TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Random Access Files
Volume Number:2
Issue Number:9
Column Tag:Basic School

Random Access Files

By Dave Kelly, MacTutor Editorial Board

There are two types of data files that can be created and used by your MS Basic program: sequential files and random access files. Sequential files are used more often because they are easy to create, but random access files are more flexible and data can be located faster. A discussion of sequential file I/O operation begins on page 45 of your MS Basic manual (ver. 2.0 or greater). Random Access File I/O starts on page 48. Before we begin our discussion of random access file I/O, I suggest that you refer to those pages.

The purpose of this column is to help you develop an understanding of random access I/O and how to use it in your own programs. It is very easy to understand how data is structured in sequential files. It requires more work to organize a random access file. The organization of the random access file is up to you. I'll try to outline some steps you can use to help organize your file.

First, you should decide just what data you have to store. For example, if you were setting up a mail list database you would need one field each for name, address, city-state, and zipcode. Next decide how many characters will be allowed for each field (25 for name, 30 for address, 25 for city-state, and 5 for zipcode). The total length of an individual record would then be 85 characters.

Now decide how many individual records you expect to have in the file. If you don't require too many records and don't expect to ever expand the file, a sequential file many be suitable. The is especially true if you have a lot of RAM to work with and a comparatively small data file. There are some advantages and disadvantages to using a sequential file this way. With a sequential file, all records are read into memory so the disk is only accessed once. The program can then operate on the data much faster than if it had to access the disk for each record. However, if the data had been changed at all, the entire file would have to be stored back to the disk or the changes would be lost. In the event of a power failure or some other system crash, a random access file would contain all the changes, but a sequential file would not. Generally as files get larger, they are better handled by random access methods. A large sequential file could take quite a bit of time just to read and write to the disk.

Next you should consider how you want to access each record of your random access file. You may want to be able to search for a name or sort the file by zip code. A long and tedious way to do this would be to read through each and every record until the desired record is found. If the user knows exactly which record to read then the access time may be reduced significantly. One way to do this would be to create an index file. For example, if you wanted to find a specific record and you know the contents of one of the fields, you could look in the index file to find the matching field and record number. For a mail list database you might set up an index file containing all of the names and the record numbers corresponding to the names. Index files may be sequential or random access (for relation databases) but should contain as few fields as possible to optimize data access time. If the index is sequential it should be kept in memory and updated as the random file is updated.

Figure 1

If indexes are used, some thought must be taken as to updating and changing the index file. If a record is to be deleted, you might want to delete the index, thus removing any reference to the random access file record. This leaves an available record for late addition of a new record (if you keep track of which records have been deleted). If your file isn't expected to change very much you may not mind the wasted space taken up by the deleted record. Ideally, you should keep track of the locations of deleted records so that they can be reused when new records are added. Another way to get rid of the wasted records (if you don't want to go to the trouble of keeping track of the deleted records) is to write a program to do "Garbage Collection".

Fig. 2 Garbage Collection

A "Garbage Collection" program reads all undeleted records and writes them to a new file. You only have to do "Garbage Collection" when a lot of records have been deleted and you need more space to add new records. "Garbage Collection" might be ok to use if it is automatically performed (with no user intervention). It is NOT desirable for the user of your program to have to keep track of this kind of file handling (when to collect garbage and when not to).

When a record is added to the datafile, a new index entry should be created and the new record should be added to the random access file (either as a new record or replacing a previously deleted record). If an existing record is edited and changed the index file should be updated accordingly. You may want to sort the index file before writing it to the disk. Be sure to save the index program before quiting the program.

Now let's take a look at how the random access file is structured. When you open a file in basic, a buffer is allocated for each file opened. For random access files the buffer should be set equal to the length of one record ( the default buffer size is 128 bytes). It is through this buffer that basic reads and writes to the disk. To help you understand what a random access file "looks like", let's create a sample file to examine. The Random Access File program included with this column will create a sample random access file that we can analyze. It creates a random file named "Sample RA File" with a length of 64 bytes. One advantage of MS Basic random access files is that random access files require less room on the disk, since Basic stores them in a packed binary format. Sequential files are stored as a series of sequential ASCII characters.

