TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Resources/ ZBAS 4.0
Volume Number:3
Issue Number:8
Column Tag:Basic School

Using Resources with ZBASIC 4.0

By Dave Kelly, MacTutor Editorial Board

This is the anniversary of Basic Wars which began a year ago. This time there is a real winner! After a lot of struggle it appears that ZBasic™ has now come out on top. Version 4.0 is now available. If nothing has broken between what I’ve seen and the final release, ZBASIC ™ should be 99% free of problems (famous last words). The program at the end of this months column was written using version 3.85 beta which is supposed to be like version 4.0 except without the new editor. Even without the editor, I am extremely excited about ZBasic™ now (NO MORE BOMBS!!!).

Enhancements to ZBASIC ™ before version 4.0 are:

• NEW MANUAL: 206 pages dedicated to just the Macintosh, including many many examples.

• TOOLBOX supported: documentation is now provided to use toolbox commands at will.

• NEW COMMANDS such as TEHANDLE, SELECT CASE, GET WINDOW, HANDSHAKE, SHUTDOWN, FLUSHEVENTS.

Ok, enough of that. The real reason we are here is to discover how to program in Basic. If you have been watching this column over the past several months you will see that there have been things I’ve wanted to do with Basic that was not supported by any version of Basic. In addition, we have received many letters from frustrated readers trying to use Basic to do things that should have been easy but not supported. I’ll attempt to patch the holes in the past columns by showing you how in the ‘new’ ZBASIC .

Michael Crichton Reads MacTutor

One letter I received recently was from a fellow author, Michael Crichton. For those of you that don’t know him, he was author of the book, “The Andromeda Strain” and has just released a new book, “SPHERE” (How’s that for a plug for your new book, Michael?). Anyway, in his letter, he indicated that he wants “to manipulate text strings as a resource in a compiled ZBasic program”. The basic theme of this month’s column is “Using Resources with ZBasic”.

The idea that I will show is to use a string resource of type ‘STR ‘ to store data that is to be used by the application the next time that it is run. In this case, I will store the current font and size in the string resource. The other half of this column finishes up what got started in the past several columns. If you remember, I attempted to read the font names from the system file and install them into a Font menu. With PCMacBasic it was determined that even though you could use the ADDRESMENU toolbox call and create the menu, PCMacBasic would not let you access any new menus. UGH! Then there was MS Basic which let you read the font resources through library calls (though a roundabout way), but would only let you have 20 items in a menu. Since many of you have hard disks and want more than 20 fonts, that limited your programs to those fonts that you could fit. Even previous versions of ZBasic had problems, but since it works now and I can’t remember exactly the problem (probably a bomb!) we won’t discuss it.

Fig. 1 A Font and Size menu that really works in Basic!

Font Menu That Works

To use ADDRESMENU to load the font resource names into a menu I use the function GETMHANDLE ( line 39) to get a handle to the menu I want to add items to. In this case, I have already set up a ‘Font’ menu with a previous menu statement ( line 30). (Sorry, you’ll have to count lines yourself). The FontMenuHandle& variable now contains the handle to the font menu. FontMenuHandle& is used in the call to ADDRESMENU ( line 40). The resource type for the ADDRESMENU call is represented by CVI(“FONT”) as shown by looking on page E-201 of the new ZBasic manual in the ‘Alphabetical Listing of Toolbox Terms’. There is no more confusion on what kind of parameter needs to be used in a toolbox call; just look up the terms if you need help. OK, now the ‘Font’ menu is set up.

