TweetFollow Us on Twitter

OOP MacForth
Volume Number:3
Issue Number:2
Column Tag:OOPS in Forth

Object Oriented Programming for MacForth

By Paul Snively, Contributing Editor, ICOM Simulations, Inc.

OOPS.

They're getting to be all the rage.

The Macintosh design was based on one. There are several available for a wide variety of hardware. Some are OOPS through and through, others are just OO extensions to existing languages.

Welcome to OOPS, the column dedicated to Object-Oriented Programming Systems for the Macintosh .

It's hoped this column will evolve into a comprehensive look at object-oriented programming on the Macintosh. For now I will focus my efforts on two languages, one of which has had a vast impact on people's understanding of object-oriented programming and supports a tool that makes standard Mac user-interface support much easier. The other is only of interest to die-hard FORTH programming freaks like myself.

The first language is Object Pascal, and the second can be either Neon or ForthTalk. ForthTalk is a new product which I just received, and I already like it much more than I like Neon. We'll get into Object Pascal, either TML or MPW, next time.

ForthTalk

ForthTalk is a $55 extension to the MacFORTH programming language that adds capabilities to the system generally described as "flavors," a term I believe, if memory serves correctly, was borrowed from Common Lisp. (Incidentally, one of my pet peeves is that even object-oriented programmers don't seem able to agree on a standard terminology to describe their system's capabilities. I want to know exactly what is wrong with Smalltalk's terminology of Classes, Subclasses, Superclasses, Instances, and Methods. One answer, that few object-oriented languages offer multiple inheritance, and "flavors" provides an intuitive framework in which to discuss that capability, will be discussed in a moment).

ForthTalk is distributed on two disks. The first disk contains the tools to create the ForthTalk Kernel. These include the "Token Resizer" (for expanding the number of definitions that MacFORTH can handle) and the "ForthTalk Loader", along with a slightly reworked copy of the "FORTH Blocks" file and a copy of the standard MacFORTH block file editor. The second disk is the library disk. It contains the source code to the "Vanilla" flavor (analogous to Smalltalk's "Object" class) plus a few more useful flavors, source code to the tutorial in "Chapter 1," plus source code files to a couple of demos that aren't described step-by-step within the documentation.

ForthTalk is an extension to the current version of the MacFORTH kernel (which, as of this writing, is K2.4). This means you must be a licensee of MacFORTH K2.4 from CSI in order for ForthTalk to be of any use. Unfortunately ForthTalk does not appear to work with the Level 3 "Developer's version" of MacFORTH; working only with Level 2. Support is planned for CSI's new MacFORTH PLUS kernel.

Getting ForthTalk up and running is very simple. The author, Steve Lindner, apparently decided that MacFORTH's default limit of 500 tokens per program was not enough, so he provided a utility that allows MacFORTH programmers to use more tokens, the recommended number being 2000. This application is executed first to make room for the extensions, leaving some for user-written programs.

The ForthTalk Loader is then executed. This interesting piece of code is essentially a customized version of CSI's vocabulary librarian, which is included with the Level 2 MacFORTH system. Written by Ward McFarland, the FORTH code grabs the precompiled extensions from a couple of resources in the resource fork, neatly sidestepping the issue of how to distribute ForthTalk without distributing either the MacFORTH kernel or the source code to ForthTalk, which might prove damaging to InSite Computing. The ForthTalk Loader, having read in the extensions and attached them to the MacFORTH kernel, snapshots the kernel so that the extensions are a permanent addition to the kernel. The system then returns to the Finder.

That's all it takes to make a ForthTalk system. The remaining magic lies in the "Vanilla" file.

Vanilla contains the definitions of several useful flavors. The most obvious of these is Vanilla itself, the root flavor. Every other flavor is a subflavor of Vanilla. (Almost every other flavor. The exceptions are called mixins, and I'll get to them in a minute).

You're probably wondering "If this is the root flavor, why doesn't it get snapshotted into the kernel along with the flavor defining words?" The reason why is one of the few shortcomings of an otherwise fine system. In the current version of ForthTalk, flavors cannot be correctly snapshotted because they, or more accurately, their instances, exist as entities in the application heap, not in the FORTH dictionary. Furthermore, in many cases, the instance may point to an instance of another flavor, etc. Ultimately a snapshot utility will be written to deal with these unique requirements.

