TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Light thru Windows
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:4
Column Tag:Basic school

Light thru the Windows

By Dave Kelly

Let’s put some light on the subject of windows. Almost everything you write in Microsoft BASIC 2.0 requires some window programming. This is especially true if you want your program to conform to the Macintosh user interface. First, a rundown on the commands we have available to program our windows:

WINDOW window-id [title ]
                [,[rectangle ][, type ]]]
WINDOW CLOSE window-id
WINDOW OUTPUT window-id
WINDOW OUTPUT #file-number

The window-id identifies the output window. Window-id is a number from 1 to 4. This means that you may only have up to 4 windows open at any one time. BASIC opens up Window 1 when BASIC starts. If this window gets closed you can select the output window from the Windows menu in BASIC or type WINDOW 1 from the command window. A window must be open and specified as the output window before anything can be printed in the window.

The title is the name displayed in the title bar of a document window if the window has a title bar.

The rectangle specifies the location of the window on the Macintosh screen. It is given in the form (x1,y1)-(x2,y2) where (x1,y1) is the upper left corner of the window and (x2,y2) is the lower right corner of the window. This sounds easy but someone out there will probably be confused. The entire Macintosh screen has a resolution of 512 X 342. To open a window which fills the entire screen you could use (0,0)-(512,342). However, you’ll find that the desktop border (for pull down menus will cover the title bar of your document window. The desktop border on the top of the screen is about 40 pixels down from the top. By using (2,40) as the top corner and (510,340) as the bottom corner your window will fill the screen except for the desktop border. A couple of pixels are allowed at the edge of the screen to make it look a little better. So much for filling the entire screen with a window. It can require some trial and error to get your window positioned where you want when you try to center a smaller window on the screen. Other BASIC commands use the rectangle format to specify the location relative to the upper-left corner of the window. The rectangle format in the WINDOW command specifies the location of the window relative to the upper-left corner of the screen.

There are 4 types of windows that are available with type. They are (for type =1-4) :

1. Document window

2. Dialog box with two line border

3. Window with simple one-line border

4. Window with a shadow

Only type 1, the document window, has a size box and a title bar. Also, only type 1 can be moved with the mouse. The other types will not change position on the screen without redefining the window with the WINDOW command. A negative type number is called a modal dialog box. In this case any attempt to select outside of the window results in a beep.

The WINDOW CLOSE statement closes the indicated window. WINDOW OUTPUT indicates which window will be the window used for output when there are multiple windows. This allows you to send output to another window without changing the active window. If a file-number is indicated instead of a window-id, the output will be sent to the indicated file. Currently, only files opened to LPT1: are valid with this statement. As other devices which support graphics are made available, this will change.

Info About Windows

The window function WINDOW(n) returns information about the windows. If n = 0, the function returns the window-id of the active output window. n = 1 returns the window-id of the current output window. This is the window where output will be sent. n = 2 gives the width of the current output window and n = 3 returns the height of the current output window. n = 4 and n = 5 returns the x and y coordinate (respectively) in the current output window where the next character will be drawn. This function may be used to determine where the next character or section of a drawing should continue.

Our sample window shows how these commands are used to control windows. The program sets up all four windows as type 1 (document with size box and title). Information about each window is printed in the window. The information about the width and height might be used when trying to get just the right sized window for your program.

An important thing to note when working with windows is that everything does not happen automatically as you may be used to when moving, opening, or closing windows in application programs you may have run. You have to do everything which you took for granted before. For some people this may be hard to figure out, but just try to imitate the way the commercial applications are supposed to use the Macintosh user interface. Try this with my sample program: move one of the windows on top of another and then back again. The printed information which may have been destroyed by overlaying a window over another needs to be refreshed. Changing the size box has the same effect.

REFRESHING WINDOWS

The DIALOG(5) function returns the window-id of the window which needs to be refreshed. Updating a window is not automatically performed but must be done by the program. In the Event: subroutine when DIALOG(0) sets d=5, the output window is set to the window indicated by DIALOG(5) and the window is printed again. It would be desirable to setup a subroutine to refresh windows if this feature is desired. Just for fun, delete the line that starts with IF d=5 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT DIALOG(5) and then run the program. You can see that the window will not be automatically refreshed without this event trapping. In some programs you may not want to refresh all (or even any) of the windows.

The printwindowinfo: subroutine prints the information on the current output window. You can change this and print your own message if you like. Try changing the window type just to see what it will do.

