TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Scroll Win in BASIC
Volume Number:2
Issue Number:1
Column Tag:Basic School

Scroll that Window in BASIC!

By Dave Kelly, General Dynamics, MacTutor Editorial Board

One of the problems of using BASIC as a programming language is the inability to access the Macintosh ROM routines. Many of the toolbox and graphics functions are built into MSBASIC (2.0 or later) such as MENU, WINDOW, EDIT FIELD, BUTTON which we have covered in prior issues of MacTutor. This month we will discover the use of some specialized LIBRARY routines which make use of Macintosh ROM routines which before this time were only accessible to other programming languages (C, Forth, 68000 Assy., and others).

Fig. 1 Basic Scrolls Windows!

The routines which are featured in this month's column come from Clear Lake Research of Houston, Texas. It should be noted that the program and discussion which follows will not work without the Clear Lake Research Libraries. Also the MacTutor source disk will contain only the listing published here and will not include any of the CLR routines used by this program listing, since they are obviously a commercial product for sale. The CLR Libraries are required to run the program. [We encourage you to obtain these routines (see ad for ordering info or watch the MacTutor mail order store for this product), since they greatly enhance the power of Microsoft Basic, which is sadly missing a majority of the toolbox capability. -Ed.]

First a few comments about library routines: In November we discussed the process of installing BASIC Libraries. Please refer to that issue for information about installing libraries. It has come to my attention that the ID numbers for some desk accessories may conflict with the resource ID numbers for libraries even though resource ID numbers of different types may have the same ID according to Inside Macintosh. The range of ID numbers should be as follows:

Range Description

-32767 through -16385 Reserved; do not use

-16384 through -1 Used for system resources owned by other system resources (see IM)

0 through 127 Used for other system resources

128 through 32767 Available for your use in whatever way you wish

Resource ID numbers for desk accessories should be between 12 and 31 inclusive. Therefore, it is advisable that the ID numbers for libraries be assigned to numbers 128 through 32767. In addition, the CLR Libraries have been assigned resource ID numbers of 10000 thru about 12000 with a few exceptions. You can be sure not to have ID numbers that don't conflict with the CLR Libraries if you use ID 20000 through 32767 for your own libraries. This applies to the _Eject routine that appeared in the November issue. I recommend that the resource ID number for the libraries be changed as explained above. The _Eject routine works fine in most cases, but there is a chance that the ID number will conflict with something else.

Please be aware of how to define variables for use in your libraries. For some reason Integer variables used in Libraries routines should be defined with a % (following the variable name) instead of using the DEFINT statement. I tried the statement, DEFINT a-z to define integers throughout the entire program and when a library routine is executed an error results. You may use DEFINT as long as the name of the variables used appear later in alphabetical order than the variables defined in the DEFINT statement. I saw no difference between BASIC 2.0 and BASIC 2.1 as far as this problem is concerned.

The demo program demonstrates the use of the CLR Libraries for implementing scroll bars within your BASIC programs. The standard Macintosh scroll bar is a predefined type of dial accessed through the Control Manager. The CLR Libraries manual (for CLR ToolLib) describes the functions which are provided for using the scroll bar to scroll text stored in an array of string variables. In summary they are:

CLR Routine Purpose

ActiveScroll: Scroll bar is made active

DisposeScroll: Scroll bar is disposed and memory is released

HideScroll: Scroll bar is made invisible

InactiveScroll: Scroll bar is made inactive

MoveScroll: Moves a scroll bar

NewScroll: Create a new scroll bar

ScrollText: Scroll text in an array of string variables

GetScrollValue: Get value of current scroll box.

SetScrollValue: Set value of current scroll box.

ShowScroll: Make scroll bar visible

SizeScroll: Set the size of the scroll bar.

