TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Definition Routines
Volume Number:2
Issue Number:7
Column Tag:Pascal Procedures

Introduction to Definition Routines

By Darryl Lovato, Lovato Programming, Salt Lake City, UT

Introduction

This is the first of a series of articles which will cover Macintosh Definition Routines. I will use TML Pascal for all the programming examples because it is rapidly becoming the most popular Development System on the Mac, and because the new TML linker will allow you to create procedure resources (MDEF's PROC's WDEF's FKEY's ect.) quickly and efficiently.

This month I will cover the issues in common to all the different types of definition routines. In the following months I will cover Menu definition routines (MDEF's), Window definition routines (WDEF's), Control definition routines (CDEF's), List definition routines (LDEF's), and function key routines (FKEY's) in depth.

Defintion routines allow you to create a variation of a standard type of "Object" to better fit your needs. That is, they effect the general appearance and behavior of whatever they define. The pattern selection Menu in MacDraw is a good example of this. Definition routines are usually stored as resources but they may also be set up as routines within your program.

The best way to develop a Definition Routine is to make it a routine in your code, and when its finished, to compile it into a resource which can then be used with any application. The Menu, Window, Contol, and List managers all allow you to use definition routines.

Fig. 1 A non-standard Menu Item

Getting a Handle On Things

When you create a new object (menu, window ect.), you can specify a non-standard definition routine (a routine other than the normal Mac ROM way of doing something) for it to use. There are two ways of doing this.

1. By making the procedure a resource in a seperate file.

An example of this process for a non-standard menu follows. Listing #1 is the code that creates the Menu Definition Resource and listing #2 shows how to use it.

{---------listing fragment #1 the resource def program-------}
{must be compiled with the DeskAcc option checked}
program TheMDEFProc;

{pascal directive to create a MDEf resource}
{---> $C type id [attribute] [name] <---}

{$C 'MENU' 256 4 'TheMDEFRes'}

var { no globals allowed }

  procedure theMDEFProcedure(...);

  begin
    { code to impliment the Menu Def }
  end;

begin {no main program allowed}
end.

{------listing fragment #2 the program that uses the res-----}

program UseTheMenu;

{$L TheMDEFProc} {link the file we created above}
          {it includes the menu def we created}

Two methods can be used to put a handle to your MDEF resource in the MenuProc field of the menu.

(1) In the menu resource, change the menuID field to the resource id of your MDEF. Then,when you call the GetMenu function, the Menu Manager will automatically read the MDEF resource from the resource file, and place a handle to it in the MenuProcField of the menu

(2) If you create the menu (or window) by any means other than reading a resource (by calling NewMenu, for instance), you must get a handle to the MDEF by executing the following code:

 MyMenuHand := NewMenu(100,'menuTitle');
 myProcHdl := GetResource('MDEF',256);
 MyMenuHand^^.menuProc := myProcHdl;

2. By putting the proc in your code and creating a handle to it.

First get a handle to your object, by calling NewMenu or GetNewMenu. Then get a handle to the definition routine, which may be part of your code, and shove it into the MenuProc field of your objects record. An Example of this method follows:

var
 myMenuHdl : MenuHandle;

procedure TheMenuProc(...);
begin
.
.
.
end;
.
.
.
myMenuHdl := GetNewMenu(...);
myMenuHdl^^.menuProc := NewHandle(0);
myMenuHdl^^.menuProc^ := Ptr(@TheMenuProc);

Fig. 2 A non-standard window definition

Things to Come

All of the definition routines are passed a message which tell them what kind of action the are to do. Typical actions are Initialize, Draw, Select, Drag, Size, ect. A brief introduction to the individual definition routines we will cover in the in the next couple of months follow:

Menu Defintion Procedure

The menu definition procedure has the following Pascal definition:

procedure MyMenu(message : integer;
 theMenu : MenuHandle;
 var menuRect : Rect;
 hitPt : Point;
 var whichItem : Integer);

The message parameter tells you what kind of action to take, it may be one of the following values:

mDrawMsg

If the menu definition procedure is passed this value it should draw theMenu inside menuRect.

mChooseMsg

If the menu definition procedure is passed this value it should hilite the item which hitPt is in, unhilite the old item, and return the new item in whichItem.

mSizeMsg

If the menu definition procedure is passed this value it should calculate the width and height of the menu and put the results in theMenu^^.width and theMenu^^.height respectively.

