Number Format
Volume Number:   3

Issue Number:   11

Column Tag:   Assembly Language Lab

Formatted Output for Numbers
By Mike™ Scanlin, San Diego, CA
On most systems, programmers of high level languages have an advantage over assembly language programmers in that a lot of the nitty gritty detail work has been done for them by what ever compiler or interpretter they’re using. An example of this is in the outputting of numbers. High level language programmers usually take it for granted that they can output a number in just about any format they want to. Pascal’s writeln and C’s printf make it a trivial task to change the field width of both integers and reals. While it’s true that assembly programmers can make use of _NumToString or the SANE formatter, we still need to play with the resulting strings to get nice formatted numbers. Until now.
CONVERTING INTEGERS
The basic idea when converting an integer into its string equivalent is to first break it down into its digits and then convert each digit into its ASCII equivalent. The only tricky part is that a number is represented as binary internally and we need its decimal equivalent.
There are at least 2 different ways to approach the problem of extracting base 10 digits from a binary number. The _NumToString routine that Apple provides in the system file (see listing 1) uses binary coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic to calculate the digits and then calls a separate subroutine to build the string two digits at a time (the least significant bytes of registers D1D5 are used to store 2 BCD digits each). The main problem with this algorithm is that it runs in more or less constant time (the number 1 takes as long to convert as 2147483648 = 2^31) and isn’t very efficient except for very large numbers (about 7 or more digits).
Another way to get digits one by one is to subtract by successively smaller powers of 10, starting with 10^9 (since it is the largest power of 10 that can be represented by a 32 bit integer). Count how many times you can subtract each power of 10 from the number and then convert that number (which will be in the range 0..9) to its ASCII equivalent. If you use multiword compares and subtracts, this method can be used to convert any size integers (like 64 or 128 bits) into strings.
My own NumToString routine (Shown in the program listing) uses the subtract method. How does the subtract method compare to the real _NumToString? As for size, _NumToString is 118 bytes (after all of the trap related instructions are removed) and my routine is 120 bytes. Pretty close. As for speed, time trials on 10,000 random 32 bit signed integers showed my routine to be faster by about 2%  no big deal. But for time trials on 10,000 16 bit signed integers my routine was faster by 32% and for 10,000 8 bit signed integers my routine was faster by 45% (to be fair, _NumToString was timed after it had been isolated so there was no overhead for trap calling). The reason the smaller numbers showed so much improvement is because my routine doesn’t spend much time on little digits (0,1,2...) and virtually no time on leading zeros. If you have a time critical application that makes a lot of calls to _NumToString, it may be worthwhile to use my routine instead. Of course, you could just patch my routine over the existing _NumToString in the system file to speed up all applications that use _NumToString  no, wait, I didn’t just say that (and I’m not responsible for the consequences. Is there any reason that wouldn’t work?).
Fig. 1 Demo Program formats numerical output
CONVERTING FIXED POINT REALS
When you use DIVS or DIVU, the 32 bit result is made up of 16 bits of quotient and 16 bits of remainder. The FixPtToString routine uses these two pieces to convert a fixed point number to a string. Since the quotient is just an integer, we can use NumToString to convert it. Then add a decimal point and convert the remainder. But in order to convert the remainder into a fractional number, we need to know the original divisor. We also need to specify how many digits we want after the decimal point.
For each digit you want after the decimal point, the routine multiplies the remainder by 10 and then divides the it by the divisor, getting a new remainder in the process. It adds the digit to the string and then repeats the process for the next digit. However, there is a limited number of times that this can be done accurately (since we only have 16 bits of remainder to begin with). The number of digits that can be accurately calculated depends on the magnitude of the divisor, but 5 or 6 digits should be safe.