The first thing to do in creating your own scroll bars is to determine what you want to scroll. Set up an array of string variables ( in the program the string is named text$ ). Next, decide size and location of the rectangle where the scrolling should take place. The array TextRect% stores the rectangle location of the area where the text will scroll. The array ScrollText% stores the rectangle indicating the size and location of the scroll bar itself. The scroll bar may be resized with the SizeScroll command if necessary. A handy routine, SetRect, is used to set up the rectangles. This saves you from having to set each variable of the rectangle array one at a time. You simply type SetRect statement, the rectangle array to define and then the (X1,Y1)-(X2-Y2) coordinates. Example:

SetRect ScrollRect%(1), 151,30,167,250

where X1=151,Y1=30, X2=167, Y2=250. Be sure to initialize any variables to be used in a library routine by setting the variable equal to zero or some other number. This reserves the variable space so that the library routine can find it when it is used by the routine. Also don't forget to define all of your array variables with DIM statements.

Scroll bars must be initially defined using the statement NewScroll. NewScroll creates a scroll bar and returns a handle. Many of the CLR Libraries use handles to point to a location in memory. In this case, the scroll bar handle points to the scroll bar to be used by the statements that follow. Don't try to print or restore a handle as the handle variable is not in a standard MSBASIC format. In the NewScroll statement you tell the routine what variable name you want to call the handle, in the program the handle is ScrollBar. The handle name is followed by the scroll rectangle array, then by a parameter indicating if the scrollbar will be visible (1=visible, 0=invisible). You may later hide or show the scroll bar with the HideScroll or ShowScroll statements. The next parameters in the NewScroll statement is the minimum value for the scroll bar indicator followed by the maximum value for the scroll bar indicator and then followed by the initial starting value of the scrollbar. Just think of the scroll box as a pointer in which the one end of the scroll bar is the minimum value and the other end is the maximum value.

The ScrollText statement is used to set the position of the scroll box. The Loop: routine in the program loops through the ScrollText statement with different values of the LineNum% and Top% (see program). Top% is used as an index of the line to appear at the top of the scrolled rectangle. If Top%=0 then the scroll bar will be redrawn. The value of LineNum% indicates the line of text which should be highlighted. When Top%=0 the scroll bar and text is redrawn and the indicated line will be highlighted. LineNum%=0 when no text is to be highlighted.

The MouseDown: routine determines if the mouse has been pressed inside the text rectangle. If it is then the line number, LineNum%, is calculated. The routine SetPt sets the Pt%(1) = MOUSE(2) and Pt%(2) = MOUSE(1). PtInRect determines if the point Pt% is in the text rectangle. The remainder of the MouseDown routine calculates the linenumber to be highlighted.

In your own program, it is the program's responsibility to determine which line of text was clicked. The Scroll Demo program will select the line of text pointed to when the cursor is selected. More possibilities could be worked out by determining when the mouse is dragged across the text rectangle. Also you should be aware of the size and style of the font being displayed in the text rectangle. The number of pixels ScrollText spaces down between lines of text is equal to the existing font's height+descent+4. The height and descent can be obtained with the GetFontInfo statement (another CLR routine). Text is always printed within the rectangle passed to the ScrollText routine. If you wish to have a border around the text rectangle, you will have to draw it yourself. The BASIC statement LINE is used in the demo program to draw a border around the text. If the window containing the scroll bar needs refreshing, the text and scroll bar will automatically be refreshed when the ScrollText statement is issued (with Top%=0 and ScrollText is issued, the text is redrawn). The border (if any) will not be automatically drawn. You should refresh the border as you would any other window needing refreshing.

To close out the scroll bar, use DisposeScroll. If your program terminates prematurely because of syntax error or by typing command-".", then you should type DisposeScroll ScrollBar, where ScrollBar is the handle to the ScrollBar. If you forget to dispose the scrollbar and forget the scrollbar handle the scrollbar will not go away without quitting BASIC. Also the memory required for the scrollbar will still be reserved and cannot be reclaimed till the scrollbar is disposed of.