The command LOCATE[row][,column] positions the pen at a specified row and column in the output window. This position is with respect to the upper-left corner of the current output window. Since most fonts are proportionally spaced, the spacing is that of the letter “0”, because it is an average width for most fonts. Another way to control the location of the pen is the use of CALL GETPEN, CALL MOVETO(x,y) or CALL MOVE(xdelta,ydelta). (Note: MSBASIC 2.0 allows you to optionally leave off the word CALL and just use the routine name-useful for creating your own basic commands by calling machine language routines).

Notice that by selecting the active window from the pull down menu causes a different result than clicking on the window. When the window is clicked it is selected as both the active and output window. By selecting from the menus, one window can be active while output is going to another. This is exactly the same procedure used when refreshing the screen. This is observed by changing the output window from the menu. To return to BASIC, use the quit menu.

You now have an introduction to windows. The important thing to remember is that you must control where windows are opened, and which windows are selected or deselected, and which window is the output window. For simple programs which only need a place to print, the statement WINDOW creates an output window if none currently exsists and makes it active. Your program will have to do the work of deciding what should be done with each window, as it is not automatic. Do you have some questions or programming tips to share with MacTutor’s reader’s? Send your questions or contributions to BASIC SCHOOL care of MacTutor, P.O. Box 846, Placentia, CA. 92670.


‘   Window Demo
‘   by Dave Kelly
‘   MACTUTOR   March 1985

‘SET UP MENUS
MENU 4,0,1,”Quit”
MENU 4,1,1,”Return to BASIC”
MENU 5,0,1,”Output Window”
MENU 5,1,1,”Window 1"
MENU 5,2,0, “-” ‘MENU DASH LINE
MENU 5,3,1,”Window 2"
MENU 5,4,0, “-”
MENU 5,5,1,”Window 3"
MENU 5,6,0, “-”
MENU 5,7,1,”Window 4"
MENU 6,0,1,”Active Window”
MENU 6,1,1,”Window 1"
MENU 6,2,0, “-”
MENU 6,3,1,”Window 2"
MENU 6,4,0, “-”
MENU 6,5,1,”Window 3"
MENU 6,6,0, “-”
MENU 6,7,1,”Window 4"

‘TURN ON MENU SELECT TRAP
ON MENU GOSUB menus:MENU ON

‘SET UP WINDOWS and PRINT INFO

WINDOW 1,”Window 1",(2,40)-(252,190)
GOSUB printwindowinfo
WINDOW 2,”Window 2",
                  (260,40)-(510,190)
GOSUB printwindowinfo
WINDOW 3,”Window 3",
                  (2,195)-(252,345)
GOSUB printwindowinfo
WINDOW 4,”Window 4",
                  (260,195)-(510,345)
GOSUB printwindowinfo
DIALOG ON

‘ENABLE EVENT TRAP

ON DIALOG GOSUB Event
pause:GOTO pause

Event:
    
d=DIALOG(0)    ‘EVENT OCCURED
    ‘d=3  USER CLICKED INACTIVE WINDOW
    IF d=3 THEN window.picked=
        DIALOG(3):WINDOW window.picked
    ‘d=4  USER CLICKED GO-AWAY BOX
    IF d=4 THEN window.closed=
        DIALOG(4):WINDOW CLOSE
        window.closed
    ‘d=5  WINDOW NEEDS TO BE REFRESHED
    IF d=5 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT
          DIALOG(5):GOSUB printwindowinfo
RETURN

menus: 

‘THIS HANDLES MENUS

menunumber=MENU(0)
menuitem=MENU(1):MENU
IF menunumber<>4 THEN menu5
‘MENU 4 QUITS
MENU RESET:END
menu5:IF menunumber<>5 THEN menu6    ‘MENU 5 SELECTS OUTPUT WINDOW

IF menuitem=1 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT 1
IF menuitem=3 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT 2
IF menuitem=5 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT 3
IF menuitem=7 THEN WINDOW OUTPUT 4
GOSUB printwindowinfo
RETURN

menu6:

IF menunumber<>6 THEN RETURN    ‘MENU 6 SELECTS ACTIVE WINDOW
menuitem=MENU(1):MENU
IF menuitem=1 THEN WINDOW  1
IF menuitem=3 THEN WINDOW  2
IF menuitem=5 THEN WINDOW  3
IF menuitem=7 THEN WINDOW  4
GOSUB printwindowinfo
RETURN

printwindowinfo:

LOCATE 1,1
PRINT”Current active window is “;
           WINDOW(0)
PRINT”Current output window is “;
           WINDOW(1)
PRINT”Window width is “;WINDOW(2)
PRINT”Window height is “;WINDOW(3)
RETURN
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

Unite 3 3.1 - Turn websites into full-fe...
Unite 3 lets you turn websites into apps on your Mac and change the way you use your computer forever Creating your app It all starts with the new Unite creation tool. Simply enter a name for your... Read more
App Tamer 2.5.2 - Efficiently manage you...
App Tamer tames your processor-monopolizing apps and keeps them from chewing up excessive CPU time and battery life. Powered by a unique AutoStop feature, App Tamer stops each application when you... Read more
Sid Meier's Civilization IV 1.74 -...
Note: Sid Meier's Civilization IV is no longer under development and the developer provides no support for it. With Civilization IV, history as you know it, is history. Rule throughout time and... Read more
Day One 4.15.3 - Maintain a daily journa...
Day One is an easy, great-looking way to use a journal / diary / text-logging application. Day One is well designed and extremely focused to encourage you to write more through quick Menu Bar entry,... Read more
Backblaze 7.0.1.450 - Online backup serv...
Backblaze is an online backup service designed from the ground-up for the Mac. With unlimited storage available for $6 per month, as well as a free 15-day trial, peace of mind is within reach with... Read more
Visual Studio Code 1.47.0 - Cross-platfo...
Visual Studio Code provides developers with a new choice of developer tool that combines the simplicity and streamlined experience of a code editor with the best of what developers need for their... Read more
Apple Pages 10.1 - Apple's word pro...
Apple Pages is a powerful word processor that gives you everything you need to create documents that look beautiful. And read beautifully. It lets you work seamlessly between Mac and iOS devices, and... Read more
Shimo 5.0.2 - VPN client for everyone.
Shimo is the most versatile VPN client for OS X and it enables really everybody to master secure network. It supports more protocols than any other VPN application out there! CiscoVPN, AnyConnect,... Read more
Yasu 6.0.1 - System maintenance app.
Note: Yasu is not being sold anymore and is listed only for people who had purchased it in the past. Yasu was created with system administrators who service large groups of workstations in mind, Yasu... Read more
Keynote 10.1 - Apple's presentation...
Easily create gorgeous presentations with the all-new Keynote, featuring powerful yet easy-to-use tools and dazzling effects that will make you a very hard act to follow. The Theme Chooser lets you... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

