TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Color Capable
Volume Number:3
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:Macintosh II

Lazy Man's Color

By Steven Sheets, Hoffman Estates, IL

Newsbreak....Cupertino, Calif.....Color is here!

The new Macintosh // computer has color capabilities. Most color video cards will allow up to 256 specific colors out of a possible color palatte of 16,777,216 selections. A new Color Quickdraw has been designed with Color Tables, Pixel Maps, Pixel Patterns, Color Icons, Color Grafports and Color Picture Handles to work with the new machine. Three new Managers have been added to facilitate color; the Color Manager, the Color Picker Package and the Palette Manager.

Are you ready to program with this new Color Quickdraw?

Before you answer that, did you know there was an alternative way to display color on the Mac? Use the old Quickdraw color routine! You didn’t know the older Quickdraw had color? Well...

Old Color

The original Macintosh displays were in black & white. 21,888 bytes of memory were used to display the normal 512 by 342 pixel screen (1 bit per pixel). However, the original Quickdraw had the capability to draw in color. In the original Grafport record, there were 2 fields (fgColor and bkColor) that determined the settings of the Foreground and Background color.

Quickdraw predefined 8 colors (Black, White, Red, Green, Blue, Cyan, Magenta and Yellow). Each color had a long integer constant associated with it. By passing these constants to the procedures ForeColor and BackColor, the respective fields of the current Grafport were changed. When any Grafport was created, the default settings for the Foreground and Background were Black and White respectively.

Color fields were treated similar to the more often used Pen Pattern (pnPat) and Background Pattern (bkPat). Any drawing by the Pen was done in the Foreground color, any Erasing was done in the Background color. Also Foreground and Background color affect the Copybits call. When copying a bitmap onto a Grafport, any bit that was set in the source Bitmap would make the corresponding pixel appear in the Foreground color on the Grafport. Any unset bit would make the pixel appear in the Background color.

However on the black and white Macintosh, any color other than white appears as black. Thus drawing Red on White, Blue on White, or even Yellow on White has the same effect on the Pre-Mac // computers; Black on White. Interestingly the Imagewriter // printer driver does use the color commands, thus making the Imagewriter // with a color ribbon the first color Macintosh output device of any type. While the new Mac // also has the new Color Quickdraw commands, it also supports the old commands, including the use of Foreground and Background color.

Fig. 1 Our program uses classic color options

Why Use Old?

There are several reasons for not wanting to use Color Quickdraw for your first color program. It might prove simpler, until you get a handle on Color Quickdraw (and the three associated managers), to use the older Quickdraw routines. Color Quickdraw involves new conceptional models, new data structures, and new routines. While it is well worth the effort to learn (the graphic effects are stunning), there is a stiff learning curve.

The Color Quickdraw manual is even larger than the original Quickdraw manual. That is assuming that you have the new documentation. Inside Macintosh Vol. V is due out soon, but unless you currently have a beta version, you will have to wait for APDA’s final release.

Even if you have the new documentation and routines, your development system may not implement the new ROM calls. Lightspeed C, Lightspeed Pascal, MDS do not support the new Quickdraw, while MPW has to be updated to version 2.0. Many programmers will have to wait until the developers of their programming language come out with a new update until they can use the new routines. Some lucky users can input all the new calls themselves and do not need the updates. That means typing in dozens of new calls and data structures (again assuming they have the documentation). Lucky them! [Apple is still working on the equates file and rumor has it the Pallette Manager is still changing. -Ed]

Finally there is the actual code size and time in involved programming the new Quickdraw. Color Quickdraw does take more code to implement and it’s data structures are larger. The simple ForeColor and BackColor routines take very little code space.

Certainly Color Quickdraw should be used if someone is writing a color Drawing program for the Mac //. But if you only wish to add color to your existing programs, using Color Quickdraw requires you to rewrite your code, redo your graphics and in some cases, even redo your complicated bitmaps. Placing ForeColor and BackColor calls before your existing code segments is much simpler. If your Program is intended to run on any Macintosh, the older Quickdraw may be all you need or want to produce color.

