TweetFollow Us on Twitter

Pascal Arrives
Volume Number:1
Issue Number:1
Column Tag:Pascal ARRIVES

Pascal ARRIVES

By Chris Derossi

Well, after waiting and waiting and waiting, Macintosh Pascal has finally arrived, and with its arrival, Mac users now have a serious high-level language for programming on the Macintosh. This column will help the users of Macintosh Pascal both to learn about Mac Pascal, and to learn how the wonderous abilities of the Mac ROM can tie into Mac Pascal for creating powerful and useful programs.

For this opening column, we’ll be taking a general look at Pascal, and we’ll see how you can get started right away learning how to use your Pascal to the fullest. Let us start out by examining the contents of your Pascal package.

The documentation is in three separate parts, with each section contained in its own little booklet. The first, and smallest book contains the standard instructions for using the normal Macintosh User Interfaces, to which Mac Pascal conforms. For experienced users of the Mac, this book will be of very little help; you already know all about clicking, dragging, and editing with the mouse. For the less experienced user, this book will teach you what you need to know in order to get started with Pascal right away.

The most important part of this book is the section which describes the use of the Observe and Instant windows. This is the only explanantion of these windows found in the documentation. As we get further into Pascal, the importance of these windows will grow.

The booklet titled “Pascal Reference Manual” is an important tool for beginners and experienced programmers alike. Although it is not a tutorial, it does contain the entire syntax specification for Mac Pascal. Its primary use is as a look-up reference. New Pascal programmers may wish to go through the manual to get a general feel for the language, but as I’ll discuss shortly, more can be learned by studying the example programs supplied with Mac Pascal.

The final book, “Macintosh Technical Appendix”, is probably the most useful manual included. This manual describes the differences between Mac Pascal and both Lisa Pascal and ANS Pascal. In addition, this book has detailed information on two important areas of Mac Pascal: QuickDraw and SANE. Both of these will be covered in detail in further issues of MacTech.

Unfortunately, none of the documentation included with your Mac Pascal goes into any depth in the area of the Mac ROM, except for the QuickDraw section which is really more concerned with mathematical concepts. To learn about the language, and find out its limitations and its capabilities, we will be exploring a large variety of topics in this column. To begin with, however, a good source of information can be found in the example programs contained on your Pascal disk.

The Pascal disk contains a number of interesting programs that demonstrate some features of Mac Pascal. As you’ll notice, most of the examples contain graphics, but some of them display the ability of Mac Pascal to do things like change window size, modify the cursor, interact with the mouse and the keyboard, and perform file I/O. Indeed, Mac Pascal has a wide range of abilities. Although many of the procedures and functions used in the examples are not clear, browsing though the included examples is a good way to get a feel for the power of Mac Pascal, and an idea of the range of functions available.

The other item that is included with your Mac Pascal disk is a second Mac Pascal disk. This is an exact copy for backup purposes. The backup disk is included because Mac Pascal is copy protected. The diskette cannot be copied, and the Pascal file cannot be moved to any other disks, including hard disk drives. The files, on the other hand, can be moved and should be copied.

Now that we’ve examined the things that are contained in your Mac Pascal package, let’s say just a little bit about the interpreter itself. Before Mac Pascal, Pascal programs were compiled. That is, the Pascal program was written into a text editor. Then, the Pascal compiler read the program text and converted it to a form that the computer could execute. The machine executable version was called object code, and the original text version was called source code.

If a program was to be modified, the text of the program had to be changed, and then the whole thing had to be compiled again. This could take lots of valuable time. On the other hand, the object code, since it was usually directly executable by the computer, ran very quickly. Macintosh Pascal, however, is not compiled; Mac Pascal is interpreted.

When we say that Mac Pascal is interpreted, we mean that the program is enterred into a text editor which is part of the language interpreter. When the program is run, the interpreter reads the program and converts each line to an executable format. The individual lines are converted and run each time they are needed, and the converted lines are not kept available. This means that interpreted programs generally run slower than compiled programs. If the program is to be changed, though, it can be re-run immediately after modification. This decreases the amout of development time required .