Note that the number you pass to FixPtToString doesn’t have to be the result of a divide instruction. You can output any arbitrary fixed point number you want by using the same basic idea. If you wanted an integer part bigger than 16 bits, you could output the number in a two part process. FixPtToString could be modified to be FractionToString by eliminating instructions 3 (EXT.L D0) thru 17 (BEQ.S @6) inclusive. Then it will tack on whatever fraction you pass it to what ever string you pass it. For instance, to output the number 1864723135.24226 (.24226 = 47/194):
MOVE.L stringPtr(A5),A0
MOVE.L #1864723135,D0 ;quotient
JSR NumToString
MOVE #47,D0 ;remainder
SWAP D0;no need to set quot
MOVE #194,D1 ;divisor
MOVE #5,D2 ;5 digits accuracy
JSR FractionToString
MOVE.L A0,(SP)
_DrawString
FORMATTING
Now that we can get integers and reals into strings we need to be able to set field widths. Also, an option to add commas would be nice. The FormNumString routine does both of these. You pass it a pointer to a format string of the form: [‘,’][q[‘.’[r]]] where [ ] denotes something optional and ‘.’ and ‘,’ denote a constant character. Q and r are string variables in the range [‘0’..’99'] and represent how many spaces should be allocated for the quotient (including sign and commas) and remainder (not including decimal point). Notice that everything is optional, so the empty string is a legal one, but one that won’t do much (i.e. any) formatting. Also, the word “string” here does not mean a pascal string; i.e. there is no length byte. The nested brackets mean that you can’t have a ‘.’ if a q was not provided and you can’t have an r if a ‘.’ wasn’t provided. If q is too small to contain the number, space is used as needed. If it is too big, the number will be padded with spaces. If r is bigger than any existing remainder the number might have, zeros are appended after the decimal point (which doesn’t do much for the accuracy of the extra digits). If r is smaller than any existing remainder, then digits are just dropped. No attempt at rounding is made.
Another use for this routine is to reformat the output string from the SANE formatter. The SANE formatter can format any SANE data type into a fixed sytle number (see the Apple Numerics Manual for everything you ever wanted to know about SANE). So, you could use SANE to do all of your calculations in floating point and have your result formatted into a fixed style string and then use FormNumString to add commas, pad with spaces and delete decimal places (or add zeros) to make all your numbers uniform.
Fig. 2 Program supports easy updating with a picture
PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHER
The 3 routines NumToString, FixPtToString and FormNumString have been pieced together to form DrawNumsInAString which can be used to output complete sentences containing any number of formatted numbers. For instance, you could pass it the string “result = \f,8.4.” along with the fixed point number 123456.789 and it will output “result = 12,3456.7890.” Each number you want formatted in the input string will begin with a ‘\’ character and be followed by an ‘i’ (for longints) or an ‘f’ (for fixed points). After that comes the FormNumString style format codes for the number. The only peculiar part of using the routine is that the numbers you want formatted have to be pushed on the stack in reverse of their occuring order in the string. For instance, if your input string looks like “x = \i4 y = \i4 z = \i4” then you would do this:
MOVE.L z,(SP) ;3rd parameter
MOVE.L y,(SP) ;2nd
MOVE.L x,(SP) ;1st
PEA inputString
JSR DrawNumsInAString
The reason for passing the parameters that way is (1) because we don’t know how many will be present in advance, and (2) so that they can be taken off the stack in the order needed.
DEMO PROGRAM
The FormatDemo program shows how all of this comes together. It is a bare bones application that demonstrates how the routines presented here might be used. A click in the window will generate another set of random numbers to format. Desk accessories are supported and you can see a simple technique for providing window updating without an update event. Whenever a content click is detected, a set of addition and division problems are displayed in formatted output using the formatting routines discussed. After displaying the numbers, a quickdraw picture is taken of the window output using copybits on the portRect of the window. The appropriate field in the window record is set with the pointer to this picture so that when the window needs updating, it is updated automatically from the picture. Figures 1 and 2 show the demo program in operation with a desk accessory showing this easy update method. A good reference book for this and all assembly language techniques is Dan Weston’s classic The Complete Book of Macintosh Assembly Language Programming, vol. 1 and 2, from Scott, Foresman and Company.
{1}
Listing 1. The Apple Way
; NOTE: This code is Apple Computer’s. Only
; the comments are mine.
;==========
NumToString
;==========
; convert a 32 bit longint into a pascal string
; input: D0 longint
; A0 points to a space of at least 12 bytes
; output: A0 points to pascal string
MOVEM.LD0D6/A1,(SP)
MOVEQ #0,D1 ;init digits
MOVEQ #0,D2
MOVEQ #0,D3
MOVEQ #0,D4
MOVEQ #0,D5
MOVEQ #31,D6 ;loop counter
LEA 1(A0),A1 ;skip length byte
TST.L D0;is num zero?