The Code

The source example is an extremely simple, standard Macintosh program. It loads and displays any MacPaint document in any of the eight Foreground and eight Background colors. A few notes:

1) The CWindow (which will display the MacPaint document) is centered on large screens (like a SuperMac monitor) or placed in the offset position.

2) The actual picture is stored in two sets of Bitmaps and Data handles. Data is stored this way since the size of a MacPaint bitmap is too large to store in 1 set (32K limit). If there is not enough memory to create the bitmaps, the program will state this and not allow a MacPaint document to be loaded

3) ForeC and BackC store the selected menu number (1-8), not the predefined Color constant. GetColor is used to convert the menu number into the color constant.

4) DoColor is the pivotal procedure; it sets the new Foreground/Background colors. Then it causes an window update so the window is redrawn in the new colors.

{Lazy Man’s Color by Steve Sheets 4/20/87 }
{Simple Demonstration of Mac // Color using the 
{ForeColor & BackColor of classical Quickdraw. }
{This program Loads and displays a MacPaint document }
(in any 2 colors.}


{Various Constants:Menu ID Numbers, Window Size, }
{Window Placement, BitMap Size and Number of Colors. }
 AppleMenuID = 300;
 FileMenuID = 301;
 EditMenuID = 302;
 ForeMenuID = 303;
 BackMenuID = 304;

 OffV = 40;
 OffH = 40;
 AboutH = 300;
 AboutV = 140;
 SizeH = 576;
 SizeV1 = 360;
 SizeV2 = 720;
 BitW = 72;
 NumSec = 2;

 XColor = 8;

{Various Variables:Menus, Bitmaps, Window, Colors, }
{Done Flag & Title Name }
 Done : boolean;
 AppleMenu, FileMenu: EditMenu, 
 ForeMenu, BackMenu : MenuHandle;

 CWindow : windowptr;
 CMap : ARRAY[1..NumSec] OF bitmap;
 CData : ARRAY[1..NumSec] OF handle;

 ForeC, BackC : integer;
 Title : str255;

{Given Color Number ( 1 to XColor, as selected by Menu), }
{returns actual longint Color Number (for ForeColor or }
{BackColor). }
FUNCTION GetColor (N : integer) : longint;
 1 : 
 GetColor := BlackColor;
 2 : 
 GetColor := WhiteColor;
 3 : 
 GetColor := RedColor;
 4 : 
 GetColor := GreenColor;
 5 : 
 GetColor := BlueColor;
 6 : 
 GetColor := CyanColor;
 7 : 
 GetColor := MagentaColor;
 8 : 
 GetColor := YellowColor;
 GetColor := WhiteColor;

{Sets new ForeColor & BackColor and forces an Update} 
{so Window is redrawn in the new colors. }
PROCEDURE DoColor (F, B : integer);
 count : integer;
 tempPort : Grafptr;
 IF F <> ForeC THEN
 FOR count := 1 TO XColor DO
 CheckItem(ForeMenu, count, count = F);
 ForeC := F;
 IF B <> BackC THEN
 FOR count := 1 TO XColor DO
 CheckItem(BackMenu, count, count = B);
 BackC := B;

{ Loads MacPaint Picture in Bitmaps and displays it.}
 diskBlock = PACKED ARRAY[1..512] OF QDbyte;
 MyReply : SFReply;
 MyType : SFtypelist;
 tempPoint : point;
 count : longint;
 refNum, scanline, N : integer;
 error : OSErr;
 srcBuf : ARRAY[1..2] OF diskBlock;
 srcPtr, dstPtr : Ptr;
 tempPoint.v := 60;
 tempPoint.h := 60;
 MyType[0] := ‘PNTG’;
 SFGetFile(tempPoint, ‘’, NIL, 1, MyType, NIL, MyReply);
 IF MyReply.good THEN
 IF FSOpen(MyReply.fname, MyReply.vrefnum, refNum) = noErr THEN
 count := 512;
 error := FSRead(refNum, count, @srcBuf);
 count := 1024;
 error := FSRead(refNum, count, @srcBuf);
 srcPtr := @srcBuf;
 FOR N := 1 TO NumSec DO
 dstPtr := CData[N]^;
 FOR scanline := 1 TO SizeV1 DO
 UnpackBits(srcPtr, dstPtr, BitW);
 IF ord(srcPtr) > (ord(@srcBuf) + 512) THEN
 srcBuf[1] := srcBuf[2];
 count := 512;
 error := FSRead(refNum, count, @srcBuf[2]);
 srcPtr := pointer(ord(srcPtr) - 512);
 error := FSClose(refNum);
 DoColor(ForeC, BackC);

