TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Star Flight
Volume Number:2
Issue Number:3
Column Tag:Pascal Procedures

Star Flight Graphics in TML Pascal

By Mike Morton, InfoCom, Cambridge, MA

Mike Morton wins $50 for the outstanding program of the month with this feature article. Congratulations Mike!

Star Flight: Real-time, 3-D animation on the Mac

In the fall of 1984, I made the mistake of watching too much of a nine-hour “Twilight Zone” extravaganza. Most of that night was a blur, but I remembered one scene vividly -- flying through space fast enough that the stars whizzed by. Today this effect is commonplace, appearing in everything from “Nightline” credits to “Star Trek” reruns. But it's usually done with expensive equipment and filmed one frame at a time. I wondered if a Macintosh could do the same thing in real time. The result is an exercise in simple 3-D graphics and optimizing a Macintosh program.

This article explains the program “Small Flight”, a subset of “Star Flight” (available through the Boston Computer Society's Mac group, or on the MacTutor source code disk #7). The reduced version is missing speed controls and special effects, but incorporates all the important internals of the original program.

Perspective 3-D graphics:

“Small Flight” keeps track of star positions in a 3-dimensional space; each star has X, Y, and Z coordinates. The viewer looking at the Mac screen is looking along the Z axis in the positive direction. To simplify things, flying through space is done by decreasing the Z coordinate of each star, not increasing the viewer's Z coordinate. Thus the viewer is always at the origin.

Where does the star at the 3-D point (X, Y, Z) appear on the screen? To find the location (h, v) on the screen, the formulas are:

h = X * k / Z
v = Y * k / Z

“k” is a constant which determines how wide the view is. I used the maximum value of Z for k, and got a reasonable view. Try adding a control to vary k to see how it affects things.

[For a more detailed explanation of perspective graphics, see Foley and Van Dam's classic Fundamentals of Interactive Computer Graphics. The above formulas are from chapter 8. You can derive them with a few sketches, using similar triangles.]

Implementation -- the “star” data structure

A star needs very little information. At a minimum, its 3-D location (X, Y, Z) needs to be kept. “Small Flight” keeps X and Y in a Quickdraw point, and Z separately. The screen location is also kept when the star is first drawn, so it doesn't need to be recomputed when the star is erased.

To initialize the data structure, the procedure “makestar” picks random values for X and Y, within a range. It always starts with the maximum value for Z. Then it derives the initial screen location and draws the star there.

Implementation -- moving a star

The main loop repeatedly calls the “cycle” procedure to move every star. This routine loops through the array of records and processes each one.

A given star is always erased, then its new position is computed. If the new Z coordinate is less than zero, the star is too close to see and a new random values are stored in that star's record. If the computed screen location is outside the view rectangle, the star is also out of sight and a new star is generated.

Stars are always drawn as single pixels; this is done without Quickdraw. The program would be much slower using Quickdraw; I'm indebted to Dave Pearson of True Basic for suggesting the technique which is used instead. A 68000 procedure “flippix” is passed the screen coordinates and toggles the bit in memory which corresponds to that point on the screen. The only complication is making sure the cursor doesn't interfere: the routine temporarily hides the cursor if it would be in the way, just as Quickdraw does.

Optimizations in Star Flight

Star Flight has lots of tricks to try to speed up the program, allowing more stars to be animated, but keeping the animation running fast enough to fool the eye. To make “Small Flight” presentable for educational purposes, I ripped out most of the tricks. To my embarrassment, the speed difference was nearly nil. Some speedups from both versions are worth describing:

• the calculations for perspective were originally precomputed and stored in an array. This doesn't actually speed things up much, and slows down initialization a lot. It also limits the maximum X, Y, and Z values since arrays are limited in size.

• since the Random function is expensive, I called it just once in the original “makeStar” and sliced up the result to get two random numbers.