BGT.S @2
BMI.S @1
MOVE.B #’0',(A1)+ ;special case for zero
BRA.S @3
@1 MOVE.B #’’,(A1)+ ;give string a minus sign
NEG.L D0;make number positive
@2 ADD.LD0,D0 ;shift a bit into extend flag
ABCD D5,D5 ;tens’ & ones’ digits
ABCD D4,D4 ;thous’ & hunds’ digits
ABCD D3,D3 ;hund thous’ & ten thous’ digits
ABCD D2,D2 ;ten mils’ & mils’ digits
ABCD D1,D1 ;bils’ & hund mils’ digits
DBRA D6,@2 ;do next bit
; NOTE: at this point D6 = 1. It is used as a flag to
; kill leading zeros.
BSR.S Do2Digits
MOVE.B D2,D1
BSR.S Do2Digits
MOVE.B D3,D1
BSR.S Do2Digits
MOVE.B D4,D1
BSR.S Do2Digits
MOVE.B D5,D1
BSR.S Do2Digits
;calculate length of string that was created
@3 MOVE A1,D0 ;end of string + 1
SUB A0,D0 ;beginning of string
SUBQ.B #1,D0 ;minus 1 for length byte
MOVE.B D0,(A0)
MOVEM.L(SP)+,A1/D0D6
RTS
Do2Digits
;convert BCD byte in D1 into 2 ASCII digits.
;do most significant digit
ROR #4,D1
BSR.S DoADigit
;do least significant digit
ROL #4,D1
DoADigit
TST D6;have we had a nonzero digit yet?
BPL.S @6
TST.B D1;is this a leading zero?
BEQ.S @7
MOVEQ #0,D6 ;print all zeros from now on
@6 ORI.B#$30,D1 ;covert BCD digit to ASCII
MOVE.B D1,(A1)+ ;add it to the string
SUB.B D1,D1
@7 RTS
; DrawNumsInAString.asm
;
; by Mike™ Scanlin
Include Traps.D
Xref DrawNumsInAString,NumToString,FixPtToString,FormNumString
Xref GetANumber
;================
DrawNumsInAString
;================
Draw a string that may contain implicit formatted numbers. input: stack contains numbers that will be needed and a pointer a string. The numbers should be pushed on the stack in order from last to first (so they can be poped off in order from first to last). The last thing to be pushed on the stack is the string pointer. Each formatted number within the input string begins with a ‘\’ and then either an ‘i’ (for longints) or a ‘f’ (for a fixed point number). For fixed points, first push the fixed point number, then the divisor to be used to calculate the remainder. The formatting after the ‘i’ or ‘f’ is the same as for the FormNumString routine. output: a string is drawn A0,D0 are trashed.
{2}
MOVEM.LA0A3/D1D2,(SP)
LEA 28(SP),A3;point to first parameter
MOVE.L A3,(SP) ;save initial position
MOVE.L (A3)+,A2 ;string pointer
@1 MOVEQ#0,D0
MOVE.B (A2)+,D0
BEQ.S @10 ;end of string found
CMPI.B #’\’,D0 ;is it a number?
BEQ.S @2
MOVE D0,(SP)
_DrawChar
BRA.S @1
;we got a number to format
@2 LEA scratch,A0
MOVE.B (A2)+,D0
CMPI.B #’i’,D0 ;is it a longint?
BNE.S @4
;handle integers
MOVE.L (A3)+,D0 ;get longint
JSR NumToString
BRA.S @5;go format it
@4 CMPI.B #’f’,D0;is it a fixed point?
BNE.S @1;if not, ignore it
;handle fixed point
MOVEA.LA2,A1
;find out how many decimal places should be passed to
; FixPtToString
MOVE.B (A1)+,D0 ;skip comma, if present
CMPI.B #’,’,D0
BEQ.S @4.1
SUBA #1,A1
@4.1 JSR GetANumber
BMI.S @1;no quotient present
MOVE.B (A1)+,D0
CMPI.B #’.’,D0
BNE.S @4.2
JSR GetANumber
MOVE D0,D2
BPL.S @4.3
@4.2 MOVEQ #0,D2;no remainder
@4.3 MOVE(A3)+,D1 ;get divisor
MOVE.L (A3)+,D0 ;get fixed point num
JSR FixPtToString
;do the formatting
@5 MOVEA.LA2,A1 ;addr of format string
JSR FormNumString
MOVEA.LA1,A2 ;point past format string
MOVE.L A0,(SP)
_DrawString
BRA.S @1
@10SUBA.L (SP)+,A3 ;calc len of params
MOVE A3,D0
MOVEM.L(SP)+,D1D2/A0A3
MOVE.L (SP)+,A0 ;get return addr
ADDA D0,SP ;length of parameters
JMP (A0)
scratch DCB.B 40,0
; FixPtToString.asm
;
; by Mike™ Scanlin
Xref FixPtToString,NumToString
;============
FixPtToString
;============
; convert a 32 bit fixed point number into a pascal
; string.