{Creates a Rectangle centered on Screen (if window }
{size is smaller then the screen) or starting at a }
{standard offset (if window size is larger then }
{screen). }
PROCEDURE CenterRect (VAR R : rect;
 H, V : integer);
 tempH : integer;
 IF H > Screenbits.bounds.right THEN
 tempH := OffH
 tempH := ((Screenbits.bounds.right - H) DIV 2);
 SetRect(R, tempH, OffV, H + tempH, V + OffV);

{Draws text, centered in a rectangle in the About}
{  Box window in a certain color with a certain }
{justification }
PROCEDURE DoLine (S : str255;
 H, Top, Bottom, J : integer;
 C : longint);
 tempInteger : integer;
 tempRect : rect;
 tempInteger := ((AboutH - H) DIV 2);
 SetRect(tempRect, tempInteger, Top, tempInteger + H, Bottom);
 TextBox(POINTER(ord(@S) + 1), LENGTH(S), tempRect, J);

{Displays About Box (in color) until someone presses } 
{the button down.}
 tempWindow : windowptr;
 tempRect : rect;
 tempStr : str255;
 CenterRect(tempRect, AboutH, AboutV);
 tempWindow := NewWindow(NIL, tempRect, ‘’, true, dBoxProc, POINTER(-1), 
false, 0);

 DoLine(CONCAT(Title, ‘ by Steve Sheets’), AboutH, 20, 39, teJustCenter, 
 DoLine(‘Sample Mac // Color Program’, AboutH, 40, 59, teJustCenter, 
 DoLine(‘This program uses the ForeColor and BackColor Quickdraw commands 
to display a MacPaint document in two colors.’, AboutH - 50, 60, AboutV, 
teJustLeft, RedColor);

 WHILE NOT button DO

{Standard main menu procedure that handles }
{menu selections.  Can show About Box, open Desk }
{Accessories, Load in MacPaint file, change }
{the Done Flag (so the program quits), handle} 
{edit commands (Cut,Copy,Paste,Clear), and change }
{Foreground or Background color of the picture.}
PROCEDURE MainMenu (tempResult : LONGINT);
 tempInteger : integer;
 tempBoolean : boolean;
 tempStr : STR255;
 tempInteger := LoWord(tempResult);
 CASE HiWord(tempResult) OF
 AppleMenuID : 
 IF tempInteger = 1 THEN
 GetItem(appleMenu, tempInteger, tempStr);
 tempInteger := OpenDeskAcc(tempStr);
 FileMenuID : 
 CASE tempInteger OF
 1 : 
 3 : 
 Done := true;
 EditMenuID : 
 tempBoolean := SystemEdit(tempInteger - 1);
 ForeMenuID : 
 IF (tempInteger > 0) AND (tempInteger <= XColor) THEN
 DoColor(tempInteger, BackC);
 BackMenuID : 
 IF (tempInteger > 0) AND (tempInteger <= XColor) THEN
 DoColor(ForeC, tempInteger);

{Setup for Menus, Window, Bitmaps,  Colors }
{settings, Title and Done flag.  }
 DD = PACKED ARRAY[1..32000] OF 0..255;
 PP = ^DD;
 HH = ^PP;
 tempStr : STR255;
 tempRect : rect;
 count : integer;
 tempLong : longint;
 tempH : HH;
 Title := ‘Lazy Man@s Color’;
 Title[9] := CHR(39);

 tempStr := ‘ ‘;
 tempStr[1] := CHR(appleMark);
 AppleMenu := NewMenu(AppleMenuID, tempStr);
 AppendMenu(AppleMenu, CONCAT(‘About ‘, Title, ‘...;(-’));
 AddResMenu(AppleMenu, ‘DRVR’);