To facilitate the conversion of numbers to the packed binary format we must use the MKI$,MKS$,MKD$ commands. To unconvert the numbers we must use CVI,CVS,CVD commands. These are somewhat easy to remember if you think of the MK as MaKe and the CV as ConVert. Thus if we want to store an integer number we use MKI$ to MaKe an Integer string and use CVI to ConVert the Integer back again. The sample file shows an example of how to use these MaKe and ConVert commands for integers, single precision and double precision numbers.

As I already mentioned, when the file is opened a buffer is allocated (in this case the length of all the fields is 64). The fields that we want to use must be memory mapped to the buffer area. This is accomplished with the FIELD statement. You may use as many FIELD statements as you like, however, each field statement starts defining the fields starting at the beginning of the buffer. If you define all your fields on one line (one FIELD statement) then you won't have any problem, but if you have more fields than you want to put in one statement then you will want to use a second FIELD statement. The trick (which the manual does not show you how to do) is to define a dummy variable with the accumulative length of all the previous field statements before defining your next field. In the sample program the first FIELD statement defines three number fields with a total of 14 bytes. (Integer fields are converted to 2 bytes, single precision to 4 bytes, and double precision to 8 bytes). In the second FIELD statement a dummy string is marking the first part of the buffer which has already been defined so that the next field will begin after the previously defined fields. If you didn't know to do this you could have some strange effects when you read your file back as the field definitions would overlap.

The next important thing that the program must do is to put our data into the buffer so it can be written to a record on the disk. This is accomplished with the LSET or RSET statements. LSET will left justify the string within the defined field length (a variable might be actually shorter than the field has available), The RSET statement will right justify the string within the field. Every field must be set into the buffer with one of these commands. You should use a different variable in defining the fields and setting into the buffer than you use to manipulate your data. Be sure that you don't use a defined field in an INPUT or LET type statement. This will redefine the location that the variable points to (we want it to put to the buffer area). If a record is read from the disk, all the fields defined in the buffer area will contain the data stored on the disk for that record. You only have to reset those fields that you want to change. All the rest of the fields will be left untouched until you read another record into the buffer or set a new value into the field.

To store a record to disk use PUT [# ]filenumber [,record-number ]. To read a record from the disk use GET [# ]filenumber [,record-number ]. The PUT, GET statements read and write the entire record in the buffer. You use PUT after you use the MaKe string statements and use ConVert statements after using GET. You can find more information on PUT and GET in your Basic manual (pages 220 and 146). Run the sample program to create a random access file we can examine.

The second program included with this column is a random access utility that I developed to analyze the data stored in a random access file. I have been saved from alot of problems with programs like this in the past. I have been able to repair damaged random access files and determine what buggy random programs were doing with utilities like this one.

The utility program opens with a menu which will allow you to open your file. Choosing open from the File menu brings up the standard getfile dialog box from which you can choose the file you want to examine. (You should choose "Sample RA File" for this example). Next, the program asks for the length of the random access file record. If you wrote the program you should have this available, however, if you don't know what it is you can guess. The sample file is 64 bytes so enter a 64 for the length (then click OK).

The file menu now has made active a menu item named Edit in the File menu (this may be confusing - it is NOT the Edit menu). Selecting Edit from the File menu will bring up a prompt for the record number you want to read. Enter a '1' to read record number one (the sample file only has one record) (click OK). Next the record is read into the buffer and displayed on the screen. The first EDIT FIELD shown displays the file as it looks. Note that some of the ASCII characters are invisible and can't be seen in the EDIT FIELD. The second EDIT FIELD shows the equivalent ASCII representation of the record. Invisible characters can be seen (for example a '0' is a null character). Either of these two fields can be modified or examined as you like.

