...
id Software's Doom pioneered the modern first-person shooter genre. Released in 1993, it was a quantum leap in game engine technology with fluid and - at the time - incredibly realistic 3D graphics.... Read more
Ableton Live 10.1.9 - Record music using...
Ableton Live lets you create and record music on your Mac. Use digital instruments, pre-recorded sounds, and sampled loops to arrange, produce, and perform your music like never before. Ableton Live... Read more
Maintenance 2.6.5 - System maintenance u...
Maintenance is a system maintenance and cleaning utility. It allows you to run miscellaneous tasks of system maintenance: Check the the structure of the disk Repair permissions Run periodic scripts... Read more
Adobe Photoshop 21.1.0 - Professional im...
You can download Photoshop for Mac as a part of Creative Cloud for only $20.99/month (or $9.99/month if you have purchased an earlier software version). Adobe Photoshop remains the gold standard in... Read more
Adobe Lightroom Classic 9.2 - Import, de...
You can download Lightroom for Mac as a part of Creative Cloud for only $9.99/month with Photoshop, included as part of the photography package. The latest version of Lightroom gives you all of the... Read more
Adobe InCopy 15.0.1 - Create streamlined...
InCopy is available as part of Adobe Creative Cloud for $52.99/month (or $4.99/month for InCopy app only). Adobe InCopy, ideal for large team projects involving both written copy and design work,... Read more
Adobe Illustrator 24.0.3 - Professional...
You can download Adobe Illustrator for Mac as a part of Creative Cloud for only $20.99/month (or $9.99/month if you have also purchased an earlier software version). Adobe Illustrator for Mac is the... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Mobile Games Starter Kit
Over here at 148Apps, we regularly dive deep into the latest and greatest mobile games hitting the App Store, but that’s not always what people are looking for when searching for a new mobile game. Some folks just want to dip their toes into... | Read more »
Unresolved is a hard-hitting narrative a...
Ghofran Akil's Unresolved in an upcoming text-based adventure game that sees you playing as a mother attempting to find her disappeared husband during the Lebanese Civil War. [Read more] | Read more »
Marvel Strike Force introduces new brawl...
FoxNext's squad-based RPG Marvel Strike Force is set to receive some fresh characters from the X-Men and Iron Man series. They'll arrive as part of the game's latest update, which follows a sizable spending boycott on the title due to complaints... | Read more »
Speed Dating for Ghosts is a narrative a...
Speed Dating for Ghosts originally released on Steam back 2018, since then it has received honourable mentions for narrative during the Independent Games Festival. Now it's made its way over to iOS devices where it's available as a premium title... | Read more »
Fast-paced multiplayer title Tennis Star...
Tennis Stars: Ultimate Clash is the latest free-to-play tennis title to hit iOS and Android. It's said to be a fairly casual experience, offering easy-to-learn controls and fast-paced, mobile-friendly matches. [Read more] | Read more »
Super Mecha Champions' latest updat...
Super Mecha Champions' latest update sees the addition of a brand new character called R.E.D. Alongside that, there's news about the current season and a series of Emojis that have been added to the game. [Read more] | Read more »
Apple Arcade: Ranked - Top 50 [Updated 2...
In case you missed it, I am on a quest to rank every Apple Arcade game there is. [Read more] | Read more »
Apple Arcade: Ranked - 51+ [Updated 2.19...
This is part 2 of our Apple Arcade Ranking list. To see part 1, go here. To skip to part 3, click here. 51. Mini Motorways Description: [Read more] | Read more »
Isle Escape: The House is an upcoming pu...
Isle Escape: The House is an upcoming puzzle game from Simeon Angelov that's intended to serve as an introduction to a saga they're planning on releasing in an episodic fashion. The first chapter is set to release for both iOS and Android on 29th... | Read more »
Company of Heroes, the classic RTS, is n...