Some other routines used in the program:

SortString: Sorts a string array alphabetically

Shuffle: Randomizes a string array.

ChangeCursor: Set the cursor to a cursor in the system resource file.

The usefullness of these routines and other CLR routines will be left to future articles.

'Scroll Demo
'By Dave Kelly & Clear Lake Research
'©MACTUTOR 1985
'REQUIRES CLR LIBRARIES

' This program illustrates the use of the scroll bar
' as well as a few other statements from
' CLR ToolLib and CLR MathStatLib.
' The names of 15 famous chessplayers are presented
' on the screen and can be scrolled with the scroll bar.
' The arrows as well as the scroll box are functional.
' A selected name will be highlighted.
'  The order of the names can be alphabetized or randomized.
' When the "OK button" is pressed the selected name is printed.

LIBRARY"ToolLib"
LIBRARY"MathStatLib"
OPTION BASE 1
DIM TextRect%(4),ScrollRect%(4),text$(15)
DIM Pt%(2),Index%(15),Temp$(15)
Initialize:
    ScrollBar=0
    Top%=0
    inRect%=0
    LineNum%=0
    WINDOW 1,,(60,40)-(250,330),2
    WINDOW 2,,(280,100)-(500,200),2
    TEXTFONT(0)
    LOCATE 2,9:PRINT "Professor Mac's"
    LOCATE ,9:PRINT "Scroll Bar Demo"
    TEXTFONT(3):TEXTSIZE(9)
    LOCATE ,2:PRINT "Select your favorite World Chess Champion."
    TEXTSIZE(12):TEXTFONT(0)
    WINDOW 1
    SetRect TextRect%(1),20,30,151,250
    SetRect ScrollRect%(1),151,30,167,250
    FOR i= 1 TO 15
        Index%(i)=i
    NEXT i
    BUTTON 1,1,"OK",(55,260)-(125,280)
    FOR i= 1 TO 15
        READ text$(i)
    NEXT i
    MENU 1,0,1,"Order"
    MENU 1,1,1,"Alphabetical"
    MENU 1,2,1,"Randomized"
    MENU 1,3,1,"Quit"
' clear rest of menu bar
    FOR i= 2 TO 5
        MENU i,0,1,""
    NEXT i

CreateScroll:
    LINE (20,30)-(151,249),,b
    NewScroll ScrollBar,ScrollRect%(1),1,1,10,1
    ' visible with values ranging from 1-10 startring at 1
    ' these parameters are reset by a subsequent 
    ' ScrollText statement

Loop:
ScrollText ScrollBar,TextRect%(1),text$(1),Top%,15,LineNum%
    IF MOUSE(0)<>0 THEN GOSUB MouseDown
    d%=DIALOG(0)
    IF d%=1 THEN GOSUB Buttonselected
    IF d%= 5 THEN GOSUB Update
    IF MENU(0)<> 0 THEN GOSUB MenuEvent
GOTO Loop

Buttonselected:
    WINDOW OUTPUT 2
    CLS
    TEXTFONT (0)
    LOCATE 2,4
    PRINT "Last item selected was"
    LOCATE 4,10
    IF LineNum%=0 THEN PRINT "Nothing" ELSE PRINT text$(LineNum%)
    TEXTFONT(1)
    WINDOW OUTPUT 1
    LineNum%=0:GOSUB Update
RETURN

Finish:
    DisposeScroll ScrollBar
    BUTTON CLOSE 1
    WINDOW CLOSE 2
    WINDOW 1,"Scroll Demo",(2,40)-(510,290),1
    CLS
END

Update:
Top%=0 
'That's all that's required since ScrollText will redraw the text.
    LINE (20,30)-(151,249),,b
RETURN