The hardest thing to analyze is the numbers which have been converted to strings with the MaKe statements. To make this somewhat easier (though not foolproof) the program provides a way to convert your numbers from strings to numbers and numbers to strings to see how these ConVert/MaKe statements work. The third EDIT FIELD provides the way to enter the number or string to be converted. For example, enter a 5 in the field and select MKI$(integer) Convert from the Convert menu. The integer 5 will be converted to the packed binary format string. Note that the first field stored by our sample file is '0, 5' which was the two byte string made from the integer 5 (see the sample program if you don't follow this). The converted string has been placed in the third EDIT FIELD. The characters there are invisible (0 and 5 ASCII do not print). If you select CVI(string) Convert (2-bytes) from the Convert menu, the string will be converted back to the integer equivalent and displayed.

The rest is up to you as to what you want to do with the utility. It is possible to modify data in the random record by typing the change in one of the first two EDIT FIELDs. Then select the button at the top of the window to write the record. When you select 'OK', the EDIT FIELD which which is active (the EDIT FIELD which the cursor is blinking) will be stored in place of the record. It is possible to convert a number in the Convert EDIT FIELD then COPY the contents of the EDIT FIELD and PASTE it into the text in the first EDIT FIELD. It may be somewhat difficult to COPY/PASTE invisible characters (because you can't see them to select them) although it is possible. I recommend that you display the converted ASCII equivalent and enter the ASCII characters into the second EDIT FIELD and save the record to the disk.

That's all there is on random access files. Hopefully the utility will help you to learn some things by experimentation about random access. Any questions may be directed to myself via MacTutor.


' Random Access File
' ©MacTutor 1986
' This program creates a sample Random Access File

Integer%=5: Single!=32769!: Double#=123456789#
Title$="MacTutor, The Macintosh Programming Journal"
OPEN "Sample RA File"  AS #1 LEN=64
    FIELD #1,2 AS I$,4 AS S$,8 AS D$
    FIELD #1,14 AS Dummy$,50 AS T$

    TEXTFACE(1)
    PRINT "Our Variables are: Integer%=";Integer%;"Single!=";Single!
    PRINT "Double#=";Double#
    PRINT "Title$=";Title$
    TEXTFACE(0)
WRIT:    PRINT"We will now save them to record 1 (record length=64)."
    LSET I$=MKI$(Integer%)
    LSET S$=MKS$(Single!)
    LSET D$=MKD$(Double#)
    LSET T$=Title$
    PUT #1,1
CLOSE #1
    PRINT"Now clear all variables... and print them:"
    Integer%=0:Single!=0:Double#=0:Title$=""
    TEXTFACE(1)
    PRINT "Our Variables are: Integer%=";Integer%;"Single!=";Single!
    PRINT "Double#=";Double#
    PRINT "Title$=";Title$
    TEXTFACE(0)
    PRINT "Now read them back again..."
OPEN "Sample RA File"  AS #1 LEN=64
    FIELD #1,2 AS I$,4 AS S$,8 AS D$ , 50 AS T$
    GET #1,1
    LET Integer%=CVI(I$)
    LET Single!=CVS(S$)
    LET Double#=CVD(D$)
    LET Title$=T$
    PRINT"Now close the file and print them all..."
CLOSE #1
TEXTFACE(1)
PRINT "Our Variables are: Integer%=";Integer%;"Single!=";Single!
PRINT"Double#=";Double#
PRINT "Title$=";Title$
TEXTFACE(0)
END


' Professor Mac's Random Access Utility
' ©MacTutor 1986
' By Dave Kelly

OPTION BASE 1
DEFINT a-z
WINDOW 1,"",(2,25)-(510,335),3
GOSUB WindowHeader
Recordnumber=1