Having created the ForthTalk kernel, how is it used? The easiest thing to do first is simply double-click on the "Vanilla" file from the Finder. This will launch the ForthTalk kernel, load the "FORTH Blocks" file, and in turn the editor, and ultimately the "Vanilla" file.

You are now in a powerful object-oriented FORTH environment. The best thing to do now is to read Chapter One of the documentation. It is a simple, fun tutorial which, although simple in nature and objectives, covers everything from defining new flavors and methods to the important concept which sets this system apart from all others I have used: multiple inheritance.

A really basic data structure is always nice. So let's define an array, like this:

   FLAVOR Array Vanilla | 

Note: in ForthTalk, uppercase and lowercase are distinct. Make sure you case things consistently. In general, ForthTalk uses the convention that all uppercase words are "built-in" to the system, whereas mixed-case words were defined outside the kernel.

What have we done with the above line? We have created a new flavor called Array. It has Vanilla as a superflavor. The vertical line indicates that we are done defining the new flavor. Experience OOPS users are probably scratching their heads, wondering why you must explicitly tell the compiler when you are finished defining a new flavor. The answer is that with multiple inheritance, you can have more than one superflavor.

We've now defined a flavor called Array. What does it do? Nothing at this point. We need to tell it what kind of data structures and what kind of code make up an Array.

The tutorial opts to keep things simple and use a fixed-length array. In order not to distract from our discussion of object-oriented programming, I will do the same.

Let's make arrays to be big enough to contain ten longword (32-bit) values. We'll also need a way to keep track of how many of those ten elements are occupied.

Most OOPS call the data structures within their classes (or flavors, in ForthTalk) "instance variables" because they are unique for all instances of that class. ForthTalk is really no different, but it is different from most OOPS in not using instances of other flavors as instance variables. Instead it relies on "INST.XXXX" words ("INST.LONG," "INST.WORD," and "INST.SPACE") to create instance variables. So we can give Array its data structures like this:

    INST.LONG Array Count
    40 INST.SPACE Array Space

We have just allocated a total of 44 bytes (40 bytes plus a longword) to Array. 4 bytes can be referred to as "Count" in the methods that we write for arrays, and the remaining 40 are referred to as "Space."

Believe it or not, we have now given the flavor "Array" enough to work with in order to create arrays! We can create an object whose flavor is "Array" like this:

     Array CONSTANT MyArray

As you can see from this example, flavors are fairly intelligent FORTH words. When you execute a flavor, it figures out the total amount of space that it must allocate (44 bytes in Array's case), and allocates a block of that size in the heap. NOTE: flavors return a HANDLE to their data!

Since flavors return a handle, we can simply use the normal FORTH word CONSTANT to assign a name to the handle.

We now have a new flavor that we've created, and we've used it to create an instance of itself, which we've named MyArray. What can we do with MyArray?

At this moment MyArray is doing nothing but taking up space. What we need are methods for operating on the data in MyArray, and on any other arrays that we create.

One obvious thing to do would be to store things in our array. We want to create a method to do this, so let's call ours :Set. In ForthTalk, all methods begin with a colon (":"), which the documentation says is a convention used by Smalltalk. I beg to differ with the documentation on this point; in Smalltalk, methods end with a colon. For the sake of internal consistency I have chosen to use the ForthTalk convention.

The definition of :Set looks like this:

     METHOD Array :Set ( x n ---)
        4* Space + ! ;M

This method takes two operands on the stack. The value to store is first, and the element within the array is on the top of the stack.

The method first multiplies the array index by four since each entry is four bytes long. It adds the result to Space (which refers to the first byte of the array). The result is the address where we wish to store our value, and the normal FORTH word ! does the job.

Methods, like the instance variables that they manipulate, are buried somewhere within the flavor for which they are defined. Since that is the case, we need a way to make it possible to access them. This is done with the word DEFMESSAGE. It is used like this:

     DEFMESSAGE :Set

This adds the word :Set to the FORTH vocabulary. Whenever this word is executed, it will look in the superflavor chain for the object whose address is on the top of the stack for a method called ":Set". If it finds one, it will execute it, otherwise it will print an error message.