Finding the application

Next the program sets up the string resource that will be used to store the font and size. In my first attempt, I tried using the global memory location CurApRefNum found on page E-198 to get a RefNum to use in resource statements to indicate the resource file that I wanted to use (in this case, I wanted to use the application itself). BUT ZBasic opens up the printer driver automatically for you when the application is launched and CurApRefNum turns out to be the reference number for the printer driver and not the application. The program worked fine under those conditions, but the string was being saved in the printer driver resource and not in the ZBasic application. If you recall, I complained about the printer driver opening up several months back when we discussed ZBasic printing. This could have led to a real problem except that I found that the global memory location CurApName still contained the name of the application. WHEW! If not for this, ZBasic would be branded as not being able to find its own application (in case somebody changes the name or location of the application). Lines 42-47 get the application name from CurApName.

Next the application resource file is opened with OPENRESFILE and the file reference number is returned. Lines 51-57 were added for error handling just in case something goes wrong although these lines will probably never have to be used. Lines 60-67 setup the string (‘STR ’) resource. If the string resource handle strHnd& is zero then the resource does not exist and is created with ID#=1000. Otherwise the handle strHnd& will refer to the string stored previously (the last time the application was run). This string resource must now be converted to a ZBasic string variable and converted into font and size information (Lines 69-72). The function I call ReturnString$ is defined in lines 14-20 and reads the string referred to by the handle strHnd& into the string variable returned by the function.

Menu Items

The next several lines determine which menu item matches the set up that has just been read in and checks the appropriate item. The items were searched by using the GETITEM toolbox call. Then in line 91 the font number which matches the font name is read using GETFNUM and the font and size can now be set with ZBasic’s TEXT statement. A NOTE HERE: I tried CALL TEXTFONT and CALL TEXTSIZE to change the font and size information but these commands did not work when BREAK ON was being used. By removing BREAK ON everything seemed ok. This apparent bug could give somebody a few headaches someday. I recommend that you use the TEXT statement because it works better and sets the font, size, face, and mode in one statement. This still doesn’t excuse Zedcor from eventually fixing this bug.

Dialog Statement Fixed

The remainder of the program handles the menu events. There are a few more comments about event processing. Several months back, I showed how to use ZBasic DIALOG statements (not used in this month’s program). At that time, ZBasic did not quite function properly. There are a few corrections that should be made to the dialog example program published in the January 1987 MacTutor. The new improved program is printed in the new ZBasic manual on page E-68 as Example 1 for the DIALOG statement. The old program will bomb with version 4.0. The reason is that the DIALOG ON/OFF statements must each have an ON DIALOG statement to tell the compiler where the DIALOG events will be handled. What counts is that it now works wonderfully!! IF you are having problems with implementing DIALOG statements then be sure hat the DIALOG ON/OFF statement includes the portion of the program that you wish to trap dialog events and that there is a ON DIALOG statement to go with it.

As you can see, the main event loop (lines 97-102) is the only part of the program that will allow events to control the program. During the remainder of the program, events will be held in queue until the program returns to the main loop. Event trapping in ZBasic works differently than in MSBasic because of the way it is compiled. I (almost) like to think of the DIALOG ON/OFF, MENU ON/OFF, BREAK ON/OFF and other event statements to be compiler directives rather than Basic commands because they actually instruct the compiler as to which parts of the code the event trapping will occur.

SELECT CASE is a welcome improvement when it comes to handling menu events. The code is really easier to write (and to read later).

That about wraps it up for this time. Have FUN!!

REM ZBASIC RESOURCE EXAMPLE
REM ©MacTutor 1987
REM By Dave Kelly
REM IMPORTANT: COMPILE THIS PROGRAM AS
REM AN APPLICATION BEFORE RUNNING!!
REM Resources are used which need to be
REM written to application’s own resource file

WINDOW OFF:REM Turn off default window
BREAK ON :REM This line may be deleted after program           debugged.
DEFSTR LONG:DEF MOUSE=-1:COORDINATE WINDOW

REM convert string resource to a string, given handle.
LONG FN ReturnString$(SHndl&)
FByte%=PEEK(PEEK LONG(SHndl&))
String$=””
FOR i%=1 TO FByte%
  String$=String$+CHR$(PEEK(PEEK LONG(SHndl&)+i%))
NEXT i%
END FN= String$