MENU 1,0,1,"File"
MENU 1,1,1,"Open"
MENU 1,2,0,"Close"
MENU 1,3,0,"Edit"
MENU 1,4,1,"Quit"
MENU 3,0,0,""
MENU 4,0,0,""
MENU 5,0,0,""
False=0: True= NOT False
Fileopen = False

ON MENU GOSUB MenuEvent
MENU ON

WaitForEvent: GOTO WaitForEvent

MenuEvent:
    MenuNumber = MENU(0)
    MenuItem = MENU(1):MENU
    ON MenuNumber GOSUB Filemenu,Editmenu,Convertmenu
RETURN

Filemenu:
    ON MenuItem GOSUB OpenFile,CloseFile,FindRecord,Quititem
RETURN
    
Editmenu:
RETURN

WindowHeader:
    TEXTFONT(2):TEXTSIZE(14):TEXTFACE(1)
    LOCATE 1,15:PRINT"Random Access Utility"
    TEXTSIZE(12):TEXTFACE(0)
RETURN

Quititem:
    IF Fileopen = True THEN GOSUB CloseFile
    MENU RESET
    WINDOW CLOSE 1
    END

OpenFile:
    Filename$=FILES$(1)
    IF Filename$="" THEN GOSUB WindowHeader: RETURN
    LOCATE 4,1:PRINT"  Enter the length of your Random Access File:"
    GOSUB WindowHeader
    EDIT FIELD 1,"128",(300,48)-(350,63),1,1
    BUTTON 1,1,"OK",(315,130)-(365,180)
    GOSUB Loop
    Recordlength=VAL(EDIT$(1))
    IF Recordlength >32767 OR Recordlength <=0 THEN GOTO       OpenFile
    BUTTON CLOSE 1
    EDIT FIELD CLOSE 1:CLS
    OPEN Filename$ AS #1 LEN=Recordlength
    FIELD #1,Recordlength AS Random$

Setup:
    GOSUB WindowHeader
    Fileopen=True
    MENU 1,1,0
    MENU 1,2,1
    MENU 1,3,1
    RETURN

CloseFile:
    Fileopen=False
    MENU 1,1,1
    MENU 1,2,0
    MENU 1,3,0
    CLOSE #1
    IF MenuItem <>4 THEN GOSUB WindowHeader
    RETURN
    
GetRecord:
    IF Recordnumber=0 THEN PRINT "Record # 0 does not    exist":RETURN
        GET #1,Recordnumber
        R$=Random$
RETURN