Window Defintion function

The window definition function has the following Pascal definition:

function MyWindow(varCode : integer;
 theWindow : WindowPtr;
 message : integer;
 param : LongInt)
 : LongInt;

The message parameter tells you what kind of action to take, it may be one of the following values:

wDraw

If the window definition function is passed this value it should draw the window frame. Before doing this, however, the routine should check to see if the window frame should show hiliting, if the window is visible, if the window has a go-away box, ect.

wHit

If the window definition function is passed this value it should inspect param, which is the point where the mouse was pressed. Then it should check to see if the point is in one of the windows regions, such as the GoAway region, and return the appropriate result.

wCalcRgns

If the window definition function is passed this value it should calculate the windows current structure and content regions and store the results in the window record.

wNew

If the window definition function is passed this value it should perform any extra initialization and allocation it may require.

wDispose

If the window definition function is passed this value it should perform any additional disposal actions which it may require. This message "Undo's" whatever was done in the wNew routine.

wGrow

If the window definition function is passed this value it should draw a grow image of the window to fit the given rectangle. This operation is called repeatedly when the user drags inside the grow region.

wDrawGIcon

If the window definition function is passed this value it should draw the size box icon in the window.

Control Defintion Function

The control definition function has the following Pascal definition:

function MyControl(varCode : integer;
 theControl : ControlHandle;
 message : integer;
 param : LongInt)
 : LongInt;

The message parameter tells you what kind of action to take, it may be one of the following values:

drawCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should draw all or part of theControl.

testCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should test where the mouse button was pressed.

calcCRgns

If the control definition function is passed this value it should calculate the control or its indicators regions.

initCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should do any extra initialization actions it needs to perform.

dispCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should take any additional disposal actions.

posCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should reposition the controls indicator, and update it.

thumbCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should calculate parameters for dragging indicator.

dragCntl

If the control definition function is passed this value it should drag the control or its indicator.

autoTrack

If the control definition function is passed this value it should execute the control's action procedure.

List Defintion Procedure

The list definition procedure has the following Pascal definition:

procedure MyList(lmessage : integer;
 lSelect : Boolean;
 lRect : Rect;
 lCell : Cell;
 lDataOffset : integer;
 lDataLen : integer;
 lHandle : ListHandle);

The message parameter tells you what kind of action to take, it may be one of the following values:

lInitMsg

If the list definition procedure is passed this value it should do any additional list initialization.

lDrawMsg

If the list definition procedure is passed this value it should draw the cell.

lHiliteMsg

If the list definition procedure is passed this value it should invert the cell's highlite state.

lCloseMsg

If the list definition procedure is passed this value it should take any additional disposal actions.

A Warning From Apple

Apple has stated, "For the convienience of the application's user, remember to conform to the Macintosh User Interface Guidlines as much as possable". I agree totally. So don't make a round menu or a window in the shape of a Apple. (I've already done them both anyway!) [Wow! How about publishing the Apple window? -Ed.]