WINDOW #1,””,(50,100)-(450,300),4 : REM Main window.
False=0:True=NOT(False)
OldFont=0:OldSize=12
REM Setup menus
APPLE MENU “About this application ”
MENU 1,0,1,”File”
MENU 1,1,1,”Quit”
EDIT MENU 2
MENU 3,0,1,”Font”
MENU 4,0,1,”Size”
MENU 4,1,1,”9 Point”
MENU 4,2,1,”10 Point”
MENU 4,3,1,”12 Point”
MENU 4,4,1,”14 Point”
MENU 4,5,1,”18 Point”
MENU 4,6,1,”24 Point”
SizeMenuHandle&=FN GETMHANDLE(4)
FontMenuHandle&=FN GETMHANDLE(3)
CALL ADDRESMENU(FontMenuHandle&,CVI(“FONT”))

REM Find out what this application is named 
CurApName=&H910
CurApName$=””
FOR I=1 TO PEEK(CurApName)
 CurApName$=CurApName$+CHR$(PEEK(CurApName+I))
NEXT I

REM Open application resource file
Refnum=FN OPENRESFILE(CurApName$)
Errnum=FN RESERROR
LONG IF Errnum<>0 
BEEP
PRINT “ERROR # “;Errnum
PRINT”Problem with Application Resource File!”
FOR I=1 TO 1000:NEXT I:END
END IF
StrHnd&=FN GETRESOURCE(CVI(“STR “),1000)

REM Setting up string resource to save default font and size
LONG IF StrHnd&=0
 Str$=”Chicago.12"
 StrHnd&=FN NEWSTRING(Str$)
 CALL ADDRESOURCE(StrHnd&,CVI(“STR “),1000,””)
XELSE
 StrHnd&=FN GETSTRING(1000)
END IF

REM Convert default font and size
default$=FN ReturnString$(StrHnd&)
defaultfont$=MID$(default$,1,INSTR(1,default$,”.”)-1)
Fsize=VAL(MID$(default$,INSTR(1,default$,”.”)+1))

REM Check default font in Font menu
fontcnt%=FN COUNTMITEMS(FontMenuHandle&)
FOR i=1 TO fontcnt%
 CALL GETITEM(FontMenuHandle&,i,item$)
 IF item$=defaultfont$ THEN OldFont=i:i=fontcnt%+1
NEXT i
CALL CHECKITEM(FontMenuHandle&,OldFont,True)

REM Check default size in Size menu
sizecnt%=FN COUNTMITEMS(FontMenuHandle&)
FOR i=1 TO sizecnt%
 CALL GETITEM(SizeMenuHandle&,i,item$)
 sname$=MID$(STR$(Fsize),2)+” Point”
 IF item$=sname$ THEN OldSize=i:i=sizecnt%+1
NEXT i
CALL CHECKITEM(SizeMenuHandle&,OldSize,True)

CALL GETFNUM(defaultfont$,Fnum%)
TEXT Fnum%,Fsize,0,0
GOSUB “Display”
ON MENU GOSUB “MenuEvent”
FLUSHEVENTS:MENU ON

REM Loop here until something happens
“Loop”
DO
UNTIL 0
MENU STOP
END

“MenuEvent”
Menunumber=MENU(0):Menuitem=MENU(1)
MENU
SELECT Menunumber
 CASE 1
 GOSUB “File”
 CASE 2
 GOSUB “Edit”
 CASE 3
 GOSUB”Font”
 CASE 4
 GOSUB”Size”
 CASE 255
 IF Menuitem=1 THEN GOSUB “About”
 GOSUB “Display”
 CASE ELSE
END SELECT
RETURN