Puzzle & Dragons welcomes the cast o...
Puzzle & Dragons has a history of wild crossovers, and its latest is no exception. The gates of hell are now open, and the cast of Devil May Cry have made their grand entrance into the world Puzzle & Dragons. The collaboration is set to... | Read more »
Meteorfall: Krumit's Tale is launch...
Meteorfall: Krumit's Tale is getting an iOS & Android beta test this Thursday, and you can sign up now to get involved. [Read more] | Read more »
Marvel Duel, NetEase's promising ca...
Marvel Duel, NetEase's collectable card battler, has now opened for pre-registration in Thailand, Indonesia, Malaysia, and the Philippines. [Read more] | Read more »
PUBG Mobile teams up with Yamaha for a l...
PUBG Mobile has had various collaborations with various companies since it first burst onto the scene. The latest sees the popular battle royale title teaming up with vehicle and marine products company Yamaha, meaning players can take one of... | Read more »
Marvel Super War launches its third seas...
Marvel Super War, NetEase's popular MOBA, has kicked off its third season today, introducing its Zone Invasion beta and an all-new playable superhero. [Read more] | Read more »
Brave Dungeon, Unlock Games' idle-R...
Brave Dungeon, Unlock Games' idle-RPG and auto chess title, has been downloaded over 1 million times since it launched last week. To commemorate reaching this milestone the developers have decided to host a series of in-game events. [Read more] | Read more »
Clash Royale: The Road to Legendary Aren...
Supercell recently celebrated its 10th anniversary and their best title, Clash Royale, is as good as it's ever been. Even for lapsed players, returning to the game is as easy as can be. If you want to join us in picking the game back up, we've put... | Read more »
Steam Link Spotlight - Disco Elysium
Steam Link Spotlight is a feature where we look at PC games that play exceptionally well using the Steam Link app. Our last entry was Signs of the Sojourner Read about how it plays using Steam Link over here. | Read more »
Distract Yourself With These Great Mobil...
There’s a lot going on right now, and I don’t really feel like trying to write some kind of pithy intro for it. All I’ll say is lots of people have been coming together and helping each other in small ways, and I’m choosing to focus on that as I... | Read more »
Pokemon Go's July Community Day wil...
Pokemon Go developers have announced the details concerning the upcoming Gastly Community Day. This particular event was selected by the players of the game after the Gas Pokemon came in second place after a poll that decided which Pokemon would... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Apple has 2020 13″ 4-Core MacBook Airs availa...
Apple has a full line of Certified Refurbished 2020 13″ 4-Core MacBook Airs available for $200 off the cost of new models. Each MacBook features a new outer case, comes with a standard Apple one-year... Read more
Apple restocks clearance 2019 13″ MacBook Pro...
Apple has restocked Certified Refurbished 2019 13″ 1.4GHz 4-Core Touch Bar MacBook Pros starting at $979 and up to $440 off original MSRP. Apple’s one-year warranty is included, shipping is free, and... Read more
US Cellular offers $300 off any new Cellular...
US Cellular is offering a $300 discount on any new Cellular Apple iPad, iPad Air, iPad Pro, or iPad mini with a new line of service. According to US Cellular, “Promotional pricing requires purchase... Read more
Sale! 16″ MacBook Pros for $400 off Apple’s M...
Amazon has 16″ MacBook Pros on sale for $400 off Apple’s MSRP today with prices starting at $1999. Shipping is free: – 2019 16″ 2.6GHz 6-Core MacBook Pro Space Gray: $1999.99 $400 off MSRP – 2019 16... Read more
Lowest price ever: Apple AirPods Pro for $214...
Amazon-owned Woot has new Apple AirPods Pro on sale for today only (Monday, July 13th) for $214.99 including free shipping for Prime members. Their price is $35 off Apple’s MSRP, and it’s the lowest... Read more
Woot is selling refurbished Apple iPhones tod...
Amazon-owned Woot is selling refurbished unlocked Apple iPhones today for as low as $99. Shipping is free for prime members. The following models are available, and note that many will sell out... Read more
Take $50 off the 64GB Apple iPhone SE at Simp...
Use coupon code SUMMER2020 at Simple Mobile through July 31, 2020, and take 20% off the 64GB Apple iPhone SE + service plan. This is in addition to their standard $50 discount on the iPhone SE.... Read more
Weekend Sale: Woot offers clearance MacBook,...
Amazon-owned Woot is blowing out a wide range of MacBooks, MacBook Airs, and MacBook Pros starting at only $389. All models are open-box returns, and according to Woot, “these MacBooks are in New-... Read more
Apple’s 2020 Mac minis on sale for up to $100...
B&H Photo has Apple’s 2020 Mac minis on sale today for $40-$100 off MSRP, each including free expedited delivery for many US addresses. These are the same Mac minis sold by Apple in their retail... Read more
Apple restocks refurbished 10.5″ iPad Airs fo...
Apple has restocked 10.5″ WiFI iPad Airs models for up to $100 off MSRP, Certified Refurbished. Each iPad comes with Apple’s standard one-year warranty and includes a new outer case. Shipping is free... Read more

Jobs Board

Blue *Apple* Cafe Student Worker - Fall - P...
…to enhance your work experience. Student positions are available at the Blue Apple Cafe. Employee meal discount during working hours is provided. Duties include food Read more
Geek Squad Advanced Repair *Apple* Professi...
**769390BR** **Job Title:** Geek Squad Advanced Repair Apple Professional **Job Category:** Store Associates **Store Number or Department:** 000580-Reading-Store Read more
Executive Team Leader GM Sales (Assistant Man...
…(Assistant Manager General Merchandise and Operations) - Apple Valley, CaliforniaApply NowJob ID:R0000082364job family:Store Managementschedule:Full Read more
Executive Team Leader Assets Protection (Assi...
…Assets Protection (Assistant Manager Loss Prevention) - Apple Valley, CaliforniaApply NowJob ID:R0000082365job family:Store Managementschedule:Full Read more
*Apple* Computing Sales Professional - Best...
**768543BR** **Job Title:** Apple Computing Sales Professional **Job Category:** Store Associates **Store Number or Department:** 002509-Riverdale-Store **Job Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.