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

OmniGraffle Pro 7.19.3 - Create diagrams...
OmniGraffle Pro helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use... Read more
OmniGraffle 7.19.3 - Create diagrams, fl...
OmniGraffle helps you draw beautiful diagrams, family trees, flow charts, org charts, layouts, and (mathematically speaking) any other directed or non-directed graphs. We've had people use Graffle to... Read more
Hopper Disassembler 5.3.3- - Binary disa...
Hopper Disassembler is a binary disassembler, decompiler, and debugger for 32- and 64-bit executables. It will let you disassemble any binary you want, and provide you all the information about its... Read more
calibre 5.35.0 - Complete e-book library...
Calibre is a complete e-book library manager. Organize your collection, convert your books to multiple formats, and sync with all of your devices. Let Calibre be your multi-tasking digital librarian... Read more
Sound Studio 4.10.0 - Robust audio recor...
Sound Studio lets you easily record and professionally edit audio on your Mac. Easily rip vinyls and digitize cassette tapes, or record lectures and voice memos. Prepare for live shows with live... Read more
Sparkle Pro 4.0 - Visual website creator...
Sparkle Pro will change your mind if you thought building websites wasn't for you. Sparkle is the intuitive site builder that lets you create sites for your online portfolio, team or band pages, or... Read more
Dropbox 140.4.1951 - Cloud backup and sy...
Dropbox for Mac is a file hosting service that provides cloud storage, file synchronization, personal cloud, and client software. It is a modern workspace that allows you to get to all of your files... Read more
FotoMagico 6.0.5 - Powerful slideshow cr...
FotoMagico lets you create professional slideshows from your photos and music with just a few, simple mouse clicks. It sports a very clean and intuitive yet powerful user interface. High image... Read more
Remotix 6.4.2 - Access all your computer...
Remotix is a fast and powerful application to easily access multiple Macs (and PCs) from your own Mac. Features: Complete Apple Screen Sharing support - including Mac OS X login, clipboard... Read more
Microsoft Office 365, 2019 16.57 - Popul...
Microsoft Office 365. The essentials to get it all done. Unmistakably Office, designed for Mac Get started quickly with new, modern versions of Word, Excel, PowerPoint, Outlook and OneNote-... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