• since “cycle” repeatedly refers to “stars[i]”, it creates a pointer to the i'th star and avoids a lot of subscripting.

• the code in “cycle” which checks if the star is outside the bounds rectangle could be done with a call to “PtInRect”, but the explicit checks are faster.

• avoiding Quickdraw is the most important optimization. Try removing calls to “flippix” and use “InvertRect” instead; see how much slower it gets!

Enhancements in “Star Flight”

The user interface which allows you to control the speed in the real “Star Flight” is easy to do. The menu commands just vary the variable “speed” (which is a constant in the scaled-down version). The only fancy thing is “warp” mode, in which stars leave trails; it's just a flag which prevents stars from being erased. Try adding your own controls to the program; perhaps graphical ones would be better than the menus in “Star Flight”?

Some projects you might consider:

• make the stars cover the display uniformly, instead of clustering at the center. In a real spaceship, the density should be the same in any direction.

• similarly, avoid the “waves” of stars which occur in the first moments of flight.

• when you leave “warp” on for a while in “Star Flight”, patterns appear on the screen. I think this is because the 3-D coordinates have such a small set of discrete values. Try using larger values, but be careful not to overflow 16 bits in your calculations of screen location!

• because the program makes no effort to keep in sync with the hardware screen refresh, you can sometimes see stars “twinkle”. This is because the star is erased from memory and the screen is refreshed before the new location can be drawn in memory. This is more apparent when the star is moving upwards, since the refresh sweeps downwards. You could minimize this effect with a modified “flippix” which toggles two points, hoping to erase and redraw with as little time as possible in between.

• to get smoother animation, you might try using the alternate video buffer.

Of course, there are a lot of other changes. Add better navigation -- roll, pitch, and yaw. Have the apparent size of a star change as it approaches! Introduce comets which don't move in a simple path. Add Klingons and photon torpedoes add a network hookup for multiple players have fun!

Putting It All Together

by David E. Smith

Small flight is written in TML Pascal, which is practically 100% Lisa Pascal compatible. The Pascal source may be compiled into a ".REL" file format or into assembly source code to be compiled by the MDS assembler. To get the Pascal to compile correctly under HFS, the include files and the source code file must reside in the same folder and on the same disk as the compiler. Version 1.1 of TML Pascal will fix some of these HFS dependencies and may be updated for $20 by contacting Tom Leonard directly. As is my practice, I compiled the pascal source into assembly source code, and then switched over to MDS to complete linking the code. [Note that you don't have to do it this way; I just prefer it.]

The FlipPix routine is an assembly routine which flips the pixel on the screen to draw and erase the star directly. This routine could be very useful in a variety of applications where direct screen updating in assembly is required. Note that provision is made for the cursor! This routine is written in MDS assembly and is assembled by moving the assembly source code and all the include files to the same disk as the assembler, in the root directory (ie not in any folders). Again these HFS bugs are being fixed by Bill Duvall of Consulair, who is doing the update to MDS for Apple and which should be ready in April. In the meantime, Bill has released version 4.52 of his smart linker and C system, which includes a fixed version of the editor and linker for HFS. Contact Consulair Corp. about updating the C package to version 4.52, and you will also gain an improved editor and linker for HFS that will work with TML Pascal. It is likely that Tom and Bill will cross license their two products so they can be sold as a compatible development system in the future; a marketing move we encourage both companies to adopt. In the meantime, they remain separate but equal in compatibility.

The linker has the most problems under HFS. It won't recognize it's own link file! To get around this, click on the linker and then shift-click on the link file and select open from the file menu. This will start the link process. Then remember, again to have all the ".REL" files together on the same disk as the linker and not in any folders. Then the link process should proceed normally.

The resource file is a simple assembly file that provides the basic Finder information to make a custom icon pop up on the desktop. You can create an icon with the icon editor and convert it to an "include" file by running Chris Yerga's icon converter program on it. Or you can use a DA called Icon Maker to create the hex code for the icon, or an icon resource directly.