In conclusion, Macintosh Pascal presents a useful and powerful programming environment for the Mac user. For the beginner, Pascal provides an excellent learning vessel, and for the experienced Mac user, Pascal provides a useable, structured interface to the internal magic of the Macintosh. This column will explore and enhance these qualities of Mac Pascal and will help you to better understand and take advantage of Mac Pascal.

program Benchmark;

{creative computing benchmark}

 type
  datetimerec = record
    year, month, day, hour, minute, second, dayofweek : integer
   end;

 var
  a, r, s : extended;
  i, n : integer;
  result1, result2 : extended;
  begintime : datetimerec;
  endtime : datetimerec;
  t1, t2 : longint;

begin   {of main program}

 gettime(begintime);
 for n := 1 to 100 do
  begin
    a := n;
   for i := 1 to 10 do
      begin
         a := sqrt(a);
         r := r + random
    end;
    for i := 1 to 10 do
      begin
        a := a * a;
         r := r + random
    end;
    s := s + a
  end;

 result1 := abs(1010 - s / 5);
 result2 := abs(1000 - r);
 gettime(endtime);
 t1 := begintime.hour * 3600 + begintime.minute * 60 +   begintime.second;
 t2 := endtime.hour * 3600 + endtime.minute * 60 +       endtime.second;
 writeln(‘time in seconds=’, t2 - t1);
 writeln(‘ accuracy=’, result1 : 20 : 18);
 writeln(‘ random=’, result2 : 20 : 18);

end.
 

Community Search:
MacTech Search:

Software Updates via MacUpdate

WhatsApp 0.3.416 - Desktop client for Wh...
WhatsApp is the desktop client for WhatsApp Messenger, a cross-platform mobile messaging app which allows you to exchange messages without having to pay for SMS. WhatsApp Messenger is available for... Read more
Skype 8.28.0.41 - Voice-over-internet ph...
Skype allows you to talk to friends, family and co-workers across the Internet without the inconvenience of long distance telephone charges. Using peer-to-peer data transmission technology, Skype... Read more
DxO PhotoLab 1.2.1.79 - Image enhancemen...
DxO PhotoLab (was DxO Optics Pro) provides a complete set of smart assisted corrections that you can manually fine-tune at any time. Take control on every aspect of your photos: effectively remove... Read more
ForkLift 3.2.3 - Powerful file manager:...
ForkLift is a powerful file manager and ferociously fast FTP client clothed in a clean and versatile UI that offers the combination of absolute simplicity and raw power expected from a well-executed... Read more
Bartender 3.0.47 - Organize your menu-ba...
Bartender lets you organize your menu-bar apps by hiding them, rearranging them, or moving them to Bartender's Bar. You can display the full menu bar, set options to have menu-bar items show in the... Read more
VOX 3.3.1 - Music player that supports m...
VOX just sounds better! The beauty is in its simplicity, yet behind the minimal exterior lies a powerful music player with a ton of features and support for all audio formats you should ever need.... Read more
Microsoft OneNote 16.16 - Free digital n...
OneNote is your very own digital notebook. With OneNote, you can capture that flash of genius, that moment of inspiration, or that list of errands that's too important to forget. Whether you're at... Read more
WiFiSpoof 3.3 - Change your WiFi MAC add...
WiFiSpoof quickly and easily allows you to change your WiFi MAC address via hot-key or the system menu bar. Version 3.3: It is now possible to create global rules for unknown networks A new column... Read more
NetShade 7.2 - Browse privately using an...
NetShade is an anonymous proxy and VPN app+service for Mac. Unblock your Internet through NetShade's high-speed proxy and VPN servers spanning seven countries. NetShade masks your IP address as you... Read more
Fantastical 2.5.2 - Create calendar even...
Fantastical is the Mac calendar you'll actually enjoy using. Creating an event with Fantastical is quick, easy, and fun: Open Fantastical with a single click or keystroke Type in your event details... Read more

Latest Forum Discussions

See All

It's up to you to decide which of t...
Thursday has slipped up on us once again, and here at 148Apps that means it's time to start the game of the week process all over again. We've picked five of the best games that have come out over the last seven days, and it's up to you which of... | Read more »
REACH classic puzzles its way onto mobil...
Match-3 puzzler REACH classic proved a smash hit during its Canadian soft launch, and now developer B2tGame has brought it to mobile devices worldwide so you can see what all the fuss is about. After topping the App Store charts for the puzzle,... | Read more »
The best female characters in mobile gam...
In the world of mobile gaming, truly well-made games can often be something of a rarity. Well-made games that feature female protagonists are even rarer, and while many games give you the option to choose between a male or female avatar, it's not... | Read more »
Knights Chronicle guide - Everything you...
The latest update to Knights Chronicle brought us some balance changes and interesting new characters, but perhaps the most interesting addition of all is the game’s new mode. Guild Battle allows teams of players to test their collective strength... | Read more »
This week's game of the week is the...
Well it was a tight one this week, but after a count, a recount, and a harried phone call with the game of the week administration in Strasbourg, we can now reveal that the winner of this week's game of the week award is midcore stealth banger,... | Read more »
How to get the highest score in Tomb of...
Tomb of the Mask is a super-quick arcade dasher with remarkably simple swipe controls. It's also fiendishly tough, and if it gets your claws into you there's a very good chance that about every third second of your life is going to be consumed by... | Read more »
Which mobile games let you experience li...
There are plenty of what you might call standard experiences on the App Store. You know the sort of game I'm talking about. A man wanders around hurting people in order to complete some task, quest, or mission. It's the way video games have been... | Read more »
Which of these 5 mobile games deserves t...
Time certainly flies when you're having fun, and if you spend all of your life playing the best mobile games in the world, you best believe that time's flying like a bullet from a really big gun. Basically what I'm saying is that it's Thursday... | Read more »
Knights Chronicle guide - Everything you...
It seems like every two weeks, we can expect some new and exciting things to come to Knights Chronicle. In the last update, there were some nice quality of life features added to the game, but aside from a couple new heroes, not anything huge to... | Read more »
Numbers and monsters RPG Math and Sorcer...
We've counted up all the votes, sent them off to the court of arbitration in Strasbourg and had them vetted by an independent panel of retired judges and this guy we know who said he was real honest. I tell you all of this so when I announce the... | Read more »