“About” :REM About menu
WINDOW #2,””,(75,100)-(400,250),-2
TEXT 2,14,1,0
PRINT
PRINT SPACE$(11);”ZBasic™ Resource Sample”
PRINT
TEXT 2,12,0,0
PRINT SPACE$(15);”©MacTutor, 1987 by Dave Kelly”
PRINT
PRINT SPACE$(12);”ZBasic™ Version 4.0 -  IT WORKS!!!!”
PRINT
MOUSE ON
DO
UNTIL MOUSE(0)<>0
MOUSE OFF
WINDOW CLOSE #2
GOSUB “Display”
RETURN
“File”
CALL UPDATERESFILE(RefNum)
END

“Edit”  : REM Edit menu - used for DA’s only
RETURN

“Font”  : REM Font menu
CALL CHECKITEM(FontMenuHandle&,OldFont,False)
CALL GETITEM(FontMenuHandle&,Menuitem,FontName$)
CALL CHECKITEM(FontMenuHandle&,Menuitem,True)
CALL GETITEM(FontMenuHandle&,Menuitem,defaultfont$)
CALL GETFNUM(defaultfont$,Fnum%)
IF Menuitem<>OldFont GOSUB “SetResString”
OldFont=Menuitem
GOSUB “Display”
RETURN

“Size” : REM Size menu
CALL CHECKITEM(SizeMenuHandle&,OldSize,False)
CALL CHECKITEM(SizeMenuHandle&,Menuitem,True)
SELECT Menuitem
 CASE 1
 Fsize=9
 CASE 2
 Fsize=10
 CASE 3
 Fsize=12
 CASE 4
 Fsize=14
 CASE 5
 Fsize=18
 CASE 6
 Fsize=24
END SELECT
IF Menuitem<>OldSize GOSUB “SetResString”
OldSize=Menuitem
GOSUB “Display”
RETURN

REM Set string to be saved in string resource
“SetResString”
default$=defaultfont$+”.”+MID$(STR$(Fsize),2)
CALL SETSTRING(StrHnd&,default$)
CALL CHANGEDRESOURCE(StrHnd&)
RETURN

“Display” :REM Main screen display
TEXT Fnum%,Fsize,0,0
CLS 
PRINT “FONT:”;defaultfont$
PRINT “SIZE:”;Fsize
PRINT
TEXT ,,1,0
MacTutor$=”Read MacTutor™ !!”
REM Center MacTutor string
Pxls%=FN STRINGWIDTH(MacTutor$)
Windwidth%=WINDOW(6)
CALL MOVE((Windwidth%-Pxls%)/2,0)
PRINT MacTutor$
RETURN
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Dropbox 193.4.5594 - Cloud backup and sy...
Dropbox is a file hosting service that provides cloud storage, file synchronization, personal cloud, and client software. It is a modern workspace that allows you to get to all of your files, manage... Read more
Google Chrome 122.0.6261.57 - Modern and...
Google Chrome is a Web browser by Google, created to be a modern platform for Web pages and applications. It utilizes very fast loading of Web pages and has a V8 engine, which is a custom built... Read more
Skype 8.113.0.210 - Voice-over-internet...
Skype is a telecommunications app that provides HD video calls, instant messaging, calling to any phone number or landline, and Skype for Business for productive cooperation on the projects. This... Read more
Tor Browser 13.0.10 - Anonymize Web brow...
Using Tor Browser you can protect yourself against tracking, surveillance, and censorship. Tor was originally designed, implemented, and deployed as a third-generation onion-routing project of the U.... Read more
Deeper 3.0.4 - Enable hidden features in...
Deeper is a personalization utility for macOS which allows you to enable and disable the hidden functions of the Finder, Dock, QuickTime, Safari, iTunes, login window, Spotlight, and many of Apple's... Read more
OnyX 4.5.5 - Maintenance and optimizatio...
OnyX is a multifunction utility that you can use to verify the startup disk and the structure of its system files, to run miscellaneous maintenance and cleaning tasks, to configure parameters in the... Read more
Hopper Disassembler 5.14.1 - Binary disa...
Hopper Disassembler is a binary disassembler, decompiler, and debugger for 32- and 64-bit executables. It will let you disassemble any binary you want, and provide you all the information about its... Read more
WhatsApp 24.3.78 - Desktop client for Wh...
WhatsApp is the desktop client for WhatsApp Messenger, a cross-platform mobile messaging app which allows you to exchange messages without having to pay for SMS. WhatsApp Messenger is available for... Read more
War Thunder 2.33.0.135 - Multiplayer war...
In War Thunder, aircraft, attack helicopters, ground forces and naval ships collaborate in realistic competitive battles. You can choose from over 1,500 vehicles and an extensive variety of combat... Read more
Iridient Developer 4.2 - Powerful image-...
Iridient Developer (was RAW Developer) is a powerful image-conversion application designed specifically for OS X. Iridient Developer gives advanced photographers total control over every aspect of... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