The link file combines the code files for the Pascal program, the FipPix assembly code, and the compiled resource file into a runnable application with the appropriate file attributes set to create the custom icon. The TML Pascal creates an initial link file for you that you can then edit depending on what your doing. In this case, we edited TML's link file to include the FlipPix assembly routine. Note that unlike Microsoft's Fortran, the TML run time pacakge is fully MDS compatible! (We encourage Microsoft to fix up their buggy Fortran version 2.1 and make it fully toolbox and MDS compatible.) We continue to push for the MDS ".REL" file format as a standard which currently supports the MDS assembler, the Consulair C and TML Pascal as all linkable under the same linker, with Fortran almost there. That makes a considerable development system which we feel is the best way to go at the present time. It is our hope that other companies will work to establish a linking standard with these compiler products.

program smallflight; { a scaled-down "star flight" }

{ Written by Mike Morton for MacTutor }
{ Converted to TML Pascal by David E. Smith}

    {$I MemTypes.ipas}  {   TML Mac Iibraries }
    {$I QuickDraw.ipas}   {   Quickdraw interface }
    {$I OSIntf.ipas   }   {   Operating System interface }
    {$I ToolIntf.ipas }   {   Toolbox interface }

  const
    numStars   = 140;{ number of stars we display }
    maxXY      = 64; { largest star radius (X or Y) }
    maxZ       = 200;{ largest star distance (Z) }
    speed      = 4;{ Z change per animation cycle }

  type
    star = record{ information about one star }
      ploc:    point;{ physical location in space (X, Y) }
      z:       integer;   { physical location in space (Z) }
      sloc:    point;{ location on the screen (h, v) }
    end;

  var           { global program variables }
    stars:     array [0..numStars] of star; { information on stars }
    bounds:    rect; { rectangle used for bounds checking }
    sorigin:   point;        { center of screen }
    myPort:    grafPort;          { our graphics environment }
    anevent:   eventrecord;    { for checking if the user's bored }

  procedure flipPix (h, v: integer); external; 
 { asm routine to flip pixel }

  { makestar -- randomize physical location; set Z and  }
 { find screen location. }
  procedure makeStar (VAR new: star);   { initialize one star }
  var dh, dv: integer;  { star's position, relative to origin }
  begin;
    new.ploc.h := random mod maxXY;     { horizontal position }
    new.ploc.v := random mod maxXY;     { vertical position }
    new.z := maxZ;                   { how far away is it? }

    dh := new.ploc.h*maxZ div new.z;    { compute h offset }
    new.sloc.h := sorigin.h + dh;       {  compute absolute h pos }
    dv := new.ploc.v*maxZ div new.z;    { compute v offset }
    new.sloc.v := sorigin.v + dv;       {  compute absolute v pos }

    flipPix (new.sloc.h, new.sloc.v);   { flip spot (draw star 1st ) 
}
  end;   { of procedure makeStar }

  { initialize -- Do Mac initializations; calculate display rect; init 
}
        { screen; define bounds rect; draw initial stars. }
  procedure initialize; { one-time initialization }
  var i: integer;{ star number }
  begin;
    initGraf(@thePort); { fire up quickdraw }
    openPort(@myPort);  { get a drawing environment }
    initCursor;  { get rid of the Finder's "watch" }

    bounds := screenbits.bounds;        { start with  whole screen }
    insetRect (bounds, 25, 30);          { shrink it in a bit }
    sorigin.h := (bounds.left + bounds.right) div 2; { find the... }
    sorigin.v := (bounds.top + bounds.bottom) div 2; { ...origin }
    eraseRect (myPort.portRect);        { clean the screen }
    invertRect (bounds);          { space is black }
    offsetrect (bounds, -sorigin.h, -sorigin.v); 
 { center bounds on origin }

    for i := 1 to numStars do         { loop through all the stars.. 
}
       makeStar (stars [i]);        { ...and make up each one }
  end;          { procedure init }