This raises two of the negative issues regarding ForthTalk. One is that messages must be defined externally with DEFMESSAGE before they may be used. This problem is not present in any other OOPS that I know of including Neon. The other is that with multiple inheritance, there is a definite performance impact on method lookups. Both these issues are expected to be addressed in a future release of ForthTalk, probably the one that runs under the new MacFORTH PLUS kernel.

We can use :Set to give values to our array, like this:

     3 0 MyArray :Set

This will assign the value of three to the zeroeth element of MyArray.

And here we see the beauty of object-oriented programming. The Array flavor is totally modular: its data cannot be accessed by anything other than its methods, and its methods cannot be accessed without following protocol, and are entirely self-contained, too! As long as we avoid code that is dependent upon Arrays having ten elements and avoid changing the interface to any of the methods, we are safe! (In reality we would probably make the Array flavor dynamically sized). We can write new methods for Array and fiddle around with its data structures without fear of the impact on any other part of the program! You can see why OOPS are becoming so popular for large programming projects or projects where a large team of programmers must work together!

:Init Method

In order for ForthTalk to be truly useful, there is one more concept that should be addressed: the :Init method.

:Init methods are usually needed, if only to provide some default values/actions for the instance of the flavor in question. In the case of Array, it would be nice to initialize the array to some set of values. For that reason, we have:

METHOD Array :Init ( mn   m2 m1 n --- instance)
   Count !
   Count @ 0 DO I SELF :Set LOOP
   SELF ;M

This method takes several values on the stack: first, a series of values to be assigned to the array elements, then the number of items there are to assign. The method first stores the number of elements in Count, and it then uses Count in a DO LOOP construct.

The loop counts from 0 to Count - 1 and :Sets the elements of its SELF to the values on the stack. For example:

5 4 3 2 1 5 MyArray :Init

This raises another interesting point about OOPS: they allow the programmer to write methods that use methods from either the same flavor or from one of the superflavors to get the job done. In this case, :Init uses :Set (since we want :Init to SET the elements to the values on the stack).

Like Smalltalk, ForthTalk allows the use of the pseudo-object SELF to refer to whatever object is currently executing a method.

Isn't this fun? We can add more methods now. One thing that's useful with Arrays is the ability to perform some function on all of the values stored in them. We'll call this method :DoToAll and take advantage of a fact of MacFORTH: we can execute any word by getting its token and saying EXECUTE. TOKEN.FOR is a MacFORTH word that returns the token value for a word.

With that thought in mind, here's :DoToAll:

METHOD Array :DoToAll LOCALS| token |
   Count @ 0 DO I 4* Space + token
   EXECUTE LOOP ;M

Note that this method passes the address of the value to the token, not the value itself. Whatever word token is for needs to be "aware" of that fact.

Also note that the MacFORTH local variable facility works just fine within methods. This makes it easier to define what goes into methods and what processing the methods do.

Before we forget, we'd better:

     DEFMESSAGE :DoToAll

We can do useful things with :DoToAll. One of them is to show the contents of the entire array. We can define:

METHOD Array :Print
   TOKEN.FOR ? SELF :DoToAll ;M

DEFMESSAGE :Print

With :DoToAll the definition of :Print becomes trivial. We can get the token value for ?, which is a standard FORTH word which gets the longword at the address on the stack and displays it using . (another standard FORTH word). Passing this token, along with SELF, to :DoToAll prints the values of each defined element. What could be simpler?

It's hoped that this somewhat drawn-out description of ForthTalk's capabilities is giving you some insights (no pun intended) into how this OOPS can make your life as a Macintosh programmer easier.

The remainder of the tutorial chapter in the ForthTalk documentation continues to develop the ideas behind the Array flavor. Ultimately a subflavor of Array called ObjectArray is created. The point behind ObjectArray is that its elements hold not just arbitrary numerical values but handles to instances of other objects.