 FileMenu := NewMenu(FileMenuID, ‘File’);
 AppendMenu(FileMenu, ‘Load MacPaint Documents/L;(-;Quit/Q’);

 EditMenu := NewMenu(EditMenuID, ‘Edit’);
 AppendMenu(EditMenu, ‘Undo/Z;(-;Cut/X;Copy/C; Paste/V;Clear’);

 ForeMenu := NewMenu(ForeMenuID, ‘Set Foreground’);
 AppendMenu(ForeMenu, ‘Black;White;Red;Green;Blue; Cyan;Magenta;Yellow’);

 BackMenu := NewMenu(BackMenuID, ‘Set Background’);
 AppendMenu(BackMenu, ‘Black;White;Red;Green;Blue;Cyan; Magenta;Yellow’);

 InsertMenu(AppleMenu, 0);
 InsertMenu(FileMenu, 0);
 InsertMenu(EditMenu, 0);
 InsertMenu(ForeMenu, 0);
 InsertMenu(BackMenu, 0);


 CenterRect(tempRect, SizeH, SizeV2);
 CWindow := NewWindow(NIL, tempRect, Title, true, 4, POINTER(-1), false, 

 CMap[1].rowBytes := BitW;
 SetRect(CMap[1].bounds, 0, 0, SizeH, SizeV1);
 CData[1] := NewHandle(BitW * SizeV1);
 IF CData[1] <> NIL THEN
 tempH := HH(CData[1]);
 FOR count := 1 TO BitW * SizeV1 DO
 tempH^^[count] := 0;
 CMap[2].rowBytes := BitW;
 SetRect(CMap[2].bounds, 0, SizeV1, SizeH, SizeV2);
 CData[2] := NewHandle(BitW * SizeV1);
 IF CData[2] <> NIL THEN
 tempH := HH(CData[2]);
 FOR count := 1 TO BitW * SizeV1 DO
 tempH^^[count] := 0;
 IF (CData[1] = NIL) OR (CData[2] = NIL) THEN
 SetWTitle(CWindow, ‘Not Enough Memmory’);
 DisableItem(FileMenu, 1);
 ForeC := 0;
 BackC := 0;
 DoColor(1, 2);
 Done := false;

{Standard main program loop that handles all }
{events (ie. mouse down, key downs & updates) until }
{the Done flag is set.  }
 tempEvent : EventRecord;
 tempWindow : windowptr;
 tempCode : integer;
 tempPort : Grafptr;
 tempRect : rect;
 IF GetNextEvent(everyEvent, tempEvent) THEN
 CASE tempEvent.what OF
 mouseDown : 
 tempCode := FindWindow(tempEvent.where, tempWindow);
 CASE tempCode OF
 inDrag, inContent : 
 IF tempWindow <> FrontWindow THEN
 IF Cwindow = tempWindow THEN
 IF CWindow <> FrontWindow THEN
 SetRect(tempRect, -25000, -25000, 25000, 25000);
 DragWindow(CWindow, tempEvent.where, tempRect);
 inMenuBar : 
 inSysWindow : 
 SystemClick(tempEvent, tempWindow);
 END; { of tempCode case }
 END; { of mouseDown }
 keydown, autoKey : 
 IF BitAnd(tempEvent.modifiers, cmdKey) <> 0 THEN
 MainMenu(MenuKey(CHR(tempEvent.message MOD 256)));
 updateEvt : 
 IF CWindow = WindowPtr(tempEvent.message) THEN
 IF CData[1] <> NIL THEN
 CMap[1].baseAddr := CData[1]^;
 CopyBits(CMap[1], CWindow^.portBits, CMap[1].bounds, CMap[1].bounds, 
srcCopy, NIL);
 IF CData[2] <> NIL THEN
 CMap[2].baseAddr := CData[2]^;
 CopyBits(CMap[2], CWindow^.portBits, CMap[2].bounds, CMap[2].bounds, 
srcCopy, NIL);
 UNTIL Done;