Price Scanner via MacPrices.net

Education customers can save up to $400 on a...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad Pro using Apple’s Education discount, and take up to $400 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution with a .edu email address qualify for... Read more
Education customers can save up to $400 on a...
Purchase a new Mac or iPad Pro using Apple’s Education discount, and take up to $400 off MSRP. All teachers, students, and staff of any educational institution with a .edu email address qualify for... Read more
Apple restocks clearance 2017 15″ MacBook Pro...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2017 15″ Touch Bar MacBook Pros available starting at $1909. Apple’s refurbished prices are the lowest available for each model from any reseller. An standard Apple... Read more
7.9″ 128GB iPad mini 4 on sale for $100 off M...
Jet.com has Space Gray 128GB iPad mini 4 models on sale for $299.99 or 25% off MSRP: – 128GB iPad mini 4: $299.99, $100 off Shipping is free on all orders over $35. Walmart has all colors of the... Read more
10″ 64GB iPad Pro available for $598 for Sams...
Sams Club has 10.5″ 64GB Apple WiFi iPad Pros on sale for $51 off MSRP. Choose free shipping or free local store pickup (if available). Sale prices for online orders only, in-store prices may vary... Read more
Adorama matches B&H, offers new 2018 Touc...
Adorama is now offering new 2018 MacBook Pros for up to $150 off MSRP. 15″ MacBook Pros are on sale for $150 off Apple’s price and 13″ MacBook Pros for $100 off. Both Space Gray and Silver models are... Read more
Apple offers refurbished 2016 13″ Touch Bar M...
Apple has Certified Refurbished 2016 13″ Touch Bar MacBook Pros available today starting at $1349, or up to $480 off original MSRP. An Apple one-year warranty is included with each model, and... Read more
Brand New Macs Found Susceptible to Being Hac...
NEWS: 08.13.18- Apple computers are known to be very secure compared to its counterparts and were generally free of viruses and malware until recent years due to its rise in popularity among... Read more
New 2018 MacBook Pro sale! B&H offer 15″...
B&H Photo has new 2018 MacBook Pros on sale this week for $150 off MSRP. They’re offering 15″ MacBook Pros for $150 off Apple’s price and 13″ MacBook Pros for $100 off. Both Space Gray and Silver... Read more
13″ 2.3GHz non-Touch Bar MacBook Pros on sale...
B&H Photo has new 2017 13″ 2.3GHz non-Touch Bar MacBook Pros on sale for $100-$200 off MSRP this week. B&H charges sales tax in NY & NJ only, and shipping is free. – 13-inch 2.3GHz/128GB... Read more

Jobs Board

*Apple* Mobile Master - Best Buy (United Sta...
**628973BR** **Job Title:** Apple Mobile Master **Location Number:** 001532-Burlington-Store **Job Description:** **What does a Best Buy Apple Mobile Master Read more
*Apple* Genius - Technical Customer Service...
Job Description: Job Summary As a Genius at the Apple Store, you maintain customers' trust in Apple as the skilled technical customer service expert, Read more
Senior iCloud Software Engineer - *Apple* P...
Imagine what you could do here. At Apple , new ideas have a way of becoming great products, services, and customer experiences very quickly. Bring passion and Read more
Best Buy *Apple* Computing Master - Best Bu...
**628125BR** **Job Title:** Best Buy Apple Computing Master **Location Number:** 002512-Columbus-Store **Job Description:** The Core Apple Computing Master is Read more
*Apple* Genius - Technical Customer Service...
Job Description: Job Summary As a Genius at the Apple Store, you maintain customers' trust in Apple as the skilled technical customer service expert, Read more
All contents are Copyright 1984-2011 by Xplain Corporation. All rights reserved. Theme designed by Icreon.