 { cycle -- main routine.  For each star, erase the old position.}
 { See if its motion has carried it past the plane we're in.  If so, 
}
 { we create a new star.  If not, we compute the new apparent }
 { position from the new Z.If the apparent position is outside }
{ display, we create a new star; otherwise we draw the star's }
{ new position. }

  procedure cycle;   { do one animation cycle }
  var
    i:      integer;   { star number in main loop }
    dv, dh: integer;   { star coordinates, origin-relative }
    sp:     ^star;   { fast pointer to stars[i] }
  begin;
    for i := 1 to numStars do   { loop through all the stars }
    begin;
      sp := @stars[i];    { point to star (avoid subscripting) }
      flipPix (sp^.sloc.h, sp^.sloc.v); 
 { erase the star's old position }

      sp^.z := sp^.z - speed;  
 { time advances: find new z position }
      if sp^.z <= 0  { past the plane of the eye yet? }
      then makeStar (sp^)  { yes: this star's gone; make another }
      else begin;        { no: update star's screen position }
        dh := sp^.ploc.h*maxZ div sp^.z; { compute relative h }
        sp^.sloc.h := sorigin.h + dh;   
 { and compute absolute screen h }

        dv := sp^.ploc.v*maxZ div sp^.z; { compute relative v }
        sp^.sloc.v := sorigin.v + dv;   
 { and compute absolute screen v }

        if    (dv >= bounds.bottom)     { is the new position... }
           or (dv <= bounds.top)        { ...outside... }
           or (dh >= bounds.right)      { ...the bounds rectangle... 
}
           or (dh <= bounds.left)       { ...which is centered at origin? 
}
        then makeStar (sp^)         { yes, so get a new one }
        else flipPix (sp^.sloc.h, sp^.sloc.v) 
 { no: draw it at new position }
      end;{ of case where z didn't go off edge }

    end;{ of loop through all stars }
  end;  { of procedure cycle }

  begin;{ main program }
    initialize;  { set everything up }
    flushEvents (everyevent, 0);        { ignore stale events }
    repeat        { main loop: }
      cycle;        { do one animation "frame" }
    until getnextevent (mDownMask+keyDownMask,anevent); 
 { until click or key }
  end.

;
;  flippix -- complement a pixel on the screen, given its
;  global coordinates.
;
;  procedure flipPix (h, v: integer); external;
;
;Written by Mike Morton for MacTutor
;Converted to MDS Assembly by David E. Smith
;
;
 xdef flipPix
 
 include  QuickEqu.D
 include  SysEqu.D
 include  ToolEqu.D
 includeMacTraps.D
 
 MACRO  .equ= equ| ; convert lisa  to mds
 MACRO  _hideCurs  = _HideCursor|
 MACRO  _showCurs  = _ShowCursor|
 
 CrsrRect equ  $83C;SysEqu stuff
 grafGlob equ  $0
 
; parameter offsets from the stack pointer:

bitH    .equ 4           ; horizontal pixel coordinate
bitV    .equ bitH+2        ; vertical pixel coordinate
plast   .equ bitV+2        ; address just past last parameter
psize   .equ plast-bitH         ; size of parameters, in bytes

; entrance: set up a stack frame, save some registers, hide 
; cursor if needed.

flipPix:
 
        clr.w D2         ; clear flag saying cursor was hidden
        movem.w bitH(A7),D0/D1  ; load v. and h. coordinates 
 ;together

        ; see if we'll need to hide the cursor while we draw
        lea CrsrRect+top,A0     ; point to rectangle the cursor 
 ;covers
        cmp.w (A0)+,D0          ; compare v to rect.top
        blt.s nohide         ; if too small (above r.top), don't 
 ;hide
        cmp.w (A0)+,D1          ; compare h to rect.left
        blt.s nohide         ; if too small (left of r.left), don't hide
        cmp.w (A0)+,D0          ; compare v to rect.bottom
        bge.s nohide         ; if too large (below r.bottom), don't 
 ;hide
        cmp.w (A0)+,D1          ; compare h to rect.right
        bge.s nohide         ; if too large (right of r.right, don't 
 ;hide