; input: D0 fixed point number
; D1 16 bit divisor used when D0 was calculated
; D2 # of digits after decimal point (D2=0 for no
; dec point)
; A0 points to a space of at least (8 + D2) bytes
; output: A0 points to pascal string
MOVEM.LD0D3/A1,(SP)
MOVE.L D0,D3 ;save quotient & remainder
EXT.L D0;sign extend quotient
JSR NumToString
;if q = 0 and the result should be < 0, we’ll have to
; add a minus sign.
;(NumToString won’t know about it, since all it sees is
; a zero quotient)
TST D3;q = 0?
BNE.S @0
TST.L D3;check remainder
BEQ.S @0;q & r both zero
;if r & divisor have the same sign, then result will
; be > 0
EXT.L D1
MOVE.L D1,D0
EOR.L D3,D0
BPL.S @0
MOVE.B #’’,1(A0)
MOVE.B #’0',2(A0)
MOVE.B #2,(A0) ;new length
@0 TST D2;do we want a decimal point?
BEQ.S @6
MOVEQ #0,D0
MOVE.B (A0),D0 ;length of quotient
LEA 1(A0,D0),A1;end of string + 1
MOVE.B #’.’,(A1)+
TST.L D1;make divisor positive
BPL.S @1
NEG.L D1
@1 TST.LD3;make remainder positive
BPL.S @2
NEG.L D3
@2 SWAP D3
ANDI.L #$FFFF,D3;isolate remainder
SUBQ #1,D2 ;loop control
@3 ADD.LD3,D3 ;mult r by 10
MOVE.L D3,D0
ADD.L D0,D0 ;4x
ADD.L D0,D0 ;8x
ADD.L D0,D3 ;10x = 8x + 2x
MOVEQ #’0',D0 ;init digit
@4 CMP.LD1,D3 ;is 10r > divisor?
BLT.S @5
ADDQ #1,D0 ;increase digit
SUB.L D1,D3 ;subtract divisor
BNE.S @4
@5 MOVE.B D0,(A1)+ ;add to string
DBRA D2,@3
MOVE A1,D0 ;calc length of new string
SUB A0,D0
SUBQ.B #1,D0 ;minus 1 for length byte
MOVE.B D0,(A0)
@6 MOVEM.L(SP)+,A1/D0D3
RTS
; FormNumString.asm
;
; by Mike™ Scanlin
Xref FormNumString,GetANumber
;============
FormNumString
;============
; format the string representation of a number (integer
; or real) according to a format string.
; input: A0 points to string of a number (which should
; be in a space big enough for formatting result)
; A1 points to format string
; syntax of format string is [‘,’]d[d][‘.’[d[d]]]
; where ‘’ denote a constant char and d denotes
; a digit ‘0’..’9'
; there is no length byte for these strings.
; valid strings invalid strings
;3 230. (230 too big [99 max])
; 4.0 or 4. .0(need a d before ‘.’)
;,3.4 ,.4 (need a d between ‘,.’)
;,12.20 0.123 (123 too big)
; output: A0 points to formatted string of a number
; A1 points to first byte after format string
MOVEM.LD0D5/A2,(SP)
CMPI.B #’,’,(A1)
BNE.S @6
ADDA #1,A1
;do commas
;first find out if a decimal point in the string
MOVEQ #0,D0
MOVE.B (A0),D0 ;length of string
MOVE D0,D2 ;save in case it’s and int
SUBQ #1,D0 ;loop control
; D0 counts how many digits from the end of the string
; to the decimal point (including the decimal
; point  which is why it starts out as 1 and not 0).
; If the number is an int, then D0=0
MOVEQ #1,D1
@1 CMPI.B #’.’,1(A0,D0) ;dec point, it’s a real
BEQ.S @2
ADDQ #1,D1
DBRA D0,@1
;it’s an integer
MOVE D2,D0
MOVEQ #0,D1
;now add some commas
@2 MOVE D1,D5 ;save length of fraction
MOVEQ #3,D2 ;# of digits until next comma
SUBQ #1,D0
@3 ADDQ #1,D1 ;total len, from end to cur pos
SUBQ #1,D2
BNE.S @5
MOVE D0,D3
MOVE.B (A0,D0),D0
BSR IsItADigit ;test next digit
BNE.S @6
MOVE D3,D0
;move some chars, add a comma, increase string length.