{***PROGRAM*** }

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Viber 11.9.1 - Send messages and make fr...
Viber lets you send free messages and make free calls to other Viber users, on any device and network, in any country! Viber syncs your contacts, messages and call history with your mobile device, so... Read more
Vallum 3.3.2 - $15.00
Vallum is a little tool that helps you monitor and block apps connections and throttle apps bandwidth. It is able to intercept connections at the application layer, and hold them while you decide... Read more
Microsoft OneNote 16.31 - Free digital n...
OneNote is your very own digital notebook. With OneNote, you can capture that flash of genius, that moment of inspiration, or that list of errands that's too important to forget. Whether you're at... Read more
Apple Pages 8.2.1 - Apple's word pr...
Apple Pages is a powerful word processor that gives you everything you need to create documents that look beautiful. And read beautifully. It lets you work seamlessly between Mac and iOS devices, and... Read more
Numbers 6.2.1 - Apple's spreadsheet...
With Apple Numbers, sophisticated spreadsheets are just the start. The whole sheet is your canvas. Just add dramatic interactive charts, tables, and images that paint a revealing picture of your data... Read more
f.lux 39.9873 - Adjusts the color of you...
f.lux makes the color of your computer's display adapt to the time of day, warm at night and like sunlight during the day. Ever notice how people texting at night have that eerie blue glow? Or wake... Read more
Deeper 2.5.0 - Enable hidden features in...
Deeper is a personalization utility for macOS which allows you to enable and disable the hidden functions of the Finder, Dock, QuickTime, Safari, iTunes, login window, Spotlight, and many of Apple's... Read more
NTFS 15.5.71 - Provides full read and wr...
NTFS breaks down the barriers between Windows and macOS. Paragon NTFS effectively solves the communication problems between the Mac system and NTFS. Write, edit, copy, move, delete files on NTFS... Read more
MTR - The Mac's oldest and...
MTR (was MacTheRipper)--the Mac's oldest and smartest DVD-backup app. MTR - the complete toolbox, not a one-trick, point-and-click extractor. MTR is intended for making fair-use, backup copies of... Read more
Keynote 9.2.1 - Apple's presentatio...
Easily create gorgeous presentations with the all-new Keynote, featuring powerful yet easy-to-use tools and dazzling effects that will make you a very hard act to follow. The Theme Chooser lets you... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Black Desert Mobile gets an official rel...
Pearl Abyss has just announced that its highly-anticipated MMO, Black Desert Mobile, will launch globally for iOS and Android on December 11th. [Read more] | Read more »
Another Eden receives new a episode, cha...
Another Eden, WFS' popular RPG, has received another update that brings new story content to the game alongside a few new heroes to discover. [Read more] | Read more »
Overdox guide - Tips and tricks for begi...
Overdox is a clever battle royale that changes things up by adding MOBA mechanics and melee combat to the mix. This new hybrid game can be quite a bit to take in at first, so we’ve put together a list of tips to help you get a leg up on the... | Read more »
Roterra Extreme - Great Escape is a pers...
Roterra Extreme – Great Escape has been described by developers Dig-It Games as a mini-sequel to their acclaimed title Roterra: Flip the Fairytale. It continues that game's tradition of messing with which way is up, tasking you with solving... | Read more »
Hearthstone: Battlegrounds open beta lau...
Remember earlier this year when auto battlers were the latest hotness? We had Auto Chess, DOTA Underlords, Chess Rush, and more all gunning for our attention. They all had their own reasons to play, but, at least from where I'm standing, most... | Read more »
The House of Da Vinci 2 gets a new gamep...
The House of Da Vinci launched all the way back in 2017. Now, developer Blue Brain Games is gearing up to deliver a second dose of The Room-inspired puzzling. Some fresh details have now emerged, alongside the game's first official trailer. [Read... | Read more »
Shoot 'em up action awaits in Battl...
BattleBrew Productions has just introduced another entry into its award winning, barrelpunk inspired, BattleSky Brigade series. Whilst its previous title BattleSky Brigade TapTap provided fans with idle town building gameplay, this time the... | Read more »
Arcade classic R-Type Dimensions EX blas...
If you're a long time fan of shmups and have been looking for something to play lately, Tozai Games may have just released an ideal game for you on iOS. R-Type Dimensions EX brings the first R-Type and its sequel to iOS devices. [Read more] | Read more »
Intense VR first-person shooter Colonicl...
Our latest VR obsession is Colonicle, an intense VR FPS, recently released on Oculus and Google Play, courtesy of From Fake Eyes and Goboogie Games. It's a pulse-pounding multiplayer shooter which should appeal to genre fanatics and newcomers alike... | Read more »
PUBG Mobile's incoming update bring...
PUGB Mobile's newest Royale Pass season they're calling Fury of the Wasteland arrives tomorrow and with it comes a fair chunk of new content to the game. We'll be seeing a new map, weapon and even a companion system. [Read more] | Read more »