        _hideCurs        ; must briefly hide the cursor to draw here
        move.w #1,D2 ; flag that we did so
nohide:  swap D2 ; hidden or not: slide flag up to top of D2

        move.l grafGlob(A5),A0  ; point to quickdraw globals
        move.l thePort(A0),A0   ; point to the current grafport
        mulu portBits+rowBytes(A0),D0 ; v. times stride is byte 
 ;offset of row

        move.b D1,D2   ; copy h. coord (low 3 bits) for bit offset
        lsr.w #3,D1  ; extract byte offset
        add.w D1,D0  ; combine v. and byte component of h.

        not.b D2         ; make the bit# 68000-style (x := 7-x)
        move.l portBits+baseAddr(A0),A0 ; pick up base address 
 ;of bitmap
        bchg D2,0(A0,D0.w)      ; flip the bit in the right byte

        swap D2   ; bring back cursor-hidden flag
        tst.w D2          ; is it set?
        beq.s return  ; no -- all done
        _showCurs ; yes -- show the cursor

return:
 
        move.l (A7)+,A0         ; pop return address
        add.l #psize,A7         ; unstack parameters
        jmp (A0)          ; home to mother

end        ; of procedure flipPix

; Smallflight_rscs.asm
; resource file for the Small Flight Program
; created using the assembler
; signiture is creator tag 
;
RESOURCE 'SMFL' 0 'IDENTIFICATION'

 DC.B 12, 'SMALL FLIGHT'
 
.ALIGN 2
RESOURCE 'BNDL' 128 'BUNDLE'

 DC.L 'SMFL';NAME OF SIGNATURE
 DC.W 0,1 ;DATA (DOESN'T CHANGE)
 DC.L 'ICN#';ICON MAPPINGS
    DC.W0 ;NUMBER OF MAPPINGS-1
    DC.W 0,128   ;MAP 0 TO ICON 128
    
 DC.L 'FREF';FREF MAPPINGS
    DC.W0 ;NUMBER OF MAPPINGS-1
    DC.W 0,128   ;MAP 0 TO FREF 128

RESOURCE 'FREF' 128 'FREF 1'
 
 DC.B 'APPL', 0, 0, 0
 
.ALIGN 2
RESOURCE 'ICN#' 128 'MY ICON'