Feral Interactive has finally released their highly anticipated iOS version of the strategy classic Company of Heroes. It's available now for iPad as a premium title and has had various tweaks to ensure that it's optimised for touch controls. [... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Verizon offers free iPhone 7 to customers ope...
Verizon is offering a free 32GB iPhone 7 for new or existing customers who open a new line of service, no trade-in required. Cost of the phone is credited to your account monthly over 24 months. The... Read more
Sale! 10.5″ 256GB WiFi iPad Air for $549, $10...
Amazon has new 10.5″ 256GB WiFi iPad Airs, in Space Gray, on sale today for $549 shipped. Their price is $100 off Apple’s MSRP for this model, and it’s the cheapest price available from any Apple... Read more
Back on sale! Apple’s new Mac Pro for $5499,...
B&H Photo has the base 2019 Mac Pro (3.5GHz 8-Core Xeon, 32GB RAM, 256GB SSD) in stock today and on sale for $5499 including free overnight delivery to many addresses in the US. Their price is $... Read more
B&H offers $100 discount on base 13″ 1.4G...
B&H Photo has new 2019 13″ 1.4GHz MacBook Pros on sale for $100 off Apple’s MSRP today with prices starting at $1199. Overnight shipping is free to many addresses in the US. These are the same... Read more
Apple continues to offer Certified Refurbishe...
Apple has Certified Refurbished iPhone XS models available for up to $350 off MSRP, with prices starting at $699. Each iPhone is unlocked and comes with Apple’s standard one-year warranty and a new... Read more
Apple AirPods are on sale for $30 off today
Amazon has new 2019 Apple AirPods (non-Pro models) on sale today for $30 off MSRP, starting at $129. Shipping is free: – AirPods with Wireless Charging Case: $169 $30 off MSRP – AirPods with Charging... Read more
27″ 3.7GHz 6-Core 5K iMac on sale for $2099,...
B&H Photo has the 2019 27″ 3.7GHz 6-Core 5K iMac in stock today and on sale for $200 off Apple’s MSRP. Overnight shipping is free to many locations in the US: – 27″ 3.7GHz 6-Core 5K iMac: $2099 $... Read more
Save up to $250 on a 12.9″ iPad Pros with the...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 12.9″ iPad Pros available on their online store for up to $250 off the cost of new models. Prices start at $849. Each iPad comes with a standard Apple one-year... Read more
Save up to $220 on 11″ iPad Pros with these r...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 11″ iPad Pros available on their online store for up to $220 off the cost of new models. Prices start at $679. Each iPad comes with a standard Apple one-year warranty... Read more
8-Core 27″ iMac Pro available for $4249, Cert...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 27″ 3.2GHz 8-Core iMac Pros available for $4249 including free shipping. Their price is $750 off the cost of new models. A standard Apple one-year warranty is included... Read more

Jobs Board

Medical Assistant - *Apple* Valley Clinic -...
…professional, quality care to patients in the ambulatory setting at the M Health Fairview Apple Valley Clinic, located in Apple Valley, MN. Join the **M Health Read more
Windows/ *Apple* Technical Support Engineer...
Windows/ Apple Technical Support Engineer McLean , VA , US Apply + Be you + Be Booz Allen + Be empowered + Learn More Job Description Location: McLean, VA, US Job Read more
Medical Assistant - *Apple* Valley Clinic -...
…professional, quality care to patients in the ambulatory setting at the M Health Fairview Apple Valley Clinic, located in Apple Valley, MN. Join the **M Health Read more
Geek Squad *Apple* Consultation Professiona...
**762475BR** **Job Title:** Geek Squad Apple Consultation Professional **Job Category:** Store Associates **Store NUmber or Department:** 001423-San Jose-Store **Job Read more
Medical Assistant - *Apple* Valley Clinic -...
…professional, quality care to patients in the ambulatory setting at the M Health Fairview Apple Valley Clinic, located in Apple Valley, MN. Join the **M Health Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.