MouseDown:
    SetPt Pt%(1),MOUSE(1),MOUSE(2)
    PtInRect Pt%(1),TextRect%(1),inRect% 
 ' Is mousedown in TextRect?
    IF NOT inRect% THEN MouseOver
    ' IF   0<= Pt%(1) - TextRect%(1) <= 19    then LineNum%=Top%
    ' IF  20<= Pt%(1) - TextRect%(1) <= 39  then
      ' LineNum%=Top%+1      etc.
 ' The following is a fast method of calculating LineNum%
    LineNum%=(Pt%(1)-TextRect%(1))\20+Top%
      ' Make ScrollText redraw text with LineNum% selected
    Top%=0
ScrollText ScrollBar,TextRect%(1),text$(1),Top%,15,LineNum%
    
MouseOver:
    WHILE MOUSE(0)<>0:WEND 
'wait for mouse button to come up
RETURN

MenuEvent:
    ChangeCursor 4  'make cursor the watch
    ON MENU(1) GOSUB  SortIt,ScrambleIt,Finish
    MENU
    Top%=0    'so it will be redrawn
    INITCURSOR
RETURN

SortIt:
    SortString 15,text$(1)
    LineNum%=0
RETURN

ScrambleIt:
    Shuffle 15,Index%(1) 'scramble the indexes
    LineNum%=0
    FOR i= 1 TO 15
        Temp$(i)=text$(i)
    NEXT i
    FOR i= 1 TO 15
        text$(i)=Temp$(Index%(i))
    NEXT i
RETURN
DATA Morphy,Anderssen,Steinitz,Lasker,Capablanca
DATA Alekhine,Euwe,Botvinnik,Smyslov,Tal,Petrosian
DATA Spassky, Fischer,Karpov,Kasparov

Questions and Answers

Thank you to those who have sent in suggestions or questions that they may have concerning this column. MacTutor will continue to try to provide the information that you are hungry for. In response to letters received, here are the following questions/suggestions and answers:

Q. How do you tell your program to quit to the finder, instead of BASIC?

A. The command SYSTEM terminates the program and goes to the finder.

Q. A call to a sort routine is badly needed.

A. A quicksort program was printed in the Sept. MacTutor (Ask Prof. Mac column). CLR MathStat Library has various sort routines available. [Basic Smoke is also marketing both bubble and shell sort routines, string sorts with tags in assembly. Contact Jim Shores, 139 Alpine Dr., Closter, NJ 07624. Price is just $4 for each sort routine (these are in assembly for Basic). -Ed. ]

Q. Calls to clear parts of the screen would be helpful.

A. One way to clear a part of the screen is to use the GET and PUT statement to clear a section of the screen. Use PUT to read in a blank section of the desired size, then use GET to write it back whenever it is needed. Another way might be to open a window over the section to clear and then close it again without refreshing the screen.

Q. How can the defaults for the TAB function be changed while editing? As it is, one might as well use the space bar.

A. I don't know of any way to change the TAB fields.

Please continue to send in your suggestions or questions.