A Legitimate Massage Parlor, I Swear – T...
In this week’s Episode of The TouchArcade Show we talk about some of the major new releases on mobile this week including Warframe, we go over all the major news that came out from the Nintendo Direct Partner Showcase on Wednesday, we read our one... | Read more »
TouchArcade Game of the Week: ‘Rainbow S...
I feel like I am in a fever dream right now. What is this game that I’m playing? It’s a Rainbow Six game? But it’s all cutesy, and cartoony, and also kind of psychedelic? How is this a real thing? Well, it’s no fever dream, it is indeed a real thing... | Read more »
SwitchArcade Round-Up: ‘Promenade’, ‘Cho...
Hello gentle readers, and welcome to the SwitchArcade Round-Up for February 23rd, 2024. It’s Friday, so we have to check out the remaining releases of the week. Not so many big ones today, but a healthy crop nonetheless. After summarizing all the... | Read more »
Steam Deck Weekly: Gundam Breaker 4 and...
Welcome to this week’s slightly shorter edition of the Steam Deck Weekly. I was a bit unwell this week so no reviews in this edition, but there is a lot of news and new Steam Deck Verified and Playable games to catch up on. I have something special... | Read more »
The 10 Best Run-And-Gun Games for Ninten...
The year 2024 is a rare one, because it is a year with a brand-new Contra game. Contra: Operation Galuga might be the freshest face on the block when it comes to Nintendo Switch run-and-gun action games, but it’s hardly fighting that war alone.... | Read more »
Version 1.4 of Reverse: 1999 will be lan...
Free up your diary for February 29th, as Bluepoch has announced the impending release of the award-winning Reverse: 1999s Version 1.4 update. The Prisoner in the Cave is an Ancient Greece-themed update with new recruits, gameplay modes, and plenty... | Read more »
Premium Mobile RPG ‘Ex Astris’ From ‘Ark...
Arknights developer Hypergryph’s premium RPG Ex Astris () recently had its release date confirmed, and we finally have an extended gameplay showcase. | Read more »
Apple Arcade Weekly Round-Up: Updates fo...
Following yesterday’s big Hello Kitty Island Adventure update, a few more notable game updates and events have gone live on Apple Arcade. Cypher 007 () has gotten its first content update in a few months taking you to Egypt for five new levels... | Read more »
‘Thunder Ray’ and ‘Hime’s Quest’ Are Now...
Crunchyroll has pushed two new games into the Crunchyroll Game Vault including Purple Tree Studio’s Thunder Ray which was already on iOS before as a premium release. Shaun even reviewed it last year. Read his review here. The second game is Poppy... | Read more »
Adorable Kitty-Collector Sequel ‘Neko At...
Ya’ll. This October will mark the ten-year anniversary of Hit Point launching Neko Atsume, the adorable kitty collecting sim that has become a runaway success and essentially created a sub-genre of cozy pet-collecting life sim games. Sure, the... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