StoreRecord:
        LSET Random$=R$
        PUT #1,Recordnumber
RETURN

FindRecord:
    CLS
    LOCATE 4,1:PRINT"Enter Record Number to find:"
    EDIT FIELD 1,STR$(Recordnumber),(200,48)-(250,63),1,1
    BUTTON 1,1,"OK",(315,130)-(365,180)
    GOSUB Loop
    Recordnumber=VAL(EDIT$(1))
    LOCATE 5,1
    IF Recordnumber<1 OR Recordnumber > 16777215# THEN PRINT   "Number 
out of range":BEEP:FOR i=1  TO 100:NEXT:GOTO FindRecord
    GOSUB GetRecord
    EDIT FIELD CLOSE 1
EditRecord:
    MENU ON
    CLS:GOSUB WindowHeader
    BUTTON CLOSE 1
    GOSUB DecodeASCII
    PRINT "Current Record is #";Recordnumber
    LOCATE 17,1:PRINT "Conversion string:"
    TEXTFONT(4)
    EDIT FIELD 3,"",(10,280)-(90,295),2,1
    EDIT FIELD 2,ASCII$,(10,130)-(485,250),1,1
    EDIT FIELD 1,R$,(10,40)-(485,125),2,1
    TEXTFONT(2)
    BUTTON 1,1,"OK",(450,255)-(500,305)
    BUTTON 2,1,"Write record after Edit",(275,22)-(450,37),3:b2=False
    MENU 3,0,1,"Convert"
    MENU 3,1,1,"CVI(string) Convert (2-bytes)"  'Convert 2-byte string
    MENU 3,2,1,"CVS(string) Convert (4-bytes)" 'Convert 4-byte string
    MENU 3,3,1,"CVD(string) Convert (8-bytes)" 'Convert 8-byte string
    MENU 3,4,1,"MKI$(integer) Convert" 'Convert integer
    MENU 3,5,1,"MKS$(single-precision) Convert" 'Convert       single-precision
    MENU 3,6,1,"MKD$(double-precision) Convert" 'Convert       double-precision
    i=1
    EditLoop:
        d=DIALOG(0)
        IF d=1 THEN buttonpushed=DIALOG(1):IF buttonpushed=1 THEN 
 EditDone ELSE GOSUB Switch
        IF d=2 THEN i=DIALOG(2)
        IF d=6 AND i=1 THEN EditDone
        IF d=7 THEN i=(i MOD 2)+1:EDIT FIELD i
    GOTO EditLoop
EditDone:
    R$=EDIT$(1)
    IF i=2 THEN ASCII$=EDIT$(2): GOSUB EncodeASCII
    IF b2 = True THEN GOSUB StoreRecord
    EDIT FIELD CLOSE 1
    EDIT FIELD CLOSE 2
    EDIT FIELD CLOSE 3
    BUTTON CLOSE 1:BUTTON CLOSE 2
    MENU 3,0,0,""
    CLS:GOSUB WindowHeader
    RETURN

Convertmenu:
    x#=FRE(0)
    MENU OFF:TEXTFONT(4)
    Convert$=EDIT$(3)
    LOCATE 17,18:PRINT STRING$(35," ")
    LOCATE 18,18:PRINT STRING$(35," "):LOCATE 17,18
    ON MenuItem GOSUB CVIconvert, CVSconvert, CVDconvert,      MKIconvert, 
MKSconvert,MKDconvert
    MENU ON:TEXTFONT(2)
    RETURN
    
CVIconvert:
    IF LEN(Convert$)<>2 THEN PRINT"Can't convert";       LEN(Convert$);"bytes.":RETURN
    IntNumber%=CVI(Convert$)
    PRINT "CVI(";CHR$(34);Convert$;CHR$(34);")=";IntNumber%
RETURN

CVSconvert:
    IF LEN(Convert$)<>4 THEN PRINT"Can't convert";       LEN(Convert$);"bytes.":RETURN
    SingleNumber!=CVS(Convert$)
    PRINT "CVS(";CHR$(34);Convert$;CHR$(34);")=";SingleNumber!
RETURN

CVDconvert:
    IF LEN(Convert$)<>8 THEN PRINT"Can't convert";       LEN(Convert$);"bytes.":RETURN
    DoubleNumber#=CVD(Convert$)
    PRINT "CVD(";Convert$;")=";DoubleNumber#
RETURN

MKIconvert:
    IF VAL(Convert$)<-32767 OR VAL(Convert$)>32767 THEN PRINT  "Number 
too big!":RETURN
    IntNumber%=VAL(Convert$)
    NewConvert$=MKI$(IntNumber%)
    EDIT FIELD 3,NewConvert$,(10,280)-(90,295)
    PRINT "MKI$(";Convert$;")= ASCII:";
    PRINT USING " ###";ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,1,1)),       ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,2,1))
RETURN

MKSconvert:
    IF VAL(Convert$)<-1.18E-38 OR VAL(Convert$)>3.3999E+38 THEN 
 PRINT "Number too big!":RETURN
    SingleNumber!=VAL(Convert$)
    NewConvert$=MKS$(SingleNumber!)
    EDIT FIELD 3,NewConvert$,(10,280)-(90,295)
    PRINT "MKS$(";Convert$;")= ASCII:";
    PRINT USING " ###";ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,1,1)),       ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,2,1));
    PRINT USING " ###";ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,3,1)),       ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,4,1))
RETURN