A House Full of Covid – The TouchArcade...
It’s been a rough week as both of our young children tested positive for Covid, and since recording this early on Friday my wife has tested positive now too. Thankfully the kids seemed to recover fairly quickly and are mostly back to normal, and I... | Read more »
TouchArcade Game of the Week: ‘Krispee S...
Krispee Street is a new hidden object game from Frosty Pop that is based on their popular and almost painfully sweet webcomic Krispee. This is one of the latest titles to be added to the Netflix Games catalog, which means you’ll need to log into... | Read more »
SwitchArcade Round-Up: ‘Escape Lala’, ‘B...
Hello gentle readers, and welcome to the SwitchArcade Round-Up for January 21st, 2022. In today’s article, we’ve got a lot of new releases. A lot. There were eight on the schedule when I went to bed last night. There were twenty-four when I woke up... | Read more »
Beta Testers Needed for Huge Version 2.0...
Ya’ll remember Dungeon Raid, right? The phenomenal matching RPG hybrid that launched on mobile more than a decade ago, but was more or less abandoned by its developer only to die a slow death on the App Store before the 32-bit Appocalypse finally... | Read more »
‘Ark Legends’ Gives Players a Chance to...
It’s Airpods and Amazon gift cards galore as Melting Games opens pre-registration for Ark Legends. The upcoming mobile RPG is giving away tons of in-game goodies such as gold, energy, iron core, hero summon chest and rare iron core to players who... | Read more »
‘Nickelodeon Extreme Tennis’ Out Now on...
Nickelodeon Extreme Tennis () from Old Skull Games and Nickelodeon is this week’s new Apple Arcade release. Nickelodeon Extreme Tennis features characters from old and new Nickelodeon shows including SpongeBob, TMNT, and many more. The tennis game... | Read more »
SwitchArcade Round-Up: ‘RPGolf Legends’,...
Hello gentle readers, and welcome to the SwitchArcade Round-Up for January 20th, 2022. In today’s article, we’ve got a massive amount of new releases to check out. We’ve got summaries of all of them, from heaven to hell. We also have the lists of... | Read more »
‘Zed Blade ACA NEOGEO’ Review – Well, It...
SNK’s NEOGEO platform played host to a great many classics, both famous and under-the-radar. The Metal Slug games. The King of Fighters series. Magician Lord. Shock Troopers. Sengoku 3. NEO Turf Masters. Fatal Fury. Samurai Shodown. Twinkle Star... | Read more »
‘Inua – A Story in Ice and Time’ is a Un...
One thing I know about ARTE from their output on mobile over the years is that they love collaborating with really interesting and unique studios to put out really interesting and unique gaming experiences. This is true yet again with the latest... | Read more »
Out Now: ‘Angry Birds Journey’, ‘RPG Dic...
Each and every day new mobile games are hitting the App Store, and so each week we put together a big old list of all the best new releases of the past seven days. Back in the day the App Store would showcase the same games for a week, and then... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Amazon lowers prices on select 13″ M1 MacBook...
Amazon has select Apple 13″ M1 MacBook Airs on sale for $150 off MSRP this weekend, starting at only $849. Their prices are the lowest available for new MacBook Airs today. Stock may come and go, so... Read more
Apple has 13″ M1 MacBook Airs back in stock s...
Apple has restocked a full line of 13″ M1 MacBook Airs, Certified Refurbished, starting at only $849 and up to $190 off original MSRP. These are the cheapest M1-powered MacBooks for sale today at... Read more
In stock and on sale! 16″ 10-Core M1 Pro MacB...
Amazon has new 16″ 10-Core/512GB M1 Pro MacBook Pros in stock today and on sale for $50 off MSRP including free shipping. Their prices are the lowest available for new M1 Pro 16″ MacBook Pro from any... Read more
Deal Alert!: 14″ M1 Pro with 10-Core CPU in s...
Amazon has the new 14″ M1 Pro MacBook Pro with a 10-Core CPU and 16-Core GPU in stock today and on sale for $2299.99 including free shipping. Their price is $200 off Apple’s standard MSRP, and it’s... Read more
Apple has 24-inch M1 iMacs (8-Core CPU/8-Core...
Apple has restocked a wide array of 24-inch M1 iMacs with 8-Core CPUs and 8-Core GPUs in their Certified Refurbished store. Models are available starting at only $1269 and range up to $260 off... Read more
Select 24″ M1 iMacs are on sale for $100 off...
Sales of Apple’s new 24″ M1 iMacs have been rare since its introduction, perhaps due to global supply issues. However, B&H is offering a $100 discount on select 24″ iMacs, and they’re in stock... Read more
M1 Mac minis are back in stock today at Apple...
Apple has M1-powered Mac minis available in their Certified Refurbished section starting at only $589 and up to $140 off MSRP. Each mini comes with Apple’s one-year warranty, and shipping is free: –... Read more
B&H has M1-powered Mac minis on sale for...
B&H Photo has Apple’s Mac minis with M1 Apple Silicon CPUs in stock today and on sale for $50-$100 off MSRP, starting at $649. Free 1-2 shipping is free to many US addresses. Their prices are... Read more
New Amazon sale: Apple’s 13″ M1 MacBook Airs...
Amazon has Apple 13″ M1 MacBook Airs on sale for $100 off MSRP, starting at only $899. Their prices are the lowest available for new MacBook Airs today. Stock may come and go, so check their site... Read more
Get an Apple Watch Series 7 for $50 off MSRP,...
Amazon has Apple Watch Series 7 models on sale for $50 off MSRP including free shipping. Their prices are the lowest available for Apple Watch Series 7 models today: – 41mm Apple Watch Series 7 GPS... Read more

Jobs Board

Registered Nurse (RN) Employee Health PSJH -...
…is calling for a Registered Nurse (RN) Employee Health PSJH to our location in Apple Valley, CA.** We are seeking a Registered Nurse (RN) Employee Health PSJH to be Read more
Systems Administrator - Pearson (United State...
…and troubleshoot Windows operating systems (workstation and server), laptop computers, Apple iPads, Chromebooks and printers** + **Administer and troubleshoot all Read more
IT Assistant Level 1- IT Desktop Support Anal...
…providing tier-1 or better IT help desk support in a large Windows and Apple environment * Experience using IT Service Desk Management Software * Knowledge of IT Read more
Human Resources Business Partner PSJH - Provi...
…**is calling a** **Human Resources Business Partner, PSJH** **to our location in Apple Valley, CA.** **Applicants that meet qualifications will receive a text with Read more
Manager Community Health Investment Programs...
…is calling a Manager Community Health Investment Programs PSJH to our location in Apple Valley, CA.** **Qualified candidates will be invited to do a self-paced video Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.