MOVE D1,D4 ;loop control
SUBQ #1,D4
LEA 1(A0,D0),A2
@4 MOVE.B (A2,D4),1(A2,D4)
DBRA D4,@4
MOVE.B #’,’,(A2)
ADDI.B #1,(A0)
ADDQ #1,D1 ;for the comma
MOVEQ #3,D2 ;reset counter
@5 DBRA D0,@3
;get next byte of format string
@6 BSR.SGetANumber ;D0 = q
BMI.S @16 ;no q provided  leave
MOVEQ #0,D2
MOVE.B (A0),D2 ;length of string
MOVE D2,D1
SUB D5,D1 ;D1=len of quotient now
SUB D1,D0
BMI.S @10
BEQ.S @10
ADD.B D0,(A0) ;increase length by D0 spaces
;add D0 # of preceeding spaces
@7 LEA 1(A0,D0),A2
SUBQ #1,D2
@8 MOVE.B 1(A0,D2),(A2,D2)
DBRA D2,@8
SUBQ #1,D0
@9 MOVE.B #’ ‘,1(A0,D0)
DBRA D0,@9
;do remainder
@10CMPI.B #’.’,(A1)
BNE.S @16
ADDA #1,A1
;make sure there is a decimal point already
LEA 1(A0),A2
MOVEQ #0,D0
MOVE.B (A0),D0
SUBQ #1,D0
@11CMP.B#’.’,(A2)+
BEQ.S @12
DBRA D0,@11
MOVE.B #’.’,(A2)+
ADD.B #1,(A0)
@12BSR.SGetANumber
BMI.S @16 ;no r provided  leave
; D0 is how many digits they want. D5 is
; what we’ve already got.
@13SUBQ #1,D5
@14CMP D5,D0
BEQ.S @16
BPL.S @15
SUB.B #1,(A0)
BRA.S @13
@15MOVE.B #’0',(A2,D5) ;add a zero
ADD.B #1,(A0)
ADDQ #1,D5
BRA.S @14
@16MOVEM.L(SP)+,A2/D0D5
RTS
;=========
GetANumber
;=========
; convert a one or two digit ASCII integer into
; its numerical form
; input: A1 points to digit(s)
; output: D0 is the decimal equivalent (1 if A1
; didn’t point to a digit)
; A1 points to byte after digit(s)
; Z and N flags reflect the value of D0
MOVEM.LD1D2,(SP)
MOVEQ #0,D0
MOVE.B (A1),D0
@1 BSR.SIsItADigit
BEQ.S @2
MOVEQ #1,D0
BRA.S @4
@2 ADDA #1,A1
MOVE D0,D1 ;save first digit
MOVE.B (A1),D0
BSR.S IsItADigit
BEQ.S @3
MOVE D1,D0
BRA.S @4
@3 ADDA #1,A1
ADD D1,D1 ;multiply first digit by 10
MOVE D1,D2
ADD D2,D2
ADD D2,D2
ADD D2,D1
ADD D1,D0 ;add to second digit
@4 MOVEM.L(SP)+,D1D2
TST D0
RTS
;=========
IsItADigit
;=========
; If the ASCII byte in D0 is in ‘0’..’9' it’s
; value [0..9]
; is returned in D0. If D0 is a digit, all
; flags are set.
CMPI.B #’0',D0
BLT.S @1
CMPI.B #’9',D0
BGT.S @1
SUBI.B #’0',D0
MOVE #1,CCR ;set all flags
RTS
@1 MOVE #0,CCR ;clear all flags
RTS
; NumToString.asm
;
; by Mike™ Scanlin
; an alternative to _NumToString
Xref NumToString
;==========
NumToString
;==========
; convert a 32 bit integer into a pascal string
; input: D0 longint
; A0 points to a space of at least 12 bytes
; output: A0 points to pascal string
MOVEM.LD0D4/A1A2,(SP)
LEA 1(A0),A1 ;skip length byte
TST.L D0;is number zero?
BGT.S @2
BMI.S @1
MOVE.B #’0',(A1)+ ;special case for zero
BRA.S @8
@1 MOVE.B #’’,(A1)+ ;give string a minus sign
NEG.L D0;make number positive
@2 LEA PowersTable,A2
MOVEQ #1,D3 ;set leading zeros flag
MOVEQ #9,D4 ;loop counter
@3 MOVE.L (A2)+,D2 ;get a power of 10
MOVEQ #’0',D1 ;init digit
@4 CMP.LD2,D0 ;is # > power of 10?