This leads to some interesting concepts, such as creating a normal FORTH colon definition that passes a message to whatever object is on the top of the stack (assuming that the object "knows" the message). Again, the example given uses :Print (since so many kinds of objects can respond in a meaningful way to a :Print message). So, you wind up with something like this:

: Print  @ DUP INSTANCE? IF :Print ELSE CR . THEN ;

This word is almost ridiculously simple: given an address on the stack, it uses the word INSTANCE? to determine whether the address contains a handle to an object or not. If it does, the word assumes that the object understands the message :Print and uses it, otherwise the word simply prints the number, after printing a carriage return.

In conjunction with the ObjectArray mentioned above, this opens up a rather exciting possibility: printing an ObjectArray by passing the :Print message to all of its elements. Like any robust OOPS, ForthTalk has inheritance, which means that ObjectArrays inherit the :DoToAll method from their superflavor (Arrays). Since that is the case, defining the :Print method for ObjectArrays becomes very simple. It looks like this:

METHOD ObjectArray :Print
   TOKEN.FOR Print SELF :DoToAll ;M
AXE Print

Note: the AXE is to remove the header for our Print word, since it exists only as a tool to be used within the :Print method for ObjectArrays.

This simple method uses our smart word Print to send the :Print message to all of the objects in the ObjectArray. As long as the object is of a flavor that understands :Print the ObjectArray flavor will exhibit sensible behavior, otherwise Print will just print the value stored in the ObjectArray. If that happens, you know that you have a bug.

The upshot of all of this is that with just a couple of flavors and a few methods, you have the capability to create pictures. In an OOPS, a picture can simply be an ObjectArray which contains graphics objects that understand the :Print message. As long as all of the objects understand :Print asking the ObjectArray to :Print itself will result in each object :Printing itself, with the total result being a picture at some point on the screen.

At this point the tutorial becomes interesting. Here is some sample code. See if you can determine in what direction we're moving with it:

FLAVOR Circle Vanilla |
   INST.WORD Circle X
   INST.WORD Circle Y
   INST.WORD Circle Radius

METHOD Circle :Init ( X Y Radius --- SELF)
   Radius W!
   Y W!
   X W! SELF ;M

METHOD Circle :Print ( --- )
   X W@ Y W@ Radius W@ FRAME CIRCLE ;M

     FLAVOR Line Vanilla |
        INST.WORD Line X1
        INST.WORD Line Y1
        INST.WORD Line X2
        INST.WORD Line Y2

METHOD Line :Init ( X1 Y1 X2 Y2 --- SELF)
   Y2 W!
   X2 W!
   Y1 W!
   X1 W! SELF ;M

METHOD Line :Print ( --- )
   X1 W@ Y1 W@ MOVE.TO
   X2 W@ Y2 W@ DRAW.TO ;M

Some ideas are probably glimmering by now. There's no point in reproducing the ForthTalk tutorial here in its entirety. Instead, I will leave the reader with a few questions to get him/her going.

What happens if you rewrite the graphics methods so they do their drawing relative to where the pen is, rather than drawing at absolute locations?

What we are shooting for is a flavor that, when instantiated, creates an object that, when sent a :Print message, prints itself wherever we told it to at the time of instantiation.

The Whole Point

If we can do that: make a flavor which contains instance variables X and Y, and a FLAV.LONG referring to an ObjectArray which in turn contains :Printable objects that print relative to the current pen position (whew! This is getting deep), THEN we can perform small miracles. Why? Because thanks to the magic of multiple inheritance, we can animate these objects - and we can do so in such a way that the animation code can immediately be used for other flavors of objects.

This is what this whole article has been leading up to. We are going to create a new flavor called simply Animation. We are assuming that we have this relative-drawing flavor (the example in the documentation defines the flavor Automobile, which uses the ObjectArray defined earlier to draw a stick-figure car relative to the current pen position).