 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Daylite 6.7.3 - Dynamic business organiz...
Daylite helps businesses organize themselves with tools such as shared calendars, contacts, tasks, projects, notes, and more. Enable easy collaboration with features such as task and project... Read more
VirtualBox 6.0.10 - x86 virtualization s...
VirtualBox is a family of powerful x86 virtualization products for enterprise as well as home use. Not only is VirtualBox an extremely feature rich, high performance product for enterprise customers... Read more
BetterTouchTool 3.149 - Customize multi-...
BetterTouchTool adds many new, fully customizable gestures to the Magic Mouse, Multi-Touch MacBook trackpad, and Magic Trackpad. These gestures are customizable: Magic Mouse: Pinch in / out (zoom)... Read more
Dropbox 77.4.131 - Cloud backup and sync...
Dropbox is an application that creates a special Finder folder that automatically syncs online and between your computers. It allows you to both backup files and keeps them up-to-date between systems... Read more
MainStage 3 3.4.3 - Live performance too...
Apple MainStage makes it easy to bring to the stage all the same instruments and effects that you love in your recording. Everything from the Sound Library and Smart Controls you're familiar with... Read more
Paperless 3.0.6 - $69.95
Paperless is a digital documents manager. Remember when everyone talked about how we would soon be a paperless society? Now it seems like we use paper more than ever. Let's face it - we need and we... Read more
TextMate 2.0.rc.29 - Code/markup editor...
TextMate is a versatile plain text editor with a unique and innovative feature set which caused it to win an Apple Design Award for Best Mac OS X Developer Tool in August 2006 A rapidly growing... Read more
Notability 4.0.4 - Note-taking and annot...
Notability is a powerful note-taker to annotate documents, sketch ideas, record lectures, take notes and more. It combines, typing, handwriting, audio recording, and photos so you can create notes... Read more
CleanMyMac X 4.4.4 - Delete files that w...
CleanMyMac makes space for the things you love. Sporting a range of ingenious new features, CleanMyMac lets you safely and intelligently scan and clean your entire system, delete large, unused files... Read more
Geekbench 4.4.0 - Measure processor and...
Geekbench provides a comprehensive set of benchmarks engineered to quickly and accurately measure processor and memory performance. Designed to make benchmarks easy to run and easy to understand,... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