MKDconvert:
    IF VAL(Convert$)<-2.23D-308 OR VAL(Convert$)>1.789999D+308 
 THEN PRINT "Number too big!":RETURN
    DoubleNumber#=VAL(Convert$)
    NewConvert$=MKD$(DoubleNumber#)
    EDIT FIELD 3,NewConvert$,(10,280)-(90,295)
    PRINT "MKD$(x)= ASCII:";
    PRINT USING " ###";ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,1,1)),       ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,2,1));
    PRINT USING " ###";ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,3,1)),       ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,4,1))
    LOCATE 18,33
    PRINT USING " ###";ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,5,1)),       ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,6,1));
    PRINT USING " ###";ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,7,1)),       ASC(MID$(NewConvert$,8,1))
RETURN

Switch:
    b2=NOT b2
    IF b2=True THEN BUTTON 2,2 ELSE BUTTON 2,1
    RETURN
    
Loop:
    d=DIALOG(0)
    IF d=1 THEN Done
    IF d=6 THEN Done
    GOTO Loop
Done:
RETURN

DecodeASCII:
    ASCII$=""
    FOR i=1 TO Recordlength
        ASCIInum$=STR$(ASC(MID$(R$,i,1)))+","
        IF LEN(ASCIInum$)=2 THEN ASCIInum$=ASCIInum$
        IF LEN(ASCIInum$)=3 THEN ASCIInum$=ASCIInum$
        ASCII$=ASCII$+ASCIInum$
    NEXT i
    RETURN
    
EncodeASCII:
    R$="":commaposition=1
    FOR i=1 TO Recordlength
        commaplace=INSTR(commaposition,ASCII$,",")
        ASCIInum$=MID$(ASCII$,commaposition,commaplace-1)
        commaposition=commaplace+1
        R$=R$+CHR$(VAL(ASCIInum$))
    NEXT i
    RETURN

Basic Compiler Update News

MacTutor is keeping you up to date on the latest developments of the new Basic products that have been released. There are some new developments which you should be made aware of. Refer to the August 1986 MacTutor for the preliminary review of these products. The status (as of this time) of all of the products we have reviewed is:

MS BASIC (version 2.10): Not a word. Rumors have it that Microsoft is making improvements, including the compiler. No word on when or what.

PCMacBasic: Major Improvements are in the works. I have not yet seen an update.

Softworks Basic: I don't know if any improvements are being made.

True Basic: Improvements are in the works.

ZBasic (version 3.02b) : Zedcor, Inc. has corrected several of the bugs we spoke about in our review and already sent me an updated (beta) copy. (Thank you!) Specifically:

Z-Basic Enhancements

• Files can now be located in any folder by volume

• The Directory command now works if you specify the pathname (volume) as DIR ZBASIC DISK:Z FOLDER: Z FILENAME. DIR 1 and DIR 2 did not work. The way it is right now you need to know the name (exact spelling) to do a directory command.

• Eject 1 and Eject 2 now works

• You can specify the volume for the filename you want to run with the run statement. RUN filename,vol % This means that you can now run any application from any HFS folder with the RUN statement. This is not documented in the version of the manual that I have.

• The mouse clicks in window title bars now works properly. They didn't fix that for the edit menu in the ZBasic compiler program yet though.

• The default window will not appear in your standalone application if you use the WINDOW OFF statement at the beginning of your program.