I said that flavor Animation would be general, and it will: it will allow animation of any object that understands the :Print message (so far all of ours do), and the :GetXYAddr message (which so far NONE of ours do). Adding the ability to get the addresses of X and Y from any flavor that has them, like Automobile, is trivial:

DEFMESSAGE :GetXYAddr
METHOD Automobile :GetXYAddr
   X Y ;M

As you may have noticed, one way that the tutorial has been making methods general is by providing them with some external word (such as Print) which sends messages to do the dirty work. Vectoring is also very big (and what is an ObjectArray but a means of sending the same message to a bunch of different objects)? We'll take advantage of an external word again with Animation, but first let's create this fascinating flavor:

FLAVOR Animation |
   INST.WORD Animation MoveToWhere
DEFMESSAGE :Animate
DEFMESSAGE :SetAnimation

The most obvious weird thing about Animation so far is that it does not have Vanilla as a superflavor. This fact makes Animation what is known as a mixin; it is intended to be a superflavor itself, since by itself it has virtually no functionality.

It does understand two messages, though: :Animate and :SetAnimation. Let's see :Animate first, since it's the one that actually moves the Automobile:

METHOD Animation :Animate ( --- )
   SELF :GetXYAddr LOCALS| Y X |
   SELF :Print
   BEGIN
      SELF :Print
      X Y MoveToWhere W@EXECUTE
      ( must leave a flag)
      SELF :Print
   UNTIL ;M

It seems easy - as it should. This method assumes basically two things: that the current pen mode is PATXOR, so that successive drawing operations of the same thing at the same place will alternate the appearance and disappearance of the object, and that MoveToWhere contains the token of a word which takes the addresses of the X and Y location of the object and returns a boolean indicating whether the animation is done (true) or not (false).

That only leaves :SetAnimation, which is easy to define:

METHOD Animation :SetAnimation ( token ---)
( token arglist is { X Y --- flag} where
  X = address of picture's X coordinate
  Y = address of picture's Y coordinate
  flag = TRUE if animation loop should end,
           FALSE to continue)
   MoveToWhere W! ;M

It's all comment except for the last line, which simply stores the token.

Now we can define an animated Automobile. We'll call it flavor MovingAuto, like this:

FLAVOR MovingAuto Automobile Animation |

That's all that's needed to create an animated automobile, aside from creating an instance! To do that, we can just say:

10 100 MovingAuto :Init CONSTANT CarToon

Well, almost all! We still have to create the word that actually changes X and Y and returns a true or false flag, depending upon whether we are done or not:

: MoveRight ( X\Y --- flag)
   DROP DUP W@ 8+ OVER W! W@ 400 > ;
TOKEN.FOR MoveRight CarToon :SetAnimation

This simple word ignores the address of Y completely (DROP). It then adds eight to the value of X (move the picture eight pixels to the right). Finally, the word checks the value of X to see if it has gone higher than 400.

The last line simply uses the :SetAnimation method to store the token for our animation word so that we can move our car. So to see the CarToon move to the right on the screen, just say:

        CarToon :Animate

and watch it drive by!

With a new flavor containing only two methods and a helpful FORTH word, we have animated an otherwise inanimate object (pun intended).

I'll close with a couple of paragraphs from the ForthTalk manual:

"(A) useful idea would be to keep around a palette of motions and motion combinations. These would include things like Bounce, Stop, GoToZero, Orbit, ParabolicArc, etc. These could be interchangeably used for any of your other pictures."

"For another idea to try, :GetXYAddr could return the addresses of *any* two parameters, like Radius and Color, or like Speed and ZoomFactor. Then the Animation flavor would vary these things instead of just screen position."

Final comment: if MacFORTH is your bag, and you want object-oriented programming and want it to be intuitive to an old FORTH hacker, but you want it to be very powerful and easy to learn, then spend the $55 and get ForthTalk. You won't regret it.

MacFORTH users will ultimately be able to get MacFORTH PLUS and the version of ForthTalk that runs with it.

In the meantime, there are a growing number of people who have more or less permanently moved over to MACH 2, the excellent 83 standard FORTH development system from Palo Alto Shipping. I am in the process of trying to convince InSite Computing to port their outstanding effort over to the MACH 2 environment. Palo Alto Shipping has expressed an interest, Steve Lindner has expressed his personal interest, and I'd be interested, both as a MACH 2 user and as (hopefully) the MACH 2 version implementor. I'll keep you posted on any progress made in that area.