TEPPEN guide - Tips and tricks for new p...
TEPPEN is a wild game that nobody asked for, but I’m sure glad it exists. Who would’ve thought that a CCG featuring Capcom characters could be so cool and weird? In case you’re not completely sure what TEPPEN is, make sure to check out our review... | Read more »
Dr. Mario World guide - Other games that...
We now live in a post-Dr. Mario World world, and I gotta say, things don’t feel too different. Nintendo continues to squirt out bad games on phones, causing all but the most stalwart fans of mobile games to question why they even bother... | Read more »
Strategy RPG Brown Dust introduces its b...
Epic turn-based RPG Brown Dust is set to turn 500 days old next week, and to celebrate, Neowiz has just unveiled its biggest and most exciting update yet, offering a host of new rewards, increased gacha rates, and a brand new feature that will... | Read more »
Dr. Mario World is yet another disappoin...
As soon as I booted up Dr. Mario World, I knew I wasn’t going to have fun with it. Nintendo’s record on phones thus far has been pretty spotty, with things trending downward as of late. [Read more] | Read more »
Retro Space Shooter P.3 is now available...
Shoot-em-ups tend to be a dime a dozen on the App Store, but every so often you come across one gem that aims to shake up the genre in a unique way. Developer Devjgame’s P.3 is the latest game seeking to do so this, working as a love letter to the... | Read more »
Void Tyrant guide - Guildins guide
I’ve still been putting a lot of time into Void Tyrant since it officially released last week, and it’s surprising how much stuff there is to uncover in such a simple-looking game. Just toray, I finished spending my Guildins on all available... | Read more »
Tactical RPG Brown Dust celebrates the s...
Neowiz is set to celebrate the summer by launching a 2-month long festival in its smash-hit RPG Brown Dust. The event kicks off today, and it’s divided into 4 parts, each of which will last two weeks. Brown Dust is all about collecting, upgrading,... | Read more »
Flappy Royale is an incredibly clever ta...
I spent the better part of my weekend playing Flappy Royale. I didn’t necessarily want to. I just felt like I had to. It’s a hypnotic experience that’s way too easy to just keep playing. | Read more »
Void Tyrant guide - General tips and tri...
Void Tyrant is a card-based dungeon-crawler that doesn’t fit in the mold of other games in the genre. Between the Blackjack-style combat and strange gear system alone, you’re left to your own devices to figure out how best to use everything to your... | Read more »
Webzen’s latest RPG First Hero is offici...
You might be busy sending your hulking Dark Knight into the midst of battle in Webzen’s other recent release: the long-anticipated MU Origin 2. But for something a little different, the South Korean publisher has launched First Hero. Released today... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Amazon drops prices, now offers clearance 13″...
Amazon has new dropped prices on clearance 13″ 2.3GHz Dual-Core non-Touch Bar MacBook Pros by $200 off Apple’s original MSRP, with prices now available starting at $1099. Shipping is free. Be sure to... Read more
2018 15″ MacBook Pros now on sale for $500 of...
Amazon has dropped prices on select clearance 2018 15″ 6-Core MacBook Pros to $500 off Apple’s original MSRP. Prices now start at $1899 shipped: – 2018 15″ 2.2GHz Touch Bar MacBook Pro Silver: $1899.... Read more
Price drop! Clearance 12″ 1.2GHz Silver MacBo...
Amazon has dropped their price on the recently-discontinued 12″ 1.2GHz Silver MacBook to $849.99 shipped. That’s $450 off Apple’s original MSRP for this model, and it’s the cheapest price available... Read more
Apple’s 21″ 3.0GHz 4K iMac drops to only $936...
Abt Electronics has dropped their price on clearance, previous-generation 21″ 3.0GHz 4K iMacs to only $936 shipped. That’s $363 off Apple’s original MSRP, and it’s the cheapest price we’ve seen so... Read more
Amazon’s Prime Day savings on Apple 11″ iPad...
Amazon has new 2018 Apple 11″ iPad Pros in stock today and on sale for up to $250 off Apple’s MSRP as part of their Prime Day sale (but Prime membership is NOT required for these savings). These are... Read more
Prime Day Apple iPhone deal: $100 off all iPh...
Boost Mobile is offering Apple’s new 2018 iPhone Xr, iPhone Xs, and Xs Max for $100 off MSRP. Their discount reduces the cost of an Xs to $899 for the 64GB models and $999 for the 64GB Xs Max. Price... Read more
Clearance 13″ 2.3GHz Dual-Core MacBook Pros a...
Focus Camera has clearance 2017 13″ 2.3GHz/128GB non-Touch Bar Dual-Core MacBook Pros on sale for $169 off Apple’s original MSRP. Shipping is free. Focus charges sales tax for NY & NJ residents... Read more
Amazon Prime Day deal: 9.7″ Apple iPads for $...
Amazon is offering new 9.7″ WiFi iPads with Apple Pencil support for $80-$100 off MSRP as part of their Prime Day sale, starting at only $249. These are the same iPads found in Apple’s retail and... Read more
Amazon Prime Day deal: 10% (up to $20) off Ap...
Amazon is offering discounts on new 2019 Apple AirPods ranging up to $20 (10%) off MSRP as part of their Prime Day sales. Shipping is free: – AirPods with Charging Case: $144.99 $15 off MSRP –... Read more
Amazon Prime Day deal: $50-$80 off Apple Watc...
Amazon has Apple Watch Series 4 and Series 3 models on sale for $50-$80 off Apple’s MSRP as part of their Prime Day deals with prices starting at only $199. Choose Amazon as the seller rather than a... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Systems Architect/Engineer, Vice Pre...
…its vision to be the world's most trusted financial group. **Summary:** Apple Systems Architect/Engineer with strong knowledge of products and services related to Read more
*Apple* Graders/Inspectors (Seasonal/Hourly/...
…requirements. #COVAentryleveljobs ## Minimum Qualifications Some knowledge of agricultural and/or the apple industry is helpful as well as the ability to comprehend, Read more
Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**710003BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Job Category:** Store Associates **Location Number:** 000171-Winchester Road-Store **Job Description:** Read more
Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**709786BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Job Category:** Sales **Location Number:** 000430-Orange Park-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Read more
Geek Squad *Apple* Master Consultation Agen...
**709918BR** **Job Title:** Geek Squad Apple Master Consultation Agent **Job Category:** Services/Installation/Repair **Location Number:** 000106-Palmdale-Store Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.