Even more improvements/enhancements are in the works so keep watching here for update information.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Bookends 13.2.5 - Reference management a...
Bookends is a full-featured bibliography/reference and information-management system for students and professionals. Bookends uses the cloud to sync reference libraries on all the Macs you use.... Read more
Quicken 2019 5.11.2 - Complete personal...
Quicken makes managing your money easier than ever. Whether paying bills, upgrading from Windows, enjoying more reliable downloads, or getting expert product help, Quicken's new and improved features... Read more
Dashlane 6.1927.0 - Password manager and...
Dashlane is an award-winning service that revolutionizes the online experience by replacing the drudgery of everyday transactional processes with convenient, automated simplicity - in other words,... Read more
Capo 3.7.4 - Slow down and learn to play...
Capo lets you slow down your favorite songs so you can hear the notes and learn how they are played. With Capo, you can quickly tab out your songs atop a highly-detailed OpenCL-powered spectrogram... Read more
BetterTouchTool 3.153 - Customize multi-...
BetterTouchTool adds many new, fully customizable gestures to the Magic Mouse, Multi-Touch MacBook trackpad, and Magic Trackpad. These gestures are customizable: Magic Mouse: Pinch in / out (zoom)... Read more
calibre 3.46.0 - Complete e-book library...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital librarian... Read more
Firefox 68.0.1 - Fast, safe Web browser.
Firefox offers a fast, safe Web browsing experience. Browse quickly, securely, and effortlessly. With its industry-leading features, Firefox is the choice of Web development professionals and casual... Read more
Vivaldi 2.6.1566.49 - An advanced browse...
Vivaldi is a browser for our friends. We live in our browsers. Choose one that has the features you need, a style that fits and values you can stand by. From the look and feel, to how you interact... Read more
Daylite 6.7.3.1 - Dynamic business organ...
Daylite helps businesses organize themselves with tools such as shared calendars, contacts, tasks, projects, notes, and more. Enable easy collaboration with features such as task and project... Read more
Vivaldi 2.6.1566.49 - An advanced browse...
Vivaldi is a browser for our friends. We live in our browsers. Choose one that has the features you need, a style that fits and values you can stand by. From the look and feel, to how you interact... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Void Tyrant guide - Tips and tricks for...
Void Tyrant continues to get a lot of play in these parts. Probably because the game is just so deep and varied. The next stop on our guide series for Void Tyrant is class-specific guides. First up is the Knight, as it’s the first class anyone has... | Read more »
Summon beasts and battle evil in epic re...
Imagine a tale of conlict between factions of good and evil, where rogueish heroes summon beasts to aid them in them in warfare and courageously battle dragons over fields of scorched earth and brimstone - that's exactly the essence of epic fantasy... | Read more »
Upcoming visual novel Arranged shines a...
If you’re in the market for a new type of visual novel designed to inform and make you think deeply about its subject matter, then Arranged by Kabuk Games could be exactly what you’re looking for. It’s a wholly unique take on marital traditions in... | Read more »
TEPPEN guide - The three best decks in T...
TEPPEN’s unique take on the collectible card game genre is exciting. It’s just over a week old, but that isn’t stopping lots of folks from speculating about the long-term viability of the game, as well as changes and additions that will happen over... | Read more »
Intergalactic puzzler Silly Memory serve...
Recently released matching puzzler Silly Memory is helping its fans with their intergalactic journeys this month with some very special offers on in-app purchases. In case you missed it, Silly Memory is the debut title of French based indie... | Read more »
TEPPEN guide - Tips and tricks for new p...
TEPPEN is a wild game that nobody asked for, but I’m sure glad it exists. Who would’ve thought that a CCG featuring Capcom characters could be so cool and weird? In case you’re not completely sure what TEPPEN is, make sure to check out our review... | Read more »
Dr. Mario World guide - Other games that...
We now live in a post-Dr. Mario World world, and I gotta say, things don’t feel too different. Nintendo continues to squirt out bad games on phones, causing all but the most stalwart fans of mobile games to question why they even bother... | Read more »