; FIRST APPLICATION ICON BIT MAP

INCLUDE ICON.TXT


Link file

!PAS$Xfer
]
)
/OUTPUT Small Flight Demo
/Globals -4

Small Flight
FlipPix
PAS$Sys
OSTraps
ToolTraps

/TYPE 'APPL' 'SMFL'
/BUNDLE
/RESOURCES
SMALLFLIGHT_RSCS

$ 
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

LibreOffice 6.4.5.2 - Free, open-source...
LibreOffice is an office suite (word processor, spreadsheet, presentations, drawing tool) compatible with other major office suites. The Document Foundation is coordinating development and... Read more
Thunderbird 68.10.0 - Email client from...
As of July 2012, Thunderbird has transitioned to a new governance model, with new features being developed by the broader free software and open source community, and security fixes and improvements... Read more
Firefox 78.0.1 - Fast, safe Web browser.
Firefox offers a fast, safe Web browsing experience. Browse quickly, securely, and effortlessly. With its industry-leading features, Firefox is the choice of Web development professionals and casual... Read more
BetterTouchTool 3.389 - Customize multi-...
BetterTouchTool adds many new, fully customizable gestures to the Magic Mouse, Multi-Touch MacBook trackpad, and Magic Trackpad. These gestures are customizable: Magic Mouse: Pinch in / out (zoom)... Read more
Slack 4.7.0 - Collaborative communicatio...
Slack brings team communication and collaboration into one place so you can get more work done, whether you belong to a large enterprise or a small business. Check off your to-do list and move your... Read more
OsiriX Lite 11.0.3 - 3D medical image pr...
OsiriX Lite is an image processing software dedicated to DICOM images (".dcm" / ".DCM" extension) produced by medical equipment (MRI, CT, PET, PET-CT, ...) and confocal microscopy (LSM and BioRAD-PIC... Read more
Wireshark 3.2.5 - Network protocol analy...
Wireshark is one of the world's foremost network protocol analyzers, and is the standard in many parts of the industry. It is the continuation of a project that started in 1998. Hundreds of... Read more
Dabble 1.6.1 - Organize your manuscript,...
Dabble organizes your manuscript, story notes, and plot. Dabble simplifies the story, leaving more room in your brain to create, which is what being a writer is really about. Organize your story.... Read more
Quicken 5.17.0 - Complete personal finan...
Quicken makes managing your money easier than ever. Whether paying bills, upgrading from Windows, enjoying more reliable downloads, or getting expert product help, Quicken's new and improved features... Read more
Tor Browser 9.5.1 - Anonymize Web browsi...
The Tor Browser Bundle is an easy-to-use portable package of Tor, Vidalia, Torbutton, and a Firefox fork preconfigured to work together out of the box. It contains a modified copy of Firefox that... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Clash Royale: The Road to Legendary Aren...
Supercell recently celebrated its 10th anniversary and their best title, Clash Royale, is as good as it's ever been. Even for lapsed players, returning to the game is as easy as can be. If you want to join us in picking the game back up, we've put... | Read more »
Detective Di is a point-and-click murder...
Detective Di is a point-and-click murder mystery set in Tang Dynasty-era China. You'll take on the role of China's best-known investigator, Di Renjie, as he solves a series of grisly murders that will ultimately lead him on a collision course with... | Read more »
Dissidia Final Fantasy Opera Omnia is se...
Dissidia Final Fantasy Opera Omnia, one of Square Enix's many popular mobile RPGs, has announced a plethora of in-game events that are set to take place over the summer. This will include several rewards, Free Multi Draws and more. [Read more] | Read more »
Sphaze is a neat-looking puzzler where y...
Sphaze is a neat-looking puzzler where you'll work to guide robots through increasingly elaborate mazes. It's set in a visually distinct world that's equal parts fantasy and sci-fi, and it's finally launched today for iOS and Android devices. [... | Read more »
Apple Arcade is in trouble
Yesterday, Bloomberg reported that Apple is disappointed in the performance of Apple Arcade and will be shifting their approach to the service by focusing on games that can retain subscribers and canceling other upcoming releases that don't fit... | Read more »
Pixel Petz, an inventive platform for de...
Pixel Petz has built up a sizeable player base thanks to its layered, easy-to-understand creative tools and friendly social experience. It revolves around designing, trading, and playing with a unique collection of pixel art pets, and it's out now... | Read more »
The King of Fighters Allstar's late...
The King of Fighters ALLSTAR, Netmarble's popular action RPG, has once again been updated with a plethora of new content. This includes battle cards, events and 21 new fighters, which increases the already sizeable roster even more. [Read more] | Read more »
Romancing SaGa Re;univerSe, the mobile s...
Square Enix latest mobile spin-off Romancing SaGa Re;univerSe is available now globally for both iOS and Android. It initially launched in Japan back in 2018 where it's proven to be incredibly popular, so now folks in the West can finally see what... | Read more »
Away: Journey to the Unexpected is a sto...
Away: Journey to the Unexpected looks really quite lovely. Stylish, cute, and clearly heavily inspired by Japanese animation, it's amongst the best-looking mobile games on the horizon. Developed by a two-person team, this story-driven rogue-lite... | Read more »
Black Desert Mobile is giving away free...
Pearl Abyss has just announced that it will continue to offer special in-game rewards to Black Desert Mobile players who also happen to be Amazon Prime subscribers. The rewards will be sent out over the next three months, and today's news comes... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