BLT.S @5
ADDQ #1,D1 ;increase digit
SUB.L D2,D0 ;subtract power of 10
BNE.S @4
@5 TST D3;have we had a nonzero digit yet?
BEQ.S @6
CMP.B #’0',D1 ;is this a leading zero?
BEQ.S @7
MOVEQ #0,D3 ;print all zeros from now on
@6 MOVE.B D1,(A1)+
@7 DBRA D4,@3
@8 MOVE A1,D0 ;calc length of new string
SUB A0,D0
SUBQ.B #1,D0 ;minus 1 for length byte
MOVE.B D0,(A0)
MOVEM.L(SP)+,A1A2/D0D4
RTS
PowersTable:
DC.L 1000000000
DC.L 100000000
DC.L 10000000
DC.L 1000000
DC.L 100000
DC.L 10000
DC.L 1000
DC.L 100
DC.L 10
DC.L 1
; Resource File
RESOURCE ‘FRED’ 0 ‘IDENTIFICATION’
DC.B 14, ‘Format Program’
.ALIGN 2
RESOURCE ‘BNDL’ 128 ‘BUNDLE’
DC.L ‘FRED’;name
DC.W 0,1‘;data
DC.L ‘ICN#’;icon map
DC.W 0 ;mapping1
DC.W 0,128 ;map 0 to 128
DC.L ‘FREF’;file ref
DC.W 0 ;maps1
DC.W 0,128 ;map 0 to 128
RESOURCE ‘FREF’ 128 ‘FREF 1’
DC.B ‘APPL’,0,0,0
.ALIGN 2
RESOURCE ‘ICN#’ 128 ‘MY ICON’
DC.L $00000000, $00000000, $07FFFFC0, $18000030
DC.L $202038E8, $40604514, $80204412, $80204422
DC.L $80204441, $80204481, $802139F1, $80000001
DC.L $80000001, $80F81021, $80103061, $802010A1
DC.L $80701121, $800811F1, $80881021, $80711021
DC.L $80000001, $80201801, $80602001, $80204001
DC.L $9E207802, $80204402, $40204404, $20213808
DC.L $18000030, $07FFFFC0, $00000000, $00000000
DC.L $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF
DC.L $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF
DC.L $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF
DC.L $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF
DC.L $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF
DC.L $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF
DC.L $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF
DC.L $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF, $FFFFFFFF
.ALIGN 2
RESOURCE ‘MENU’ 1 ‘APPLE’
DC.W 1 ;menu id
DC.W 0 ;width holder
DC.W 0 ;height holder
DC.L 0 ;resource id holder
DC.L $1FB;flags enable all except 2
DC.B 1 ;title length
DC.B 20;title apple symbol
DC.B 22;menu item length
DC.B ‘About this program... ‘
DC.B 0 ;no icon
DC.B 0 ;no keyboard equiv
DC.B 0 ;marking char
DC.B 0 ;style of item text
DC.B 2 ;menu item length
DC.B ‘’
DC.B 0 ;no icon
DC.B 0 ;no keyboard equiv
DC.B 0 ;marking char
DC.B 0 ;style of item text
DC.B 0 ;end of menu items
.ALIGN 2
RESOURCE ‘MENU’ 2 ‘FILE’
DC.W 2 ;menu id
DC.W 0 ;width holder
DC.W 0 ;height holder
DC.L 0 ;resource id
DC.L $1FF;flags
DC.B 4 ;title length
DC.B ‘File’;title
DC.B 6 ;menu item length
DC.B ‘Quit/Q’
DC.B 0 ;no icon
DC.B 0 ;no keyboard
DC.B 0 ;no marking
DC.B 0 ;style
DC.B 0 ;end of menu items
.ALIGN 2
RESOURCE ‘MENU’ 3 ‘MESSAGE’
DC.W 3 ;menu id
DC.W 0 ;width holder
DC.W 0 ;height holder
DC.L 0 ;resource id
DC.L $1F8;flags  DISABLE
DC.B 16;title length
DC.B ‘Click in Window ‘ ;title
DC.B 0 ;menu item length
DC.B ‘’
DC.B 0 ;no icon
DC.B 0 ;no keyboard
DC.B 0 ;no marking
DC.B 0 ;style
DC.B 0 ;end of menu items