16-inch M3 Max MacBook Pro on sale for $300 o...
Amazon is offering a $300 instant discount on one of Apple’s 16″ M3 Max MacBook Pros today. Shipping is free: – 16″ M3 Max MacBook Pros (36GB/1TB/Space Black): $3199, $300 off MSRP Their price is the... Read more
Apple M2 Mac minis on sale for $100 off MSRP...
B&H Photo has Apple’s M2-powered Mac minis in stock and on sale for $100 off MSRP this weekend with prices available starting at $499. Free 1-2 day shipping is available to most US addresses: –... Read more
Apple Watch SE on sale for $50 off MSRP this...
Best Buy has all Apple Watch SE models on sale this weekend for $50 off MSRP on their online store. Sale prices available for online orders only, in-store prices may vary. Order online, and choose... Read more
Deal Alert! Apple 15-inch M2 MacBook Airs on...
Looking for the lowest sale price on a new 15″ M2 MacBook Air? Best Buy has Apple 15″ MacBook Airs with M2 CPUs in stock and on sale today for $300 off MSRP on their online store. Prices valid for... Read more
Amazon discounts iPad mini 6 models up to $12...
Amazon is offering Apple’s 8.3″ WiFi iPad minis for $100-$120 off MSRP, including free shipping, for a limited time. Prices start at $399. Amazon’s prices are among the lowest currently available for... Read more
Apple AirPods Pro with USB-C discounted to $1...
Walmart has Apple’s 2023 AirPods Pro with USB-C in stock and on sale for $199.99 on their online store. Their price is $50 off MSRP, and it’s currently one the lowest prices available for new AirPods... Read more
Apple has 14-inch M3 MacBook Pro with 16GB of...
Apple has 14″ M3 MacBook Pros with 16GB of RAM, Certified Refurbished, available for $270-$300 off MSRP. Each model features a new outer case, shipping is free, and an Apple 1-year warranty is... Read more
Save $318-$432 on 16-inch M3 Max MacBook Pros...
Apple retailer Expercom has 16″ M3 Max MacBook Pros on sale for $318-$432 off MSRP when bundled with a 3-year AppleCare+ Protection Plan. Discounts are available for Silver models as well a Space... Read more
New today at Apple: 16-inch M3 Pro/M3 Max Mac...
Apple is now offering 16″ M3 Pro and M3 Max MacBook Pros, Certified Refurbished, starting at $2119 and ranging up to $530 off MSRP. Each model features a new outer case, shipping is free, and an... Read more
Apple is now offering $300-$480 discounts on...
Apple is now offering 14″ M3 Pro and M3 Max MacBook Pros, Certified Refurbished, starting at $1699 and ranging up to $480 off MSRP. Each model features a new outer case, shipping is free, and an... Read more

Jobs Board

Part-time *Apple* and Peach Research Assist...
…and minimum qualifications: + Assist with planting, pruning, and harvesting of apple and peach trees + Conduct regular maintenance tasks to ensure optimal Read more
Housekeeper, *Apple* Valley Villa - Cassia...
Apple Valley Villa, part of a senior living community, is hiring entry-level Full-Time Housekeepers to join our team! We will train you for this position and offer a Read more
Sublease Associate Optometrist- *Apple* Val...
Sublease Associate Optometrist- Apple Valley, CA- Target Optical Date: Feb 22, 2024 Brand: Target Optical Location: Apple Valley, CA, US, 92307 **Requisition Read more
Sublease Associate Optometrist- *Apple* Val...
Sublease Associate Optometrist- Apple Valley, CA- Target Optical Date: Jan 24, 2024 Brand: Target Optical Location: Apple Valley, CA, US, 92307 **Requisition Read more
Housekeeper, *Apple* Valley Village - Cassi...
Apple Valley Village Health Care Center, a senior care campus, is hiring a Part-Time Housekeeper to join our team! We will train you for this position! In this role, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.