Price Scanner via

New 2019 16″ MacBook Pros on sale for $100 of...
Apple Authorized Reseller Adorama has new 2019 16″ MacBook Pros on sale today for $100 off Apple’s MSRP, each including free shipping. In addition, Adorama charges sales tax for NY & NJ residents... Read more
Apple Watch Series 3 GPS models on sale for l...
Amazon has Apple Watch Series 3 GPS models on sale starting at only $179. There prices are the lowest we’ve ever seen for these models from any Apple reseller. Choose Amazon as the seller rather than... Read more
iOS Bug In Facebook News Feed Lets Device Ca...
NEWS: 11.15.19- Users of the Facebook social media platform’s mobile app running on iOS devices won’t, like, this piece of news one bit in where a bug in the News Feed gave access to the camera... Read more
16″ MacBook Pros on sale! Preorder at Amazon...
Apple’s new 16″ MacBook Pros were only introduced yesterday, but Amazon is already offering a $100 discount on preorders. Prices for the base 6-Core 16″ MacBook Pros start at $2299: – 2019 16″ 2.6GHz... Read more
Use our exclusive MacBook Price Trackers to f...
Our Apple award-winning MacBook price trackers are the best place to look for the best sales & lowest prices on new and clearance MacBook Airs and MacBook Pros–including Apple’s new 16″ MacBook... Read more
New November Verizon iPhone deal: Get an iPho...
Verizon has the 64GB iPhone Xr on sale for 50% off for a limited time, plus they will include a free $200 prepaid MasterCard and a free Amazon Echo Dot. That reduces their price for the 64GB iPhone... Read more
Apple cuts prices on clearance, refurbished 2...
Apple has clearance 2018 15″ 6-Core Touch Bar MacBook Pros, Certified Refurbished, now available starting at only $1829. Each model features a new outer case, shipping is free, and an Apple 1-year... Read more
Up to $450 price drop on clearance 15″ MacBoo...
B&H Photo has dropped prices Apple’s 2019 15″ 6-Core and 8-Core MacBook Pros by $400-$450 off original MSRP, starting at $1999, with free overnight shipping available to many addresses in the US... Read more
Here’s how to save $200 on Apple’s new 16″ Ma...
Apple has released details of their Education discount associated with the new 2019 16″ 6-Core and 8-Core MacBook Pros. Take $200 off the price of the new 8-Core model (now $2599) and $200 off the 16... Read more
Price drop! 2019 15″ 2.6GHz 6-Core MacBook Pr...
Focus Camera has dropped their price for clearance 2019 15″ 2.6GHz 6-Core Space Gray MacBook Pros by $400 to $1999 shipped. Apple’s original MSRP for this model was $2399. Focus charges sales tax for... Read more

Jobs Board

Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**746655BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Job Category:** Sales **Store NUmber or Department:** 002518-Atlantic Center-Store **Job Description:** Read more
*Apple* Mobility Pro - Best Buy (United Stat...
**744973BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobility Pro **Job Category:** Store Associates **Store NUmber or Department:** 000949-Rochester Hills-Store **Job Description:** Read more
AV Systems Engineer at *Apple* - Theorem, L...
Job Summary Apple Retail Technology is looking for an Audio Visual Systems Engineer to design and implement scalable, next-generation A/V solutions for Apple ?s Read more
Nurse Practitioner - Field Based (San Bernard...
Nurse Practitioner - Field Based (San Bernardino, CA, Apple Valley, Hesperia) **Location:** **United States** **New** **Requisition #:** PS30312 **Post Date:** 3 Read more
Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**746510BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Job Category:** Store Associates **Store NUmber or Department:** 001407-Milford-Store **Job Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.