July 4th Sale: $100 off every 2020 13″ MacBoo...
Apple resellers have new 2020 13″ MacBook Airs on sale for $100 off Apple’s MSRP as part of their July 4th sales. Starting at $899, these are the cheapest new 2020 MacBooks for sale anywhere: (1) B... Read more
This hidden deal on Apple’s site can save you...
Are you a local, state, or federal government employee? If so, Apple offers special government pricing on their products, including AirPods, for you as well as immediate family members. Here’s how... Read more
Apple Watch Series 3 models on sale for new l...
Amazon has Apple Watch Series 3 GPS models on sale for $30 off MSRP, starting at only $169. Their prices are the lowest available for these models from any Apple reseller. Choose Amazon as the seller... Read more
Deal Alert! Get these refurbished 2018 13″ Ma...
Apple has restocked and lowered prices on select Certified Refurbished 2018 13″ MacBook Airs, starting at only $679. Each MacBook features a new outer case, comes with a standard Apple one-year... Read more
July 4th Sale: 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pros for $2...
B&H Photo has new 2020 13″ 2.0GHz MacBook Pros on sale for $200 off Apple’s MSRP as part of their July 4th sale. Prices start at $1599. These are the same MacBook Pros sold by Apple in their... Read more
July 1 only: $100 off Apple iPhone 11, 11 Pro...
Boost Mobile is offering Apple iPhone 11, 11 Pro, and iPhone 11 Pro Max models for $100 off MSRP with service. Their discount reduces the cost of an iPhone 11/64GB to $599, iPhone 11 Pro to $899 for... Read more
Apple offers $50-$100 Education discount on i...
Purchase a new 12.9″ or 11″ iPad Pro at Apple using your Education discount, and Apple will take $50-$100 off their MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution with a .edu... Read more
Apple has Series 5 Apple Watch models availab...
Apple has Certified Refurbished Apple Watch Series 5 WiFi models available for $60 off MSRP, starting at $339. Each Watch includes Apple’s standard one-year warranty and free shipping: – 44mm Apple... Read more
Use our exclusive price trackers at MacPrices...
Looking for a new 2020 13″ MacBook Air or one of the new 2020 iPad Pros? Our Apple award-winning price trackers are the best place to look for the lowest prices and latest sales on Apple gear. Scan... Read more
Clearance Mac minis available for only $679,...
Apple reseller DataVision has clearance, previous-generation Mac minis available for up to $120 off Apple’s original MSRP, each including free shipping. Prices start at $679. DataVision charges... Read more

Jobs Board

Perioperative RN - ( *Apple* Hill Surgical C...
Perioperative RN - ( Apple Hill Surgical Center) Tracking Code 60593 Job Description Monday - Friday - Full Time Days Possible Saturdays General Summary: Under the Read more
Product Manager, *Apple* Commercial Sales -...
Product Manager, Apple Commercial Sales Austin, TX, US Requisition Number:77652 As an Apple Product Manager for the Commercial Sales team at Insight, you Read more
*Apple* Mac Product Engineer - Barclays (Uni...
Apple Mac EngineerWhippany, NJ Support the development and delivery of solutions, products, and capabilities into the Barclays environment working across technical Read more
Blue *Apple* Cafe Student Worker - Pennsylv...
…enhance your work experience. Student positions are available at the Blue Apple Cafe. Employee meal discount during working hours. Duties include food preparation, Read more
Blue *Apple* Cafe Student Worker - Fall - P...
…to enhance your work experience. Student positions are available at the Blue Apple Cafe. Employee meal discount during working hours is provided. Duties include food Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.