Strategy RPG Brown Dust introduces its b...
Epic turn-based RPG Brown Dust is set to turn 500 days old next week, and to celebrate, Neowiz has just unveiled its biggest and most exciting update yet, offering a host of new rewards, increased gacha rates, and a brand new feature that will... | Read more »
Dr. Mario World is yet another disappoin...
As soon as I booted up Dr. Mario World, I knew I wasn’t going to have fun with it. Nintendo’s record on phones thus far has been pretty spotty, with things trending downward as of late. [Read more] | Read more »
Retro Space Shooter P.3 is now available...
Shoot-em-ups tend to be a dime a dozen on the App Store, but every so often you come across one gem that aims to shake up the genre in a unique way. Developer Devjgame’s P.3 is the latest game seeking to do so this, working as a love letter to the... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Flash sale! New 11″ 1TB WiFi iPad Pros for th...
Amazon has the 11″ 1TB WiFi iPad Pro on sale today for only $1199.99 including free shipping. Their price is $350 off Apple’s MSRP for this model, and it’s the lowest price ever for a 1TB 11″ iPad... Read more
Weekend Deal: 2018 13″ MacBook Airs starting...
B&H Photo has clearance 2018 13″ MacBook Airs available starting at only $999 with all models now available for $200 off Apple’s original MSRP. Overnight shipping, or expedited shipping, is free... Read more
Apple has clearance 10.5″ iPad Pros available...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2017 10.5″ iPad Pros available starting at $469. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each iPad, outer shells are new, and shipping is free: – 64GB 10″ iPad Pro... Read more
Apple restocks refurbished iPad mini 4 models...
Apple has restocked Certified Refurbished 32GB iPad mini 4 WiFi models for $229 shipped. That’s $70 off original MSRP for the iPad mini 4. Space Gray, Silver, and Gold colors are available. Read more
Apple, Yet Again, Is Missing An Ultraportable...
EDITORIAL: 07.19.19 Prior to the decision made by Apple earlier this month to retire the thin and light MacBook model with a 12-inch retina display, the Cupertino, California-based company offered,... Read more
Verizon is offering a 50% discount on iPhone...
Verizon is offering 50% discounts on Apple iPhone 8 and iPhone 8 Plus models though July 24th, plus save 50% on activation fees. New line required. The fine print: “New device payment & new... Read more
Get a new 21″ iMac for under $1000 today at t...
B&H Photo has new 21″ Apple iMacs on sale for up to $100 off MSRP with models available starting at $999. These are the same iMacs offered by Apple in their retail and online stores. Shipping is... Read more
Clearance 2017 15″ 2.8GHz Touch Bar MacBook P...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2017 15″ 2.8GHz Space Gray Touch Bar MacBook Pros available for $1809. Apple’s refurbished price is currently the lowest available for a 15″ MacBook Pro. An standard... Read more
Clearance 12″ 1.2GHz MacBook on sale for $899...
Focus Camera has clearance 12″ 1.2GHz Space Gray MacBooks available for $899.99 shipped. That’s $400 off Apple’s original MSRP. Focus charges sales tax for NY & NJ residents only. Read more
Get a new 2019 13″ 2.4GHz 4-Core MacBook Pro...
B&H Photo has new 2019 13″ 2.4GHz MacBook Pros on sale for up to $150 off Apple’s MSRP. Overnight shipping is free to many addresses in the US: – 2019 13″ 2.4GHz/256GB 6-Core MacBook Pro Silver... Read more

Jobs Board

Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**707083BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Job Category:** Sales **Location Number:** 000045-Rockford-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Read more
Geek Squad *Apple* Master Consultation Agen...
**702908BR** **Job Title:** Geek Squad Apple Master Consultation Agent **Job Category:** Services/Installation/Repair **Location Number:** 000360-Williston-Store Read more
Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**711023BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Job Category:** Sales **Location Number:** 000012-St Cloud-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Read more
*Apple* Systems Architect/Engineer, Vice Pre...
…its vision to be the world's most trusted financial group. **Summary:** Apple Systems Architect/Engineer with strong knowledge of products and services related to Read more
Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**696259BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Job Category:** Store Associates **Location Number:** 001076-Temecula-Store **Job Description:** The Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.