ForthTalk is available from:

InSite Computing
Box 2949
Ann Arbor, MI  48106
(313) 994-3660
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

DaisyDisk 4.8 - $9.99
DaisyDisk allows you to visualize your disk usage and free up disk space by quickly finding and deleting big unused files. The program scans your disk and displays its content as a sector diagram... Read more
VMware Fusion 11.5.0 - Run Windows apps...
VMware Fusion and Fusion Pro - virtualization software for running Windows, Linux, and other systems on a Mac without rebooting. The latest version includes full support for Windows 10, macOS Mojave... Read more
Apple Configurator 2.10 - Configure and...
Apple Configurator makes it easy to deploy iPad, iPhone, iPod touch, and Apple TV devices in your school or business. Use Apple Configurator to quickly configure large numbers of devices connected to... Read more
Spotify 1.1.15.448. - Stream music, crea...
Spotify is a streaming music service that gives you on-demand access to millions of songs. Whether you like driving rock, silky R&B, or grandiose classical music, Spotify's massive catalogue puts... Read more
MenuMeters 1.9.8 - CPU, memory, disk, an...
MenuMeters is a set of CPU, memory, disk, and network monitoring tools for Mac OS X. Although there are numerous other programs which do the same thing, none had quite the feature set I was looking... Read more
Blocks 3.5.2 - RapidWeaver plug-in; divi...
Blocks is a plugin for RapidWeaver. It allows you to place blocks of text, graphics, and even raw HTML onto your page wherever you like. Drag blocks around, resize them, and even overlap content. All... Read more
Live Home 3D Pro 3.7 - $49.99
Live Home 3D Pro is powerful yet intuitive home design software that lets you build the house of your dreams right on your Mac, iPhone or iPad. It has every feature of Live Home 3D, plus some... Read more
Ableton Live 10.1.1 - Record music using...
Ableton Live lets you create and record music on your Mac. Use digital instruments, pre-recorded sounds, and sampled loops to arrange, produce, and perform your music like never before. Ableton Live... Read more
BetterTouchTool 3.202 - Customize multi-...
BetterTouchTool adds many new, fully customizable gestures to the Magic Mouse, Multi-Touch MacBook trackpad, and Magic Trackpad. These gestures are customizable: Magic Mouse: Pinch in / out (zoom)... Read more
Fission 2.4.6 - Streamlined audio editor...
Fission can crop and trim audio, paste in or join files, or just rapidly split one long file into many. It's streamlined for fast editing. Plus, it works without the quality loss caused by other... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Marvel Strike Force is adding Agent Coul...
Marvel Strike Force, the popular squad-based RPG, is set to receive a bunch of new content over the next few weeks. [Read more] | Read more »
Lots of premium games are going free (so...
You may have seen over the past couple weeks a that a bunch of premium games have suddenly become free. This isn’t a mistake, nor is it some last hurrah before Apple Arcade hits, and it’s important to know that these games aren’t actually becoming... | Read more »
Yoozoo Games launches Saint Seiya Awaken...
If you’re into your anime, you’ve probably seen or heard of Saint Seiya. Based on a shonen manga by Masami Kurumada, the series was massively popular in the 1980s – especially in its native Japan. Since then, it’s grown into a franchise of all... | Read more »
Five Nights at Freddy's AR: Special...
Five Nights at Freddy's AR: Special Delivery is a terrifying new nightmare from developer Illumix. Last week, FNAF fans were sent into a frenzy by a short teaser for what we now know to be Special Delivery. Those in the comments were quick to... | Read more »
Rush Rally 3's new live events are...
Last week, Rush Rally 3 got updated with live events, and it’s one of the best things to happen to racing games on mobile. Prior to this update, the game already had multiplayer, but live events are more convenient in the sense that it’s somewhat... | Read more »
Why your free-to-play racer sucks
It’s been this way for a while now, but playing Hot Wheels Infinite Loop really highlights a big issue with free-to-play mobile racing games: They suck. It doesn’t matter if you’re trying going for realism, cart racing, or arcade nonsense, they’re... | Read more »
Steam Link Spotlight - The Banner Saga 3
Steam Link Spotlight is a new feature where we take a look at PC games that play exceptionally well using the Steam Link app. Our last entry talked about Terry Cavanaugh’s incredible Dicey Dungeons. Read about how it’s a great mobile experience... | Read more »
Combo Quest (Games)
Combo Quest 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Combo Quest is an epic, time tap role-playing adventure. In this unique masterpiece, you are a knight on a heroic quest to retrieve... | Read more »
Hero Emblems (Games)
Hero Emblems 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $2.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: ** 25% OFF for a limited time to celebrate the release ** ** Note for iPhone 6 user: If it doesn't run fullscreen on your device... | Read more »
Puzzle Blitz (Games)
Puzzle Blitz 1.0 Device: iOS Universal Category: Games Price: $1.99, Version: 1.0 (iTunes) Description: Puzzle Blitz is a frantic puzzle solving race against the clock! Solve as many puzzles as you can, before time runs out! You have... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Get one of Apple’s new 2019 iPhone 11 models...
Boost Mobile is offering the new 2019 Apple iPhone 11, iPhone 11 Pro, and 11 Pro Max for $100 off MSRP. Their discount reduces the cost of an iPhone 11 to $599 for the 64GB models, $899 for the 64GB... Read more
13″ 1.4GHz Silver MacBook Pros on sale for $1...
B&H Photo has new 2019 13″ 1.4GHz 4-Core Touch Bar Silver MacBook Pros on sale for $100 off Apple’s MSRP. Overnight shipping is free to many addresses in the US. These are the same MacBook Pros... Read more
4-core and 6-core 2018 Mac minis available at...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2018 Mac minis available on their online store for $120-$170 off the cost of new models. Each mini comes with a new outer case plus a standard Apple one-year warranty... Read more
$250 prepaid Visa card with any Apple iPhone,...
Xfinity Mobile will include a free $250 prepaid Visa card with the purchase of any new iPhone, new line activation, and transfer of phone number to Xfinity Mobile. Offer is valid through October 27,... Read more
Sprint is offering the 64GB Apple iPhone 11 P...
Sprint has the new 64GB iPhone 11 Pro available for $12.50 per month for new customers with an eligible trade-in in of iPhone 7 or newer. That’s down from their standard monthly lease of $41.67. The... Read more
Final week: Apple’s 2019 Back to School Promo...
Purchase a new Mac using Apple’s Education discount, and take up to $400 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution with a .edu email address qualify for the discount... Read more
Save $30 on Apple’s AirPods at these reseller...
Amazon is offering discounts on new 2019 Apple AirPods ranging up to $30 off MSRP as part of their Labor Day sale. Shipping is free: – AirPods with Charging Case: $144.95 $15 off MSRP – AirPods with... Read more
Preorder your Apple Watch Series 5 today at A...
Amazon has Apple Watch Series 5 GPS models available for preorder and on sale today for $15 off Apple’s MSRP. Shipping is free and starts on September 20th: – 40mm Apple Watch Series 5 GPS: $384.99 $... Read more
21″ iMacs on sale for $100 off Apple’s MSRP,...
B&H Photo has new 21″ Apple iMacs on sale for $100 off MSRP with models available starting at $999. These are the same iMacs offered by Apple in their retail and online stores. Overnight shipping... Read more
2018 4 and 6-Core Mac minis on sale today for...
Apple resellers are offering new 2018 4-Core and 6-Core Mac minis for $100-$150 off MSRP for a limited time. B&H Photo has the new 2018 4-Core and 6-Core Mac minis on sale for up to $150 off... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Mobile Master - Best Buy (United Sta...
**732324BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobile Master **Job Category:** Store Associates **Location Number:** 000013-Fargo-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Best Read more
*Apple* Mobility Pro - Best Buy (United Stat...
**723452BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobility Pro **Job Category:** Store Associates **Location Number:** 001194-Greeley-Store **Job Description:** At Best Buy, our Read more
Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**731319BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Job Category:** Store Associates **Location Number:** 000303-Arlington Heights-Store **Job Read more
Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**733266BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Job Category:** Sales **Location Number:** 000144-Union City-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Read more
Geek Squad *Apple* Master Consultation Agen...
**732907BR** **Job Title:** Geek Squad Apple Master Consultation Agent **Job Category:** Services/Installation/Repair **Location Number:** 000360-Williston-Store Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.